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This is an authorized facsimile 

of the original book, printed by 

microfilm-xerography on acid-free paper. 


Ann Arbor, Michigan, U.S.A. 

London, England 














* .. 








< . 

L. J. KIO HARDS & OO. ;. 

1888. « . 




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That iu Um two hundred and flft/-«iz ymn past siiioe men of the Oiiicaiiiaa noe Bru 
atlenpted eettlement within its boundaries, no previous attempt should have been made to 
eomplete a history of the colony and State of DeUwarCi is a self-ezplaoatufy reason for 
tlie preparation and publloation of this vrorlc. 

While it is renurlcatile that so important and interosting a field of historicnl inv»ti)^tion 
should Iwve boon ncglcded In tliOHO latter days of keen and deep rcHcnrvh into the iiHlividu- 
aliticHy tlio onviroumeiit, the motives, tlie labors and tlie rewards of tlie pct>ple who laid the 
foundations and erected the su|)enitructures of the American commonwcaltlis, it may be 
accepted tliat in the esse of Delaware, the difficulties of a complete and creditable work 
seemed even more insurmountable, than the temptation to enter this almost unexplored domain 
was attractivsL To undertake an exhaustive inquiry and cany it to sucocwful completion 
has been a task that enlbtod patient determination, thorough sympathy with the subject, 
minute scrutiny and that liberal enteqirise which the publishers have generously fumidlied« 
Now, after many months of toil, in which the lore of Delaware, the fragmentary neconls left by 
its pioneers, the stages of its progress and the collections of European and AnuTican writers 
bearing upon its estiiblidhmcnt and growth, have been compelled to yield their secret or 
open tressurcH, this history is put Lfih with full confidence that no means have been unem- 
ployed to secure its accuracy and completeness in detail or as a whole. 

Wliatever lapses aud errors may be fouml within its pages— and it is believed they are 
comparatively trivial in number and significance — were inneparablc from the conditions. 
Dehiwaro |kwsc8SCs fewer collated and connected records of her eorly cbys than any of the 
ci»luuius or original Htatcs. What chronicles were kept by the 8w<HlIi4h and Dutdi wttlcrs, 
they mostly carriul away or destroyed, ami although the succeeding KtigliHh wi>re ninre 
|iaiiistttking in the making and prcMcrvatiou of the written materials of histtiry, the centre of 
tlieir politicsd life was located away from the *< Three Counties upon the Delaware," and their 
records were largely formulated in connection with Pennsylvania, New York, aiMl to some 
extent with Maryland. It is to an autonomous political community that we look for a well- 
linked chain of history forged by the home interest of its people in their own aflaire, and 
Delaware did not ainproach a condition of embiyo statehood until she reached a condition o^ 
legislative senii-inde|)endence in 1704. Still, tlie narrative of her public, social ami imiustrial 
life is fiiirly well kept in. her own roeonls, those of the inreiit countries which first |M» 
her territory and those of the contiguous colonies, and from them an intelligent narrative 
of her colonial e[NX'h has been constructed. In the next following |)eriod, the pillage 
and destruction of the archives at Wilmington aud New Castle by the during the 

Revolution, was a deplorable obstacle to the procu'^mcnt of infonnution at first luindy but 



thin iMk his been tupplied by the aothentio relations of contoniporarx bisdiriiuia In otber 
iliitos to wbom th« tvente ooourring In T>elttw«re| aiMl Ihe v«k>ruiM porformanoes of Delaware 
tmofH^ |M«iieiiteil tlHrniaolves In their |m)|H>r niaipiitiMlo ami Influence, Moreover, the letters 
and iMpers of Delaware statesmen and siildicrs are nunierouM enough to throw a bruadly* 
illuminating light u|M>n tlie cnusosi incidents and conscquencrs of the time, and liave been 
used with signal benefit Fur the stoiy of the movements of afliiirB after the peace with 
Great Britain to the |iresent day, the hintorical material has been suiBciently abundant. 

Attention is called to the oom|ilctencsH of the locul narrative of the political and 
gvogrnphitvl divlHlona. This field has Iwvn uns|MiringIy glcniied and the results submitted, 
altliough these luive in Home instances involved the apiH^arance of clash, confusion and con- 
tradictiuii. In many instances the sketches of *' hundred hi^torifs," In the second volume, liave 
been inncrtcil as tliey were prepared by tlie local writers. The editor was not at liberty to 
change citlier their matter or form of arrangement. But there is nothing in which local 
experts and authoritien so much diiTvr as in those vicinage events and matters concerning 
which they collectively agree tluit the interference of the outnidcr must be stubbonily 
resented. Therefore^ the local writers have lieen |icrmittcd to tell their own stories, except 
wliere certain versions have been plainly contrary to the established truths of important 
hintory, in wliidi the editor has set forth the facts as acccpteil by the criticol world, 
aiMl it, of oouriio, follows that every form of a pua*ly hxnl inirrativc enriclics the book 
fur the mi<U*ra of tlio lotnlity alTucted. As to the variations in the orthiigrnpliy of the 
names of phiccs and |ienions that will lie iiotioc«l, it must bo said that the editor lias 
ailliereil to the original siwHing as near os it could Iw ancertaincd, but in coming down 
to later times the niuderniscd orthography has liccn adopted. Among the SwciIch, Dutch, 
and Englioli, who |icopled Delaware, there was a confusion and niudi of a blending of 
tongues ; spelling was not a positive science with any of tliem, and in early documents one 
|inge will often show several diflcrcnt combinations of let ten in one name. Under such 
cimimstancos the only safe rule is that which has been pursued, to follow the record ; or 
in tlie printing of biogroitliies of imlividuals to accept the dfeta of tlic families. It will 
mit cscaiie oliservation that tlie biographies of eminent <*itixens who liave borne or are 
bearing distinguished |)arts in the prucwKscs and i>n]grcHS of Dekiwarc are of absorbing 
intcKSt ami tlwt tlie list is so voluminous, the history of their lives so exact, as to almost 
make in themselves a compendium of events for over two oenturKS. 

A limited amount of s|Nice lias been given to biographies of representative men, living 
ami dead, who have borne an active port in the various enterprises of life,. and who have 
licivroe iilentifiod with tlie history of tlie stote and the localities in which they live. The 
nHiivvcmcnts of the living must not be forgotten, nor must the memories of those who have 
l«iiwtl away bo allowed to iKxiith. It is the imiH>rative duty of the historian to chroiiiole 
llicir |Hibrio ami private eiTorts to advance the gn*at intcn^sts of soi'icty. Their dccils are to 
lie rcixMdcd for the Iwnefit of tliosc who follow them,»tliey, in fact, form |mrt of the history 
of tlieir communities, ami their successful lives add to the glory of the oimimonwcalth. With 
this view tlie )mblishen have pre|Nired and inserted in the work a number of iotercBting 
biagraphkal skctclies of a few of Delaware's representative men. 


The editor would be deitituto of a semie of JumiIc^ to Inmnelf and to Che State, wbwe 
entire hbtory haa now been written fur the 6mt time, if lie failed to avkiiowlcilgt* in tliin 
plaee, and witb a iontinicni of profound gratitude, tlie ourdial aid exten<lcd to liiin and liii* 
undertaking, by the fwople of Delaware. Tliey liave given him the fullest eiK^Mjra};ctnent 
tiiroughout and have helped him materially in elaborating and t^rfei'ting the work. To the 
press of the State, tlie Pennsylvania Hi8toriail Society, the Delaware Hiittoriiiil 8ucif.*ty, 
State, oounty, city ami town oflioeri and the oHiciulM of churchert, MMictics aiMl coqwratitiiisi, 
he is e8|M!cially indebted. Among the names of l)el|ieM ami coiitributora an* tliiMe of Chivf 
Justice J. P. Comcgys, Judge GcH»rge P. Fisher, Nathaniel I). Smithoni, Wm. AtkinMm, 
Geo. H. Bates, Judge Leonard E. Walc«, Austin Harrington, Dr. Horace Hurr, W. K. Ijong. 
Uev. T. Ganlner Littell, John C. Goodcn, Prof. Wwlcy Webb, Prof. W. L. Gooiling, 
Dr. Charles H. RichardH, Dr. Robert G. Klli'gtHMl, Dr. Kdwanl Fowler, Dr. GvorysL^ W. 
Marshall, Rev. Lewis W. Gibson. I^v. J. F. Stoncvipher, Rev. Thomns E. Terry, Alvxamlvr 
Cummings, Charles G. Fleming, Rev. J. L. McKim, Rev. W. W. Camplicll, W. S. McXair, 
Alfred Matthews, Austin N. Hungerfonl, George R. Prowcll, J. L. Ruekcy, W. A. Kniman, 
Hany W. Maelntire, R. M. Stockor, JeflerHon H. Xoucs, David G. Scott, E. P. Fulton, of 
the Philadelphia PrrM, Frederick D. Stone, Librarian of the Pennsylvania IIi.'$tori<'al Soc-iety, 
Gover Kettlewcll, and J. C. Guggenheimer. To his publiMhera the author nm-^t render ihanki* 
that are, after all, not sufliciently exprenHive of what in owing to their enterpriM.' mid liU'rality. 
In every rcHiivet of letter-prcK.^ |M)rtrailri, mii|iH, engravings of KX'tieit and liKiilitic?*, nnd each 
featuru of artistic and niei'hunii*td execution, they have n'*«|N>iHle<l promptly to all Higgestiomi 
made to them, and have striven with fine tante and judicious <lim.*rimination Uv make the 
book in ty|Kjgraphy, illustration and binding erpml to iti* greut puqiose of furniiihing Di>la- 
ware ancl the historical literature of America with the only entire ruconi in exUttciMe of 
one of the stan in the origiiml galaxy of the union. 

J. TllOMAM ScilAUK. 

JltiHimore, Fcftrwirif 20, 1887. 


The «dito 
entire hbCorx 
place, and wit 
undertaking, I 
tliriMighout an 
press of the 
State, county, 
lie is es|iccial! 
Justice J. P. 
Geo. H. Bute 
Uev. T. Gar 
Dr. Cliarlos 
Manilmll, lU* 
Cunimings, C 
Alfred MattI; 
Hany V/. > 
tlie Pliiladelp 
Gover Kettiv 
tliat are, afto 
In every rw 
feature of ar 
made to tliei 
ImioIl in iy\¥ 
ware antl tl 
one of the s 



CHAPTER I. aliens, but even her own tons, have been Teir im- 
perfectly informed of her true historr* and, as a 

mraoDircTioir, av d tofooraput op Delaware, oonisequence, ihe ban been denied the meed of honor 

both abroad and at home. 

The State of I>e1aware is one of the original It is the aim of the present work to give the 
thirteenStatesof the American Union, and, though history of Delaware with aoouracy and intelli- 
next to the smallest in area, and least in population, gencc, omitting nothing that will contribute in any 
posMSHes annals not surpassed by those of ony other dcgrpc t) illtistrntc its origin and growth, its na- 
State in topics of varied character, romantic inci- tional importance and it:* peculiar local filatures — 
dent and instructive lesson. Nor floes her early to paint a portrait of the State as it was and aa it 
hbtory relate alone to those confines which now b, in whicii every lincnmont nhall be truthfully 
limit her territory. New York, New Jenicy, Con- portraywl and repn'MMittil witli life and vi;,i»r 
necticut, MamiarliuaettK, Maryland, Virginiii and enougii to nuikc its fidelity urku'iwlisliiil by all. 
Ponnnylvania all partake, to a greater or Icm de- If tliO)4<> <»l»jocti« can l>o att:iiiio«l by kcnI, Kini^*rity 
groe, in the interest of her iieoullar- story. The and faithful, patient and cxhauittivc niH*:irrh, the 
early adventure of discovery and settlement ; the author and his co-lalK)rcrv have no fcant of the re- 
struggle with barbarisni, and the subjugation of a ception whioh awaits their furmidablc undertaking, 
rude soil ; the contrast and blending of European 

with American life ; the transfer of old institu- The State of Delaware is situatcnl between 3M* 

tions; the intermingling of races ; the progress of 28' and '{9° 47' of north latitude, and lM>twc«'n 74^ 

commerce; the establishment of church^ and t><i' and 7«'3'' 4)}' of longitude west fn>ui Cirt'enwii-h. 

schools; the triumph of frcctlom of conscience over Its physical boundarie:* are^m the north bv the 

bigotry; the development of principles of self-gov- i?inte of Pennsylvania, Delaware Kiver and Bay; 

ernnient within, and the action of encroachment on the south bv the State of .Maryland : on the 

and conquest from without ; the relations of Dcia- cost by the Delaware Kiver and Hay, from a point 

ware with Sweden, Holland and Great Britain ; of twenty-four miles from its northern boundar}' by a 

the people with the proprietary of Pennsylvania; line of low-water mark on the Jersey .«horv, thence 

the attitude a?«unied towanU the Dutch of New to the radius of twelve miles north of New CVtIe; 

York ; her p<isilioH lieforc and during the Anieri- on the west by the Stnte:* of Muryland and IVnn- 

can Uevolution, were all |ie<*u liar, and in the high- sylvania to the |)eriphery of thoeirele drawn in a 

est degree instructive to the student of the present radiu« of twelve mile:* fn>m the etxirt hoii«c at the 

as well as of the \twt. centre of the town of New CVtle, eonuneneing at 

At every period of the country's hi^tor)' Dela- low«water mark on the nUorv of New Jer«ev north 

aware has been among the first, in patriotism and of New Castle, thence extending over the Dela> 

among the earliest in all that related to national ware Kiver, and following its eireuiiiferfnee until 

defense. " The three lower counties of New < 'as* It again toueheM the shore of that Stute south of its 

tie, Kent and Sustex, on Delaware," were repro- radius of tw<'lve niihii from New (^tmtle. Hole 

sented in the Continental Congress which assem* juriMlietion is given to the State of Delaware over 

bled at Philadelphia, on the 5th of Hcplemlier, the Delaware Kiver and Bay by thi^ eircular line 

1774, and from that day to the present, the people of lioundary, from low-water nutrk on the Jer^y 

of the State have been among the foremost in all shore, about a mile north of the mouth of Naa- 

that led to the pra<«peritya nd progress of the whole man's Creek on the Delaware State side, for twenty • 

country. No state ha« exhibited stronger afiection four mile!« southwani, nearly to where Silver Kun 

for the Union, made greater sacrifices in war or enten the Delaware Kiver. Within the circular 

pursued a more judicious policy in the accumula- iMiundaryarc Pea Patch and K«>etly Islands, on the 

tion of wealth. Her position has commanded former of which Fort Delaware is situatnl, and 

respect, and her integrity is beyond reproach. ui>on the latter a light-house. The juri<M|ieiion of 

It is surprising that Delaware, with a past so the State below the circle extends to a line run* 

illustrious, so full of interest, and in many respects ning down the middle of the Delaware Bay as 

unique, should have no proper history. Not only far as Cape Henlopen ; thence along the Atlantic 



Omm to Feawiek's bland, in About 26* 20^ north the whita and black oak, yallow plna^ ojrprMi, tulip, 

latitude. The fouthern line nine wcttn'avdly thirty- poplar, 8panbh oak and gum, which onoe ooTered 

lour mike, three hundred and nine perchei, to the the whole Ktate. 

exact half of the distance between the Atlantic Its principal riven* and streams are the Dela* 

Ocean and the Chesapeake Bay ; thence by a right ware Uivcr, which for twenty-four miles forms the 

line nearly due nurth at a tangent until it reaclios eafttoni demarkation ; Nanman's Creek, enters 

the Wtf»tcm part of the iteriphcry uf the cirt'Ie, the Delaware about a mile south of the northern 

twelve niilen frum the court'lioUKo at New Castle, line ; 8hol|Mit Creek flows into tlie Drandywine, and 

The length of the State ii« niiirty-fivo miles ; at thence, with the Brandy wine, which crosses the 

its suuthem boundarv the width is thirtv-iive miles ; Slate, enters the C1iri«tiana within the limits of the 

at Cape Hcnlqien the width is aliout twenty-five city of Wilmington, about one and a half miles 

miles, which diminishes, by the water-line of the from tlie Delawitre, into which it empties its wa- 

bay, until, at Red Inon Creek, in New Castle tcrs ; the Brandywine is navigable for about two 

County, the width of the State is not over ten miles, mile^ for sloops und schooners. From the head of 

while at its northern end its width is twelve miles, navigation, tho Brandywine is a rocky stream with 

beinjr the radius of tho New Castle circle. several fulls, which aflbrd excellent water-power. 

The line which divides Delaware from ^fary- Tho Chrirftiana rises in Maryland, and flows 

lami, startinj; at the Atlantic Otvan, nmning due through tho State into tlie Delaware at AVilming- 

wc>t for a dintance of thirty-fiiur niilex, tunii* at ton aixl has depth for vcsstels drawing fourteen 

right anghn due north to the tangentnl ]M)int on fintt. Re<l Clay ('n<ek, Mill CnH;k and Bear ('reek 

the New CaKtlo circle, which was run by Charles are streams flowing into White Clay Crock. These 

Mason and Jeremiah Dixon in 17(1^1, and is known were once navigable, but are now valuable only 

as ** >f ason A Dixon's Line." fur water-i>ower. Red Lion Creek has been 

luich of the three counties extends across the dammed up. St. George's Creek now empties a 

State from the ocean, bay or river to the dividing {wrtion of its waters into the Delaware and Ches- 

line between Delaware and Maryland, New Csi^tle apcnke Canal, and tho remainder through a new 

being divided from Kent by Duck Creek and a channel into the bay. St Augustine and Silver 

line running due vicA to the Marylaml line ; Kent Run are small creeks which discharge their waters 

isdividc<l from.Sifsex by the Mii«ptIlion Creek and into St. George's Bay lielow Reedy Island. Ap- 

the Tan Trough Branch ; thence by a line miuth- poquinimiiik Creek is naviguhle for sloops from 

wMerly to a small branch of Nunticoke, down Odn^sa to tho Dtflawarc, a diHtanco of alwut seven 

this branch to the Iteaver dam, and thence by a miles, and for stcamlKints to Thomas' I^miing. 

line due west to the Maryland line. Sussex com- Blackbird Creek, flowing due east and north 

prises all south of the last-described line to tlus until it empties into the Delaware Bay, is naviga- 

boundarv of Marvland. ble ; Duck Crock, which divides New Castle from 

Tlie topography of the State may be said to con- Kent County b navigable for seven or eight miles, 
sist of rounded hills in the northern part, which to Sraynm, and to Hay Point Landing for steam- 
rise at no ]Miint over five hundred feet above the lioats of twelve to fourteen feet draft ; it reaches 
sea-level; this elevatetliMirt ion of the State extends the Delaware Bay through a channel, called tlie 
southward to White Clay CnTk, and re|MSies uptm "Thoroughfare," at a |ioint iH>rth of Bombay 
a suWtratum of nK*k. BiHith of White Clay Creek Hook. Little Duck Creek u navigable for slo<»|« 
tho Slate is level, ami nowhere elevated more than to the town of Iici|wtc ; Dima River connects with 
seventy fcrt, which imly (Mtnirs on the sandy table- the Little Duck Creek and enters the bay below 
lami ridgi* which pasm'S thn>ugh the State. In Littlo Ikimbay Hook. Dona and Little Duck 
this table- land UM«tof the rivers and stn'ams have Cr(H.'k form Kent Island, a large manhy island, 
their s«iurces. One of the most notable features of several miles in extent. Malioii River is meruly 
the State is the CypresK Swamp, on the southern one of the outlets of Dona River, which has forced 
line between Delaware and Mar}'land, and lying in a }NL<«agc through the marsh, and flow iog southerly 
both States. This swamp almumb in trees, mostly for four miles enters the Delaware. Kellcy's 
cypre^i, and game of all kinds is to Iw found in its I/land is formed by the conjunction of the Mahon 
nrvMcs. Below its surface are foun<l immense au<l IX)na Riven. Port Mahon is esteemed the 
trunks of In^es, the remains of giants of the for- best harbor fur coasters on the IX'laware. Little 
ests, which, |M»rlia|is, sunk U-neath tho waters in Crei*k is navigable, as far up as Littlo Creek l^nd- 
yeam long |iast These trunks are raised and ing, ulNiut three miles from its mouth, for sloojis 
maile into shingles, and find ready market ami re- andsnmll schooners, 
ward for the lalior bestowed upon their conversion. IX)ver, the capital of the State, finds an outlet 

The soil of the State is fertile, and has long for its commerce to the Delaware by a very cir- 

been celebrated for its wheat, its fruiti* and vegeta- cuitous route through Sc Jones* Creek, a distance 

bics; while the clearing of iu forests cut away ot thirty miles. It is navigable as far up as Dover 


lor TcnoU and ttcaiueii of two hundred tons Mwth of H, and it it aim without Titible outlet, 

burdtn. lu water is mU, and even more to than that of 

MurderkiU Creek entere the hay helow the the ocean, 

mouth of St. Jonee' Creek, and up its navigable Awawaman Bay is formed by Jeflerwn Creek, 

waters commerce finds its way to Frederica. Mis* and is long and shallow, about seven milen long 

pillion Creek afiurds navigablo facilities to Milford and from one to one-half a mile broad, and from 

by lar^e sloops, sch<M>ncra and steainlNwis. Ceilar three to five fii't deep. It is separated from the 

Creek, though small, is naviisnble from the Dcia- Atlantic l)y Fcnwirk*s Islantl, a long narrow cape 

ware, into which it flows. Draper's, Slnughter's and n<l)rc of lend wliich extends in length twenty- 

and Priniehook Creeks are small streams entering three miles. 

the bay between the mouth* of Miitpillion and The rt reams which flow into the Chesapeake 
Broadkiln Creeks. Broadkiln is navigable fur IViy and take their rise in Delaware, are the Nan- 
sloops and schooners to Milton, about twelve ticoke, the Broad Creek and the Pokorooke. Sea- 
miles from its mouth, and flows into the e«tuary of ford fliidit wnter cummunicatiun with the Clieaa- 
I/ewos' Creek, about two miles from the Delaware ))enkc Buy down the Xanticoke. Portsvilie is 
Bay. Lewes' Creek is about six milt's long and reurhcd by BroafI Creek, and the Cypress Swamp 
empties into the liay ; its navigation was destroyed is reached by the P(»komoke. Buck Creek, the 
by the*'OretU Kuirm," which washed sand of the Bohemia and the SniMRfnis, in New Castle County; 
ooean into tho creek and In thw way dcHtroyvd its the (.'hivter, the Chuptaiik and the Marshy Hope, 
month for navigable pur|Kiscs. Canary or Mill in Kont County ; and the Wicomico in .^u.'«.<m;x. all 
Creek alfurds navigntion to Lewes Crock and take tlicir ris-» in the Sandy Ki(l;:c of Delaware 
from there to Broadkiln, and Wolf Creek and and din'har^ their waters into the Chcsaiieake,— 
Old Creek fall into it near Lewes. they all belong more i»ro|M;rly to Maryhin<l than 

A narrow ridge of sand separates Itehoboth to Delaware. 

Bay and Indian Itiver Bay from tho Atlantic The lines of railroad in Delaware reach every 

Ocean, while Indian Uiver Inlet is a passage, torn locality and give the people every facility of 

by storms, through this ridge for the waters of the tniit!*i)ortation. The State has over three hun- 

two bays to the ocean. This inlet rarely contains dred miles of railroad, and the re!<i)ective coni- 

niore than a few feet of water, and af\cr a great imnies are treated more fully elsewhere in another 

easterly storm is cl(ise<l by sand washed into it chapter. 

from the ocean ; but soon the dammed up waters The waters of the Chesapeake and Delaware 

of the lm)Mi break again for themselves a iiaxHsge Bays are C(mnoete<l by the ('h^«aj)r<tke and I)* la' 

to the ocean. These large bays have each a sur- trare Cannt^ yavigable fur coasting vewcis and 

face of twenty*five miles, but their depths rarely propeller titeamers. This canal extends from Del- 

exceetl four or five feet The most northerly of aware City, .forty six miles below Philadelphia, to 

these bays is l^holioth, which, nearly square in Clieiapeake City, on Back Creek, a navi;rable 

shape, extends i»arallel with the ocean, from which branch of Klk River, in ^laryland. The canal is 

it is seimrated by the ritlge. Line Creek, Middle thirteen and a half mill's in length, »ixty-six feet 

Creek, llerring Creek and Guinea Creek empty into wide at the top and ten feet deep. It has two tide 

Itehoboth Bay. Ix>ng Neck, a narrow sand Imr, and two left litl locks, and is locati-d four miU>3 

Be|»arates these last* mentione<l creeks from Indian through a deep cut ninety feet in depth; it was 

Kiver Ihiy, while the ** Burtons ' — niamhy islands, complctetl in 1M'2K at a cost of two million two 

called on old ma|is Station Islands— indicate the hundretl and fifty thousand dollars, and lias Hoce 

changes that have taken place in these waters. In* proven a source of incalculable value to the pro- 

dian Uiver Bay is alsjut eight miles long and from ducers of the surn»unding c«>untry in furnishing 

two to four broad ; it fronts the Atlantic Ocean for an outlet to the markets of the lar;;e cities, 

three miles, and is scfiarated only by the narrow A ship canal has been contemplated for many 

ridge mentioned above. Millsboro' is on Indian years between the two bays, for which a cimipany 

Itiver. Pep|>er Creek, Vine Creek and White was eliartoreil by Maryland and by D«-lawarp, and 

Creek flow into Indian Hiver. tho line located from the SasiKifras Uiver to the 

Fresh Pond and Salt P*nd are two |)onds a few Delaware Bay. Beyond securing the right of 

miles south of Indian Uiver— the former is about wav nothing has been done. Salem <'reek and 

half a mile in length and two hundretl yanU wide, the Delaware Uiver have been connected by a 

and ia from twenty-five to thirty feet deep. It has canal. 

apparently no outlet or streanui flowing into it, Delaware is an agricultural ^tate; a part of it Is 

and contains but few fish. It is separated from in a high state of cultivation, lieside wheat, In- 

the Atlantic by a ridge of sand not more than an dian corn and other grain, iieachcs are grown in 

eighth of a mile wide. The other, Salt Pond, is immense quantities and sent over the country: 

about tlie same size and situated about three miles small fruiu are also raised lor transportation. In 


tlM BortlwrB put of the Stalt un aaneffDUS badu- 
&clorki^ Wilmiagloii b tiM principul oentre of 
inditttnr. Xew Qwtlot «lto, bat inporUnt rolling- 
milb, mmI cotton and woollen factorica. On Bran- 
djrwine Creek nra tome of the 6oe*t llottrin(p-milb 
in the United Bintea, to which veMela drawing eight 
fixt of water can ooma. The foreign trade of the 
tkate 18 eflected chiefly through Philadelphia, Bal- 
timore and New York ; ao that ita direct foreign 
trade ia Tery inconaiderable. 



Dt*Rlxii the yenm IM.17 and ]a:M, Prof. Jam C 
Doiith, In acconlanco with an act i»f the Htate 
Li<gialatur«, made a geological Mirvey of Delaware, 
the retulta of which were {MiblialMd in a report 
that appeared in 1841. Tbia old memoir ia of 
great Talue, both from the accuracy of the author'a 
olwcrvatkwa and hb minute attention to detail ; we 
cannot, therefore, expect to take anything from the 
character of tbia work, our aim l»eing to so com- 
pletely reconstruct our geotopy as to bring it into 
aynipathy with ivsulta in adjacent 8tatca. 

The formation reprcaent*^d within the bound* of 
the State ara Archean, Cretaceous, Tertiary and 
Quaternary. The relaliona and pueitione of tlie 
iereral divisions of these formations are rcprcsentitl 
in the acconi|ianying table, also the thickness of 
each. It will be understood that the formation 
oldest in age and order of deposition is placed at 
the bottom. 






|ip|«««l« Ol«««li-lll-aK. 



1 WhU* PMItr's CU^.M' 



1 MMib Mari BM-iar. 

1 IMMM*MAHBtd(Ba41 


1 U««r Mart BM-SO'. 


: MimScMiMMrfOMtaM 
awOAhfciinaM OaM 


If rMC 


The geology of the Stata of Dalnwara la eom« 
pnratively aimplai The oldeet Arehean roeka 
eoTer all that portion of the State which Ilea to 
the north of the PhiUulelphia, Wilmington and 
Baltimore Railroad, where they are tilted at high 
angles* contorted and overthrown. The region ia 
one of great intereat, and offers to the field geolo> 
gist problems of sueh moment aa to make it a 
clamie field in American goohigy Resting upon 
the eroded edgea of the Auiic rocka are suooeesive 
aeries of plastic clays, sand marls and green sanda, 
of Cretaceous age, which form quite uniform strata 
dipping at a low angle to the southeant. Thu 
belt, having a width of alMMit eighteen miles, ex- 
trn«lii from the An'hoan hills to tho Intitiido of 
Koxoiituwu mill )M)»d, Just Mnith of Middl<*lown. 
The Cn*tac(*(»us is succi'c«kHl by a stratum of white 
or U>ail colored eUy luiving a thickness of ton to 
twenty feet 

This cimtinucs as far south as Murderkiil Creek, 
and from fossiliferous evidence is proliably Miocene 
8outh of Murderkiil Creek, the Miocene is suc- 
ceeded by three to ten feet of lij{lit or dark blue 
clav, beneath which is a unitbrro stratum of fine 
white glass sand of at least forty foet in thickness. 
That all the 8ute south of Munlerkill k later 
Pliocene rather than Moilem, as the older writers 
have claimed, has, wo think, been well demonstrated. 
All the be<lM of the Tertiary lie in a nearly hori- 
lontal position, dipping at a still lower angle than 
the Cretttccou«, and pnibably unconformable to the 

Covering all <^ the foregoing formations, and 
reaching up the flanks of the Azoic hills to the 
height of two hundrerl Aet or more above tide is 
a layer of sHn<I and gravel, which to the north ia 
of a c^nane red nature, and to the south ia fine and 
white. Tlicstt gravels ara of C)uatc*niary age. and 
have Urn sIvImI by tlie auth(»r tho IMawara 
<Sravels and Ktstuary Handii, n's|H*etively. Along 
the river and buy shores is aluo the belt of bog 
clay, which ia nuMlem, and of mora recent origin 
than the Uravcls. 

Tub ARniBAN.—Oenerally speaking, the south- 
ern line of the Azoic or Arehean rocks la the limit 
of the *' highlands," but in certain places they 
extend well into mora level regions. Beginning 
with a point upon the Maryland boundary, a little 
north of where the latter ia cut by the Mason and 
Dixon line, the limit of the rocks runs in a north- 
east direction, cutting through the western end of 
Newark, and following the northern boundary of 
the town. Thence it runs close to tlie south shore 
of White Clay Creek to a dutanoe of two milea 
beyond Roseville, where it makea an abrupt bend 
to the north, until at Btanton the rocka cease to be 
found. A mile back of the railway station, they 
again appear, continuing to a point about a mile 
back of Newport, where their course runs slightly 


to th* touthcMt, eroMinff the AVtImiopton turn- the hypernthcne rock fmrntn into a nearlT pare 

pike Juit before it is intenpectcd hr the Wilininjrttm hornhlcmU* f«Mf f mr rm-k, which fmin itn M*liii»t(w>e 

Northern Itnilmnd ; tlivnce it follows the tunipike or Imiiilrtl ntnicttirc miikeM it o htirubk'nfk* •zneiMi. 

throufHi tlie roiithem hnlf of the city, when it In tlic iMiinc wny it w fuiind thnt tlie true pil»hnia 

tunu abruptly MNith to the river. occur in nil itdi^.'cii of tmn/ition into PN'k* «ltj<tinct- 

The cliamcter of the country covered by tlie 1y granitic in chiirxirter, or more nearly like many 

Arcliean rucks is diiitinctly hilly, and standi in of the KumiHiin n<iriu*s or the trap j^ranuliti'S of 

strong contrast to the low-lying region to the Saxony. 

south. The rucks, however, are too uniform in The ntnMiive giihhrrai,lKft ex pn^oil in the ex ten- 
texture and structure to cauxc marked toiiojrraphic st>'e ipmrrit^n of Brandywine Hundrf«l, are entirely 
outlines. The region is rather rolling, or the hills mu:>7<ive in xtnicture, or with an entire alwni<e of 
low and unduhitiug, between which are correii- thivH* phiiiCM of iMMldiiig which chura<'teri7x* wnli- 
ponding bowl i»lia|Mil deprewiunH. The cicvittion mcntiir}* dc|M»«it!*. All evidcni<e ohtniiicil in the 
of this highland n'gion vitricM lietween twn hun«lre«l Hchl and with the nii(*rta«<*ofie conHnnti the Ix'liff 
and thn*o hundnil and HHy fi-et nlxive tide, gra- that they an* truly eniptivc, and thnt the rt»ck 
dually incnMiftiiig to the north. wun nt f»iir time in a ni<in> or Icm m<>licn ^tnt«\ in 

The Archetui nnn of the State can Ik* divhli'<l which cdndition it wnx pmbiihly fornil up thn»ii(;h 

Into two neurly n|Unl nrenii. Firttt, a Miutheni cIuIh the older mini N-liir>t>4 wliirli lie tn the north uml 

slia(NMl Krva of eniptive gnhbnM nml liyiH'ritcit with which nlf«> lie lMiric«l to the sf»uth lN>ncath younger 

aiMKriatiHl nmphiliole nK'ki>, and StH'ond, an upfMT clnyn of the cretatn'ousi. Tlie lmnde«l or M'liir'tia'o 

elliiitieal area of tfofler miinceous gneiiMv and stnicture prevalent in the as'MMMntciI hondilcnde 

schists. nx'kit proven al>*o that the nH'k;* of thiJi g:il>lmi Ivit 

AInKwt the whole of Brandywine Hundred, and have lieen puhjcf'ted to great pre^tg^ure, a pns^ure 
the soiitliem half of Giriiitiana Ilundnnl arc cov- which the n;icn>:(eo|ie fhows wait gnttt enoii;;h to 
ercd by the rocks of the iirtft claiw. To the west uf flatten and elongate et*rtain of the mineral om- 
Brandywine Spring«> tlicKe nicks, however, ta|ier stituentA of the rock aiui to cnu>h othen into frag- 
out into a narrow U'lt of not over a iputrter of a nient*. 

mile in width, which nnis along the southern limit To the ntirth of the area of gidilm« ami hum> 

of the Arcliean to lieyond Newark. blende nK'k.«, and rf•^tirlg ufMin the latter, v an 

Another interesting development of the same extensive formation of highly miiiufouiotlutynick^. 

rocks occurs to the southwc!«t of Itc«I Mill», and so eai^ily friable as to crumhle to the. touch, and 

thence to the well-known elevations ealletl Iron which break into a Ioinm; windy loam of great rich- 

and Clic»tnut Hills. The typical hyiMT>*thenic nitiA. 

gahbru or hy|ierite of the elul»-Mlia)ietl area jiixt The nn'ks of the nii<*a fK-liist lielt are all strati- 

dctfcrilM.'d is repnwntefl by the tm-ealKtl ** Brandy- fietl with variations of lie<ldinir, fnmi that as thin 

wine granite," which is quarricil to xuch an exten- as nlate. in the mica iK-hi!>t.<«, to that of a heavily 

sivo degn*e in the neighlNirluMNl of Wilmington. iKxIded character in niori' highly iiietamoqihoK^I 

It is a rui'k of dark bluish gray or blui.<«h black forms. lioth strike and difi in ihe!H' mekit are 

color of great hanlncKM and firinni^K, nml is without subje<'t to gn>at vnrinlion. VariationH of strike in 

doubt one of the nioKt valuable nn<l durable stonm thii* cum' pnivin^ that the eh*vutinir Wtrtv acted very 

lo exiMtemW une<|ually, showing itm-lf in a tui"tin«,; and undn- 

This nx'k has Urn stiidi«Hl in d<>tail by the hition of the out-cropping edpit of the nn'k. Va- 

writer, ami fmni its wide variation in <iim|MHition nations of dip enabling the geo|n^ii«t, by plotting 

and stnictural eharaetem is of |N>culiar niteresL u|ton pafter th<NH* olM<Tve<l along any line of Mt'- 

The rock, as studied under the niienwco{)e, ix found tion, to oliow that the micaceous pM'k^ of Delaware 

to consiiit of a granular mixture of htjittrMheue^ Imve been pre^.'^ed into a ^eriei* of fohU or wav«-!«, 

<firt//«i(yry;Ai<//of/«j««*/rA/*/**ir(lubradorite), with ac- like the wrinklen in a picn-e of ehith, by an enor- 

cestfor)* r/N(irfz, 6io/ife honibtentht murfiiriifet pyfite numn lateral pnt^xun*, n pn*i(.«ure wlii<-li re!>ul'.ed in 

and afMttUe, the elevation of the Blue Itid^re fn»m Nt w Kng- 

Tlie m<wt remarkable fact observed in the Mtudy hind to Alabama, of which uplifl the cry^tnlline 

of lhci« rocks is the intinnite asMociation of highly nN-kn of Delaware form a imrt. 

ichistuHe black hornblende rock with tliexe maMivc The mien M'hiftK and gnei.<«!*«*!« of Delawart* form 

gray gabbros. The black hornblende riK-k iii, after n etmtinuation of the HiMiille<I Philadelphia (iiiei:^ 

pa.««t niicruncopic studies, found to Ix* but an ex- Ix-lt, which coveri* the greater part of iK'htwarc 

treme stage' of variation afleeting to o greater or Otunty, and the Houilu-rn |iortion of Mi>n!gomery, 

less degree the whole gabbro maiw. Hornblende, Buck;* and Che?iier Couniiei* in Penni-ylvania. 

which in the true gabbro is but a rare or accejwiry Thi^fc r«M'ks have Iw-en the Mibji-ct of mu«-h e<»n- 

constituent, is found to iuereoso in amount until trover^y, and their age is Mill undecidtHl. By 

I BhUcUii. k«l 41. u. a GMiocini Surrtj. WMiiini<«Hi. many they arc regimlwl ox alteri'd Palaexa/ic K-di- 


mmtt, while elhMv ronllniw to roKiinl them m of Thnw mihitlvUloiui will he noticed In the ohroiKW 

AMHiln ejie. TtiU iMter (WlyntNtlon In ImiikmI lo|rtml Uihio nt the opc*iilnK of thU urtlole umI will 

iilmii llioir lllh«»1iiKlnil «liiitlnrtty to ninny tif the U* tliwrilM*il In onlcr. 

tilths mii|iillhi(* m*hli>tit, Tlioy Imve lii«mv Imhw Tiik IM.amtio Olaym.— ThU formation In the 

^'^«*rftHl to the White Mouninln, or tite U(N*ky thlckt^nt nMMiilM»rt»f the crutnccon* wliow northern 

Mminlaln M*rki, one of the ti|>|HT nieiiilK'ni of ttie limit cornviMUidii with the iip|ier bonier of the 

Ari*hitin. rnHnccoiiii. lu aouthcm line Itrj^lne a few mllee 

A«w>Kintc(t with the miftor ulnty nilcAo<N>tM mcIcm eouth of New CriMtle, nml extomh In n nouthwcet- 

nn* |»ri»lHihly InlruKlvc niiMH^ri of comw i^niliied enily tlircctlon to JiiKt liolow Itc<l Lion, rroMin^ 

inuniti*, whl(*h VAry In thifknt^M for mvortil Ini'hni the milnvul In^twen I*ortcr*i nml Kirkwoocl, unci 

n|i to nimiy fivt, Th«>M» }rninitc«ii ofti*n lNM*imie no rutting tho Stnto lino niMmt two nilUv north of 

hl\rhly f«*hlpi|mihlc nn to iNMmiM (Minnlilomhlo C-li(«iMi|N*tiko (*ity. 

ciiHionilc* VMlm». Innp*miirh nd tho fi*lilK|iiir fVi«* Althoii^rh of no niiioh lni|M)rtnmv, It Kowlnir to 

«|n«*iiily lti<«imirii ihi«om|MiM*il Into Knolin. the ^nnit ihicknivii of ttio overlylnjc irmvoln, nirt«ly 

TIh« relohmtinl «h'|i(Mitii nnMHul lliM'kt^iMln are exiMMMl, nml (•vcn whonmoro fnvomhlc opportiinl* 

of thioohnmiicr. I)ix(Hrii(|tinrry ii«*nr Wilmini^ titi« nn* ofllTi>il, hut a fow feet of the chamcteriiitie 

ton han imMliiced very Hue yickis of f('lils|mr. A Rc«l Clay npiK*ar above the surface, 

very notable vein ctitn acroM tlic ronil lemliiiK up Tlie chiy Is more generally red and highly 

the Itramlywioc, aliout one ami a Imlf miles from phiittic ; in other caace it is mottled, and again 

the head of tlie State. Itj« width is ohout twenty white and sandy like fire clays, 

fivt. ami the material a mixture of red ortlioclase Tlie Xicut exptwurrs are along the lower levels of 

alhite, blue quarts and mum-ovite. Tlie rrK'k is the gullien cut by the creeks of upfier New CaMle 

<|uarried ftir the vnlunble ffUlximr, usihI in the (*minty, piirticulnrty along UihI IJon Creek. Oo- 

mnnufaciure of nrtiti<*inl ttvth. cibtionnlly tlie chiinicteri!«tic rod day c«)mes to the 

Cjunrtittii an* aUi imlMthUtl with tlie \n\vn s(*hists surfntv nt |Miintrt nlongtho nmik Tho hills t<» the 

and wliiii |mn« and while nn* worko<l under the eiiKt nnd north of (■hristiunn an* fomuil of those 

nanM* of ffifil. At Two«*<rrt Mill, nlNiveXewurk, this clays, which outcntp very tVis|Uontly almg the 

nN*k IS gniuml Into a line fluur, when it is shipiiiil nnid lending fn»iii Cliri!*tinna to New Cnstlc. 

I«ir ui(e in the mnnufncturo of itonrlnin wan*. Judging Irom the ninny iMiints whcm we have 

It is an inten^sting |M>iiit to note that those found this day ex|<<isc«t we are convinced that it 

quttiiz veins arc fnHpiently of a cellular chnnicter, has an im|M>rtnnt economio vnlue for the 

wlicn they arc quite similar to ninny gold U^nriiig mnnufnctun* of terra cotta ware. Tlio supply is 

veins in nx'ks of like age in Virginia, North Can>- practically inexhaustible, nnd the day is to all 

liiitt and CSc«»rgia. IleimMt isnot at all impnili- apiiennince ns good as similar days worked in 

able to sup|Mise that gokl lienring vein.^ mny some Now Jer>H\v for mnnufnotiiru into terra cotta ware, 

day be tlincovcred U|N»n the farms of Nortlioni The phistic days of Delaware hnve within the 

Delaware. isist yenr luvn corn^lnloil with tho stMiilliHi 

.ViioiIkt c«»mmon asMN*iuto of tho mica schists is INitomnc foriiintion of Maryland and Virginia, 

a hlnck hornblende nM*k iniorlH-ihliHl with the hitter, nnd hnve im|M»rtnnt nOniions to ivrtnin older 

and forming nuisso« otU*n several hundntl fivt in gravel do|NHtiis which will lie dwelt iqion later, 

thickness. In placo^ this alternation of honibleiide Sand M AKr«— This is n de|Misit of n loamy yeUow 

and micaceous rocks is frc«|uent. siliceous sand, with which is mixed some green 

TiiECKi^TACKord. — ^Thc cretaceous of Delaware, sand (marl), whose thickness is about ninety feet, 

a continuation of the same fi>nimtion as devdoiicd It rests U|Min the phistic clay formation, and 

in New .lcn»ey, extends across the state as a north- covers that fsirt (»f New Gistle County, lying be- 

coi^t ami southweitt U'lt, with a brradth of eighteen, tween the southern limit of the phistic days, ond 

and a length of from fifteen to twenty miles. The the cnnnl. 

northern limit of the belt hns alnmdy bei>n traced Thk Mari* Hkim. — ^The mnrl beds cover a com- 

out as making the southern IsMiiidnry of tho |mrativdy siiinll onti in the State, nnd aro prae- 

Ardiean. The southern limit was a little to^tlie ticallv limitc«l to that division of New Castle 

south of, and |mrallel with, Ap|MN|uinimink Cnn^k, county cnlh>d St Cioorgo's Hundred, 

cutting through the centre of Noxontown mill- The first important oiitcroiM of green sand occur 

pond, and tlience proceeds in a straight south- along the Delaware and ('hosii|iciike Cnnal, the 

wcstemly direction. The different sulKlivisions of channel of which cuts deeply into the formation, 

the cretaceous form unifonu be«ls dipping at a Its nortlicrn limit, as determined by old marl pits, 

low angle to the southeast. This dip was carefully runs approximately imrallel with the canal, 
mcasunnl at the deep cut, along the Cliesniioake. keeping a di}<tnnoe of from a quarter of a mile, 

and Delaware canal, and found to lie at this point to a mile. From this line tlie marl extends south- 

at the rate of forty-five feet to the mile. ward to another boundary {Miralk*! with, and about 


OM mtU Mttth of Appoquinlmink Orook, whtra It Ib divided into tliree very dlntant Uytn, (1) A 

f IvM pliin to the tertiary olHys. lowcriiH«t fHiro irreon nind c«»vcrln|( imwt of tlie 

Tlio divtKlom of tho f^rvcn Mind fummtltm nro lN*lt, nnd wvll-4'X|M«(vd tAimf/i DfRwvfr'i C*rrfk and 

found, with two cxc(*|alon«, to corn<it|Nmd witli ftilver Hun. (2) An Intoniu'diAtr Inycr of fri«bl« 

thuw rondo br tlie N6w Jon«y H«irvi*y. Tlio diro- mIioIIh, fntni tliri'o to u*n fv«*t, rx|MMf(l nt tlio limd 

Dologicnl tnhio at tlio o{>oning of tliln articlo gives of NuxonUiwn roill-|w>nd and aloiti^ tlio KMitli nide 

tlie lulKlivlKians of tlio ronrl beds. of A|>|KX|uihiiiiink Creek. (3) An upiier yellow 

LowKR Marl BKD.~Thli stra*um, which ex- or rcddinh-ycllow Bond, occupying tlie fouthem 

tendi aa a narrow bolt on each lide of the canal, vcrj^e of tliu Ih'U. 

ia found to outcrop along tho entlro lon^th of tlie TiiK Iu'onumic VAKt'i: or tiik MAUU-^The 

tame, rinlug alxmt a fuot aUivo tho Hiirfuco of tho area (^>V('nMl hy tho marl InnU Imn already been M.*t 

wiiU>r, and larthor Wi<«t to the height of twenty ftvt. forth with ituHli'i(*iit oxaftmiM to eiinhle utio to 

The lowivt layer In thii dciMwIt U a UnmU hlut'li«li know wheru marl <iui Im found. The vupply 

black marl, which, u|iun drying, tunit to a lighter, within the area, undcrhdd by it, 1.4 prulmbly itics- 

anhcn or earthy color, when It ui found to Iw niado hauMtiblo. Itt vithio an a fertilixer in:ikefl it wor- 

of a mixture of green sand, giliccouM Mind and thy of consideration. Gnn^n lund iNconiiMMcd of 

argillaecoui matter. The Milid fJortieleB are coated grains of tho mineral glauconite, mixed with 

with chalky carbonate of lime, which, under the greater or low <|uantiticfl of iinpuritiet, aa clay, 

niicroBcoiw, appears as a fine white powder of a siliceous sand, and mineral {mrticles. 

granular character. Glauconite is a compound of silica, iron, prot- 

Overlying this last layer is a f helly layer of oxide and potash ; the quantity of potash ranging 

about three feet in thickness, and containing the from four to twelve {ter cent. Many of tlie New Jer- 

eharacteritftic fossils of tho Lower Marl Bed of New soy green sand marls contain from one to two and 

Jersey. a half {mt cent, of phosphoric aeid, and there is 

Above this layer, which we have calhnl tho no n*ni>oii to doubt but that the IVlawaro marls, 

'*Hlaek Argillo-micaitMitis Marl," to the west of which are g(«<do):inilly identiiiil with thiist* of New 

tho iX'lawnru nillrond, it Is ex|NiM««| in the *' J)iH>p Jerm*y, may \tc equally rich in this hu«t sulMtancc. 

Cut," where its characters can Ik) well Ktiidieil. This When used, liU'Dil iln's^iiigM of the land should 

black marl is comiMsed of minute sharp gliMiy bo made lH*fore plowing , in this way a large 

particles of quarts, coated with a grayii^h dust, and amount of {lotajih is intnMluced into the si»il, which, 

associated with a few green sand {inrticlra of unu- whilv at first iniK>luble, or not directly available, 

Bual firmness, together with a oonsiderable quantity becomes nlowly set free by decoin|K»itiou,.aod 

of minute sailes of muscovito mica. renders it available to plants. 

Induuatkd Mari« Bed.— The northern limit The eflccts of the marl are, therefore, lasting, 
of this belt, which is also tho Bouthem limit of the and when applied every few years ftermanent. A 
lower marl bed, start* near the mouth of Scott's careful inquiry into tho results obtained from the 
run. and thentv keeps (wnillel with tho canal to application of marl ufion some of tho Delaware 
tho railnHid, where it begins slightly to diverge, farms luii« <'onvinco«l the writer that good n-sults 
cutting tho hefidwaters of the northern branch of can Iw reached hy its use. As a direct and immc' 
tho lk»hemia river. The tmuthern limit of the bolt diate source of i»otash, green sand is not to be 
can only be approximately outlined, but as can compared, by the rule of commereial valuation, 
best be detennined, runs from Port Penn through with the easily soluble kainit; but as an easily 
the headwaters of Drawyer's Creek, and crosses available and cheap material for the culture and 
the Mar}'land line four miles liclow the head of permanent improvement of land, green sand marl 
Bohemia River. The deposit is divided into two is a material worthy of the attention of these far- 
layers : 1st, Lower layer of reddish siliceous spihI, luers of the State whose lands are underlaid by it. 
with some green sand, which occupies the upper The Tertiary. — All that portion of the .State 
bonier of the belt a little south of tho canal ; and lying south of the lower limit of the marl ImhIs, a* 
2d, An upjicr layer of partly dccomiKMcd or indu- already {loinled out, is uiMlerluid by the Tertiary, 
rated marl, of a rusty green eolor when dry, which of lioth Mioivne and proliable Plirnvnc age. 
underlies most of the area of the licit. The northern half of this area, which is Iwrderrd 

TiieMii>ole Maul Bed. — This belt crosses tho on the south by a line running not far from the 

State with a uniform breadth of three and a half course of Murderkill Cix-ek, is unik.*rlaid by a drab 

miles, the northern line running from Port Penn, or white clay de|Misit of from ten to twenty feet in 

a little north of Drawyer*s Creek, and crossing the thickness, so far as can lie determined from such 

State line four miles south of tho Bohemia River, well-reconis a<« have come to the writer's attcnti^iD. 

The southern line crosses the center of the Noxon- This dejMMit contains in places abuiulaut fowiU 

town mill-|)ond, keeping parallel with and a little sutticient to determine its Miocene age; it al>o 

south of Appoquinlmink Creek. The middle marl overlies, proliably unconformably, the mart Tbie 


highly pbitie oky ean b« Mtn only along the a mile wcet of Iron Hill,) nuiny yeare ago. In 

creehe of Kent County and lower New OMtlo 1873, the work of mining and thipping ore watbe- 

Ownty. gun on quite a large icale, and continued until 

Along the creekt at Smyrna and at Dover it ie 1884. 

frequently exposed, where iti qualities can be well In Sussex County, along the streams that flow 

studied. In its purer forms it would make an ad- westerly into the Chesapeake Bay and largely in 

miniblepotter*scUy,and considering its unlimited Kanticoke Hundred, bog-ores (layer) have been 

su|>|>ly, underlying as it docs the whole of Kent known to exist from about the middle of the lost 

Cuuiity, its value for that purpose b wortliy of the century, and from 1708 to 177G, large quantities 

consideration of potters abroad and at home, of ore were roisod, smelted and tlic iron shipped to 

South of the latitudo of Munlcrkill Creek, rcpre- Kngland. The blockading of the ChcsufMnke, 

aenling the whole of Sumcx County, wc meet with coni|)clle(l the almiKloiinient of the Airnaces, and 

a later deposit of the Tertiary of probably IMio- tho mining of ore and the manufacture of iron, was 

ceneage. not ogain renewed until the beginning of the 

This is represented by an uppermost hiyer of present century, when forges and furnaces were 

blue clay, and an under deposit of glansand. built and large quantities of ore raised, some of 

The blue day varies in thicknei>8 from three to which was smelted in the forges in the vicinity but 

ten feet, and often runs into a black bog mud, the larger portion shipped to New Jersey. The 

while less often it becomes of a light drab hue. In lands from which the later forgoes procured their 

its upper portion it contains nests of the modem ores were those worked liefore the Revolution, 

oyster in a very friable condition, and which Prof. Collins for)^, which went out of blast about IS.'M), 

lleilprin,of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural wom the last to almiidon the manufactura of iron 

Sciences, ransidera as of a somewhat antique char- in SuMiH>x County. Many of tlie IuikIs, al>out 

actcr. 18'J1, imisnchI to inm niiMtcri of New Jersey, who 

Underlying the blue clay is the gloM sand, which, raised ond shipjHMl tho ore to their furnnces in 

so far as tho writer's knowledge goes, has been thot State long after the abandonment of all the 

penetrated to a depth of forty feet forges in tho lower {mrts of Delaware. No ora 

Itb-apura white glai« sand, and would be of has been raised in Sumex and Kent County for 

great value in manufacturing were it easily acces- several yean, as the visible supply was nearly 

sible. It seldom, if ever, ctuucs to tho surface, exhausted; but new deposits are slowly being 

owing to the overlying clay dc|KMlt, which riMCs to made, and at some future time the in>n industry 

just almut tide-level. Where tho upiwrniost grav- may again bo made a Murro of profit to tho State, 

els and hmms of Sussex i\iunty are thin, however. It niiiy be of intcmtt to tho iMiiplu of the region 

it nii|;ht U> fiNiiid near enough to the surfiu-c to lio when* tlicmi on*s are found, to kiH»w in what other 

n'ttdily workcil. At any rate, this |Niiiit Is well KmilUics ithnilar ores iiru worked ond how they ant 

worthy of the time neciwary lor pnM|N>cting. formed. PrulVmor J. P. l«ciiley, an eminent 

Iniix Oiti: Hkhh.— The ore UnIs of the Suite are authority, in the "Iron Manufncturcri Guide." 

fiiund only in New Castle ami Sucaex Counties, and published in 18«'>9, enumerated tho dilTerint kinds 

ore entirely bog*ores, which are of two kinds of ore as follows : 

-dome- and "layer." The former is found mostly ,,. -n^ pH-rj. .»«,i.r. -..-i. »< -J*. -s 

in New Castle County ; the latter in Sussex County. *• s. n* bi«»B hMMiitw. 

The outlying sfMini of the Archean Rocks, Iron *^^ "^ *•" "• "^ '*^ ^^^ ***••** ■*** 

and Cliestnut Hills, which rise abruptly above the ?. J; ^ ulT.*'? tiu7!*"lr '^ *^ ■■^•^ 

plain in the vicinity of White Clay Ca*ek in Pen 

coder Hundred. New Castle Countv, were known Profiwor l^lcy contmues to speak of the for- 

to eimtain ore from the earliest settlement of that >»»»*»"»>• ««"» de|Hisits : 

|«rt of tho State, and the former is mentioned in *• w» iMt* ihi> rt«urMMM, inoary «a4 pMi Ntttery ii|i»» la hm wa 

official records and poiKTs in ItWI. In 1725, a •*«»i^s'«i".iwiui«.«*. g« •M«ih.*«^rtii«»w«iik*.fc.if .r 

fofge and furnace were built at the place, wliere „„^,^ ,^ g^,,, caft4iaa,t.«iiiiiii.aro«*tto««4Ai.i«a,MaHy 

ore was mined and smelted for about ten years, aiiui MiMarfn'(.tb*«Mi«ni|»rt urT»aiw«Maa4KrM«riijrw«wflM 

They were then abandoned, and in 1841, the pitt «»« m-J-ipH a-aTimi^^ k^^ a«i .art «r tba aim 

.' ,. ^ _^ , I I ¥> • I all iba cwvMnr aoalh «r SliMtNirl (rscrid a |«rt nf Aikawaa) m Sir aa 

and adjacent property were purchased by David ,h. .^ „„„<,, .1,4 »ucii.«ard 11 bH«... tu »• .^ io..iiada a«s 

Wood, an irun-matftcr of Philadelphia, by whom iha B«riiy Mimniaiws iwr im» iIm Bthmi p^ miu ais •ce*piiii( Mty 

they were oiierated for many ywim, and were ib.Ki~kiiiii.a»4af.w«iii«ammiii«i.ii»r i.uaJ.uf aUar rocka 

known as "Woods Ore l*ils. In 18<2. tho ,kn.««h 11. j.|h«ii. f«- bri«w. Ou* !.»• f rh«aci*«ta» tbi. r..i 

pre]ieTty passed to the proprietore of the Principio mi in 2(«w J«m-j. IVIaaan and Maata^l. aad la tba wm. 

Fuman, by Wliom they are still owned and -Huc«f.i.adr|.w.iiar»»rryar»«p»»ii««rt«i«iffcc.aiibau«ia. 

■ iw Ilia i i rtMWl ■>■ iha prn f wa ww a Ilia urincliial ft»ww tba So— aa4 

operateO. ^ ^^ ....... ... iWlay^r. Tlia rarmrr h a machaiikal, tbalaU«raaat|aalc 

Ore was found on Chestnut Hill, (a knoll about TbaforMmaUM pUca al iha Iwiaa »bai« val«r •priaaifrMMfiMtl 


I w •«iMi« intfM ta •niij iMrfiMtat ■cim. «Bd thHr tdgM <>^^l> ^^^ "><> "'"« cremturet» all in a nne powder 

«ai«M4«p>«ib«ii««MiM4ttmrt4tiiipr«iinMWMnu«««iin«.i« to the bottom of the boe or are carried into the 

Hilt tiM pntnM* af Ima In lh«MMula|>l*cw«likhrrr Maud now* *"^ <"^ 0> tbM btatC are UOt, hoWCTer, UlOM 

aMMii»ci,»iid ibw ta rwiiN af tiai«.di«iH nT »H, i|M,BC3r. riaaiia fomied lu ()eat twanipi but are belter defcribed by 

rrivahlavr IM af lb« ^ftlng «atrr. Ihm dumta flalia* aa lb»lr ^"<l<-*'' thO ncnU Of tpiter Ottlldv, he WHtCf : 

taMa»«|«iid sad M««Uai»a twt*t«4iiiarlarbl aaarrawrilMKtvaMli ** Tho OTVB of Iron touml IH VariuUt IMirt* of 

r.'^r.aT.lJ!!JV.!r,*:«l'.'^'[u^ *'"'^'« ^'«"n«y in ctitiiii«li.nil)loqunntitv.ami par- 

•aavva, ■•rwidaiMl trtjrfrttiljr aluirftiiirtiarviiifrMiidiraHrwaiirfMint «t i i A ■• t i> •• •. . * , ■ 

•r Mraitaaaa aa^MMia Ward aa riaj ar n al vr mi .imi* r,ri»klrr..|.k "^'"'nrly «>" ("l* dlVi«llll|; riUKC, riillMl attention at 

Ud of iiM ora. wiwa diaiMd aad drkd itmrn »|««g^ a.MM« aiaka a having vii'ldi'U and utill intrudticiri}f M)inr revenue 

^«arlta fl»«la. ar. f.r .ba.bamal lvra..«la il.Hr a*l,l..«U..rf, i„i,, i|,e 8t,ite. The nioi^t rcniafkuhle an th.«e 

kata«iaiilalliaa«l|4iar tbry raa.aH*ary rvatala awka««bfrii»ulni| .. . , - ., •""''••«••*« '^ «"»"• •• 

•rearuar.d-klHMt.aad.ilMRr»ia.>lK.NMbaail»«d»Nly«libcaMd»..rt """*»«> * '«* «""«» northwe»t of OeurgftoWD, 

By oaaaf iiuraabaiiy ada|4aihaa«birbesri(«avr|>iMa. near the Bourccaof several streaniii flow'iDg Wfsterlv, 

;^"L1^I?2!****^'""' •»"•••«-«"'»""•"*•«"'".•'— which, being on elevated and level land, •nread 

boff dapi«lla fertaaalaly an aH«t naaM^a la rt^leaambUbaJibiUc .1 _ • • t , 1 . n '^ •7»~» "I »^»« 

kcaTjaiikhwaomafcaUabacttrm^r/' thenuwlves m broad and fhailow basins covered 

with a stratum of black argillaceous mould. The 

Tlie ores of this nature mentioned above, as the ore found below this bliick soil is of various kind:*, 

" dome " and formed by a mechnnicnl process, are hnnl or *olid, gmvellv and loam ore. The hard* 

found mostly in the north wesltrn jmrtof Delaware variety, which exlsin in ^^rent ahunduncc. forms a 

in tho vieiiiity of Iron Hill. I'rofewor James C. solid substratum to the luouhl fn)m six to eight 

Booth in his reiiori of 1«41 says: luehm or more in thiekiuM; it is hani, nuKlerauly 

" This elevation conM»ts of clay^ rand and um^rh, uf a rich l»n»wn M»lor and rtvinous lui^ire, 

gravel, and derives its name from the ahumltincc of with an uneven, cimclioidul fracture; minietiiiies 

boukleraofiron-stoue and ferniginous<|uartx scat- cimipact; often cellular in structure; comiMw-d 

tcrcd over its flunks, the latter of which wns e8M>ntiuily of (ien»xide of inm and water. An 

probably at one time of good quality, but thniugh aiiul ysis of this variet v of ore from the Clowes bed 

exiKJSuro to atmospheric agents, hns been rendere<l (in tho wctttern part of Hromlkiln Hundrwl), per- 

valuelcHi. An excavation has been mailc im tho formed hy K. Maver, viehlwl peroxide of iron. «0 

summit for the extraction of iron t»re to tho depth jkt cent. ; water, 'ir> {kt wnt. ; Hilicn, 5 jn-r cent., 

of 40 to r*0 feet, which enalilos us to estimate the mid of alumina a trace, which mnv \m viewed as 

cliiirnctrr of this Hiigulnr hill. . . . the avcnigo iiunpuiiillun of the wiiie kind fuund 

"NiKliihuof Iron ore nn* nhundiintlydliitrilint<il in other hHMtliticn. The iiiiH.unt .if meHillic inm 

thniUKh tho whole forniiilhiii; it in of ii chcutniit- in the iiUive U -mJ per ituI., hut «^heii 

brown iHihirtsoinetlMH-s hluelfh-hlnek fnmi the pn-s- to miiMing the reiiininimr t're nill viehl miirlv Otl 

eni-c of mnngaiieiic), hanl and tough ; may lie ii.n. j^r c^iit. The gmvellv ore wiimAh of irn-gular 

stdervd a moderately hard ore, being both siliceous miiMcs of a nimilar ore' of the size of a nut and 

and argillaceous; the nodules fre«iuenily enclose smaller, diiwmiimted in a yellow ferniginous loam, 

an ochrey clay, more rarely a black earth conUin- but containing rather more argillaceous matter, is 

ing manganese. Large quantities of the ore have softer and more readily worked, 

already been exported.*' .. The loam ore. which ii* still nifter than the pre- 

Profea-Kir lienley continues in regartl to layer ceiling, is a ycHow o<hre or clay highly charged 

***• with hvdriit«'4l |>en»xide of iron. For working in 

•• But ore of another kind is depiisited upon tho the furimi-c the mvenil kinds are mingleil ti.g«lher, 

white clay or white snnd Ihnir of |wit lM»p., lakes which not oiilv fncilitiites the nnluction liv tliixing. 

and Hwami»« of every kind in tertiary, and other htit renults in 'the priKluction of a lietter qiwlitv ot 

h»w and gravelly |mrt* of tho earth's surface. In injn. Various names have lK«en given to the I.res 

Eastern iMa&Mchusetts tho ohiwt furnaces were of .Sujmwx, more dependent on diflvrem-es in their 

built to smelt such ores. In New Jerwy and external form and other charactere of the ore, 

Delaware they have been wrought many years, which fiwt rendera itself jiercepiible in the metal; 

Tho southern shore of I^ike Erie is lined with fur- it is that matter which forms a cold.ehort meul. and, 

uaccs built on deiiosits of this order. In true |ieat in all probability, is a com|)ound of phoi^phorus 

bogs a cake or |)an of peroxide of iron is found at or areenic. but analvsw has not hitherto detected 
tho bottom, and every tree-trunk is dyed black with 

it. The waters which feed tllCJ^S bogs bring into i^KhrvnbrmhiMilHM-trdlnllMochrraaa iiMtt*riihair>jr«iUiClr"a 

them fn.n. the fcrmginou. «.n<i hiik. by «hic-h rjjrr^r'Xr'Trr^^r,*^:.'^;::,.^'-^::-^ 

they are inlocked, enough of iron to supply certain *^'*--^ i«'tiy ■iiir«w«M and iMniy hriHiin^iHs u «imi h* r»nM>i«rH 

microscopic animals with the material they require « uiungia, lo tb. »««.i.bu biMri-«."--i/»*J'i«-^ •! 


thdr ptwace in tlie oi«. The ImkI or lolld Tariely kNUB, this dapodt Ibraiinf tlie ridi petdi laiul of 

it Terr ape to produce eueh a metal, but b/ mixing Kent County. 

with tlie foAer kinda, the remit it a good malleable In Soutbem Kent Oountj thl two memberi of 

iron when worked in a Ibrge. the Quaternary gravele merge into a tingle de- 

"Gollint* ore bed, the lowcit on the Oreen potit of a highly gravelly or loamy charaetor, 

Meadow branch of Deep Creek (in Nanticoke tliin feature continuing over the whole of Sutfiex 

Hundred), contists chiefly of a aoliil loam ore County. 

which it princiiially wrought at Collina* forge — a To explain the mode of depoaltlon of thete grav- 

hard, compact ore, very rich in iron, but raid to elt, wo mutt understand that during tlie Glacial 

yield a cold, thort metal, and of a tniall quantity epoch, what it now the DeUware River had itt 

of tandy ore. There are many other depoeitt of tuurce near Belvldcre, at the lower limit of the ice 

ore in variout partt of Suawx, tuch at that on theet ; that it ttood one hundred and fifty feet 

Green branch, about ten nSilct wcMt of Milltborough, higher than at pretent, and had a width of tome- 

the bctt of which it in ballt or nodulet and yicldi thing like ten milet. 

good metal; that on Burton*t branch, one mile At the tame time, what it now the Delawara and 

wctt of the tame town, making a cold, thort iron ; Marj'land Penintula, became tubmerged, forming 

that on Little Creek, near Laurel, and others in an e^ituary, like the Chesapeake; into tbit the 

which the charactors ara referable to tlioto given twollen IX'lnwaro River emptied, carrying with it 

above. ... itt londt of dctritut, which it Hpread out over the 

"The raiding of ore in quantity wat ciminicnocd Penintula. 

about 1M14, tince which time nearly 200,000 tont l)uwn tbIt Quaternary river icclieigt floated, 

have Urn raiivil, abtrnt lfH),000 of wbifb wero ex- carrying hurdcnt of iMmldon, wlilch they dropfied 

|inrt«<l, introducing not lott tlmn $000,000 into tlie at iMiintt uvcr the entire Ktate. 

State." IMdct thin universal thcet of gravel covering 

At the time Mr. Booth made hit report little wat all three countict, we find over the high Archean 

kgown concerning the manufacture of iion before hillt itclatcd patches of gravel, which are much 

the Revolution and mining of the bog oret. A older. Tbit it called the Potomac formation by 

full account of the mining of ore and manufacture W. T. McGee, from 'lUt fine exixMurct along the 

of iron will be found in bittorict of the bun- Potomac River. McGce bnt tbown that tbeto iM>- 

dredt in which the furoacet and forget were lated {mtcbct of gravel are contemporaneout with 

located. tlie pltittio clayt of tbo Lower Crctaccout, when 

Tlie Qt*ATER2iARY. — Overlying all of the for^ the clayt ext&*nded farther north, to at to reach 
matioBtof the State, and forming itt toil, u a broad over the high bilJD of Delaware, 
theet of gravelly depotiit, whote average tbicknctt The materinlt of the Potomac gravelt are quito 
it about twenty-five feet. In Kew Cattle County like thoto of the Delaware gravelt, but the two can 
thete gravelt have received the name of Delaware easily be distinguished, from the fact that the Po- 
graveK IVvm their identity with like depntitt along tomac gravel patches reach an elevation of from 
the Delaware River valley. Here we distinguish thrc^ hundred to four hundred feet, while the Del- 
two layera— an upper brick clay, called the Phi la- aware gravels never reach that elevation, but have 
delpbia brick clay, and an under red sand and a maximum elevation of two hundred and twenty 
gravel. The brick clay layer has a tliicknctt vanr- feet above tide, 
ing from two to tix feet, but with an average of 
about three feet. It varies from a stiff brick clav 

to a loam of remarkable ricbno<t, which fornit the ~'~~' 
toil of New Cattle County. It often liecomct quito 
gravelly, containing fre(|uently quartxose boulden 

and ct>bble-ttoncM of huge tiie. The red tand hat C H A P T ER III. 
an average tbicknctt of about twenty feet, and it 

characterized by itt color. The tand b often quito «^„ «.>/«»«aii.m 
fine, again coarse and running into gravel ; it sbowt 
fri'<|uent crott bedding, and indicatet the B|^*ncy of 

twitl, tbifting currentt in itt depOf>ition. The Dela- A VAtT, myttoriout, barbarian raoi^ tha aborig- 

ware graveb extend up the slopct of the Archean Inet of the Wettera Continent, emerged gradually 

hilLi to an average elevation of two bumlrcd feet, from blank olitcurity into the clear light of knowl- 

which repittcnu the height of tbo waten of Qua- edge, and began to figure upon the pagct of hit- 

tornary time. tory with the other pcoplet of the earth, when the 

Over Kent County the gravelt maintain an pioneer navigatort of the Old Workl touched the 

equal thicknets ; the brick-clay layer, however, be- thoret of the New. 

comes RMire tandy, and more generally a randy At the dawn of the hittorle era, which to far at 


the rq^on that we here traai of it conoerooil, had the conception theio Mveisei fint Ibnned of the 

iu fint gleaming in the advent of Henry Hud«»n atraof^e pale-fiiccd men, in droi«, hearing and 

upon the Delaware and the North Itiver, the In- ipooch different from their own, who came in the 

dians occupying the country watered by thow ** winged canooi'* to their iihoree. In their aaton- 

great itrcains were chiefly of the Algunfiuini, inhmcut they called out to one another, ** iWhold ! 

Lenni-Lena|io or, at they have bc«n more com- the QwU are come to vi»it u« ! " They at fint 

monly called, Dulnwarui,' and Uio Andantes, Iro- connidcrt^l t\w*o hitherto unknown beiugn a» mo«- 

quoia or Five or Six Nationa." aengeni of iHrnce Hcnt to thi-m from the abmle of 

The former extended from Uie lower Iludaon to the Ureat Spirit, nu<l welcomed and honored them 

the Potomac, but they ap|icar to have bwn cen- with Nicriliritil fiiiiitii and with giilt. IIu<LKm re- 

tral iced ufion the Delaware River and Buy, par- corded timt alnn'e the Higlilumla ** they found a 

ticularly the former, while their kiujimun the Nan- very h>ving {Rtiplc and very old men, and were 

tiookoa had their home u|Mm the watcra of the lat- well umhI. "' 

ter and occupied at tImt early period much of the The gallant Dutch navi;nitor and dii^ooverer waa 

territory now includeil in the aouthem {MUla of not to be outdone in civility and genenwity. He 

Delaware and Maryland and the ctwteni shore of gave the wondering ouva^v priiK*nt4 and put to 

the Chottap*iake. iu the latter region being inter- tlu'lr inixMrnt li|iei bottliit of tfpirit^— ver}* pn>b- 

apcnicd with theMnngun<flor Min^oea ; otU-n tlifm; ably Holland M-liiiap|w gin, — tluM intrulucing at 

were cnllfd the SiM4|ueliiinniui. The I/cnni l>'iiH|H« ilit* very int^'ption of liiit H<*i|Uiiintnn(v with them 

may thuit Iw wud, in a general way, to Inivi* held one of the di'^tnirlive and iHi|M>rtant clinnirter^ 

doHiinion over the rorii»t'<'oven'<l liilliinnil pbiinfi in iitiicH nf eiviliuitiou.— the art of iN-^iiniiug drunk, 

what in now Mmllicat«teni New York, nearly the The nivh^^'h riripnM'ateil byexti'udiugtlie tobaii-o- 

whole of New tlen^'V, all of I'ennxylvaiiia eiii't of \*\\k\ and thun the Old World and the New each 

the 8ua<|uehanna and much of the region included gave the other a much-prized new vice, 
in the State which is the eMjiecial province of tliii* Aa hua Ixxrn hen-lnfore intinmted, actual knowl- 

work. It waa not, however, an undiitputi-d doniin- e<lge of these in-oplc — their hiatory — begins with 

ion. Their great northern neigh borx, the InNpioiji, the coming of Henry Hudmn, and auch informa- 

were their implacable euenueit, ami ol\en wiigitl tiiui an we have iiintfrning them in after-yean ia 

war agaiiuit them, reiHiite<lly reducing and hii- atlbrthMl by the other early adventuren and act- 

miliatiiig them, ao thai by a ecntury and a half tlera along the Atlantic HciilMnml. Of the origin 

aller the firat authentic knowhHige of the iA'iin|H; or derivation of the raee— of itjt early i^iovementji 

wiw obtained, they hud Hunk into etmipanitive — ^there ia alMilutely no chita, only an illimitable 

inaigniHean(*c. The InNpioiti o(*cu|>ie<l the region fiehl for wild conjueturo ; and coneeniing the 

of the Up|ier Hud!<oii u|Mm ita wtMt nhore, and aflttim of the vcvend nationii, even during the 

their villagea npaively dotted the wildenu^M north- iieriod clihH'ly preceding the discovery and occu- 

ward, to and beyond the St. Lnwn^nce, and went- lutncy of the country, the Indiaurt were able to 

wanl to the great lukti*, their priiiei|Hil |Mipula- give only vngtte and fanciful traditiona, some of 

tion being within what ia now the Stale of New them corroborated na to (>i4entiaU by evidenee 

York. from other Bourcc:*. Ofthi:(eIuiu i.H the iKduwan-s* 

When Henry Hudaon, in Septcmlier, lG09,atler traditionary aeeouut of the niigniti«m of their 

entering and examining the IMawure Ihiy, skirl- people aiul tlie Mengwc or Iro(pi«ii:> from tlH> far 

ed the Atlantic Conat, aiiiltnl up the royal river weol to the coat, which there U exlirnul evith-nce 

that l>eara hia name and rode at anchor in the for U'lieving in the main true. We prem'tit thia 

majeatic tide, he touched the norlliem and euHtern with aome other IVlawan* legiMidn liefore drawing 

oxtnnnity of the Inml of the Ix'nuiie. The Indiana upon the uecountH of the Dutch. Swetlctf and Kng- 

whom he met there and U|Mjn the ialnnd where it liah for a description of the Indian ehumetcr and 

came about that New Y(»rk waa built, were of manner of life. 

that nation, and with them were aome of their The Ix>na|ie elaihie<l great antiquity and aujier- 

fricnda the Mohicana or Mohegana. iority over other alM)riginal nationa. Indeed, the 

Full of simple aublimity and lofty poetry waa name I^nni LenaiM> (auaietinies lt(*nui Kcnappi) 

aignifiea ** the original |>eople" or ** men of men 

I "TIm Mn* 'IVUwMVi,* whkh w« glv* to thcw larupW,** mj» 

iiMrki>««Mw."u known In Uitir ••wn uui(iim*: • • ihrjr ii»o4iRiit tii* — r facc of hunuui iKMngf wlio are thc Miiue that 

wliilM liad gf T«n il tw tlwni in drrMon ImiI tli»* »fn> i*f>iiHktl toll. .■ • ^i i • • i i i 

on u.|»ci»MiiMi It »•• t»M n.n... of ni(n«t»hii. chirr, d«u ^hcy wcrc IU tlic U'jiinniiig, iinchnngtHl and un- 

Wnrr«.wliklib»llif<rnRlT.>nluihrMi«ii.ltt..lrn«pr. Aa lli-y ar* fund niixctl. TlieV «i*H'rt«il lIlUl tlicv lliul cxi-liil from 

■kiiTinctt ■untoini.iim.nt" tlic l)eginnin;{ ot tiiiie, aiKi many liKuan nathiua, 

Tiiry rniiad thoinwKn i^nui Unn|i», whu-fa manniin tbcir Uufiinff* (hc Miauiia, Wvaudobt, SliauancK* and iiiorc than 

'*tlMuHlcilMl|««pl<'." • * 

TIm Dtilck r«IK-«l tirani Mikikmmiimm; th* rrvnrli, Ahtn^ia. aTlM Lutmi Lrmapt hnadcd do«in th* indlllwa of tbvir iMrfXiua %4 

• Th« " fupr NntloiM" liornn* Ifa* " Hi* Kniiuna" nUtit 1712. bjr lh« lb* Dutch, and nlwaya mointiUncd lUt nun* of tb« vnvniy— tlM In» 

InenrpgnUlM vita thair bndjr of Iba rafugva aovtbani ulbt, lb* Tmca- qvob, or Ftva Nationa— wer« prvaani, tbowgh ibvjr anil for iba SCubic- 

ana, to partlciiiata In the Joyona wccaaloa. 



twHit j Other tribes or natioM* admittccl their an- uul in the wild region watered by ita tributariei, 

tiqnitT and called them ** Orandfkthen.** Their the Lenape found tlie land they had joameyed in 

tradition of the advent of tho nutlona upon the quntt of fVom the letting eon. 
Deb ware and tho eai4cm lea-eoaiit is poetical and Mytlis as to their origin as niembcn of tho human ' 

interesting. Th4*y my that a gnnit uinny hundred fkniily— tlioir creation— existed among the Dela- 

yean ago their anceston had dwelt in a far-away wares in great vurietyi attesting the proncness of 

country beyond the Fatlicr of Waters — thejk/aifuoi even this barbarian {icople, in common with all 

StpH, or MisMSfippi — and near tho wide sea, in civiliicd raves, to speculate upon the mystery of 

which the sun sank every night Tbcy had, very life and their lunging to solve tho unknowable, 

long before tlie white men camo to tMr country They claim that they cmei);i'd from a cave in the 

traveled eastward, seeking a fairer land, of which earth, like the woodchuck and ground squirrel ; to 

their prophets had told them, and as they m^ared have sprung fruni a snail that was transformed 

the western shore of the great MiMiwipiH they met into a human hiding and iustructcd in the mysteries 

another mighty nation of men, of whoNO very ex- of woodcraft and tlie hunt by a iK'ncficent spirit, 

istence they had liccn in ignorniicc. Tlu'sc |KH)ple and that subse«|uently ho was n>ceivcd into tho 

tliey say were tlic J/c'M«7iirorIriN|uois,ttnd this was lodge of the beaver and marri<*tl his favorite 

tlie lint mci*ting of thivo two nalttms, dcKtincd to daughter. Acconliug to another legend, a woman 

n^nmiu in the cast for cinturitit as ncighlMirs and fallen t»r expelled from heaven is hovering in mid- 

enemicML They JiNimeye«l on t«>gether, neither in air over a ehnos of angry waters, there Uing no 

warfare nor frien<li*hi|i, Imt pnitently they found earth to alford her a n'Hting-placc. At thin critical 

that they mtint unite their forces against a com- juncture in the career of the Ijcnajic pnigeuitoni, 

mon enemy. East of the Father of Waters they a giant turtle rose fmm the vaitty dci»ths autl placed 

discovered a race called the Allegwi, occupying a his bnwid and tlome like buck at her service, and 

vai4 domain, and not only stronger in number she descended U|K>n it and mode it lier alimle. The 

than themselves, but equally bruve and more turtle slept U])uu the surface of the globe-covering 

skille<l in war. They had, indeed, fortifietl towns sea, burnaek*s attarhed tliemM'lvcs to tho margin 

and numeruuit strongluiKU.' Tho Alleg%i-i |iermit- of the shell, the scum of the wntera gathered fhmU 

ti*il a |Mrt of the emigniling nalioiiK to {umi ihe ing fragments of si'u-wee<l, and all of the JtoiMtm 

bonier of ihelr etaiiilry, and having thus ciiumnI a of tlie prinial ochmiu occumuhitetl until tho dry hind 

division of tlK-ir niilagonists, fell U|Min them with grew tt[H\i^c^ and after ages had isiAH-d, all of that 

gn^t Airy to annihilate them. But the main boily broiul ex|NUis(* whieli c<»imtitutit( North America 

of theallk'<l 3klengwean«l Lenafie roilyiugfrom the hod emerged from tlie deluge. The woman, woni 

fiivt shock, mode resi»iance with such dcs|jerato with watching and with the lonelincw of her situ- 

energy that they defeated the Allegwi,and swi>epiiig ation, fi.41 into a deep sleep of vai>t duration, broken 

them forward as the wind does the dry leaves of only by a dream in which slie was vt»itc<l byas|iirit 

the fiirest, they invaded the couutr}', an«l during from her lost home oliovo tlie skies, ond of that 

a long and bloody war won victory after victory, dream the fruits were soiw and daiighterv, from 

until they luid not only entirely vnnquishe<l, but whom hove sprung all tlie nations of the earth, 

well-nigh exterminated them. Their country, in In another legend the Great Spirit is n>presented 

which tlieir earth fortifications remained the only as descending ufion the face of tlie woters in tho 

reminder of the diK|ierMCil nation, was oceupiiHl by form of a coIommiI hini and brtMNling there until 

the victors. After this lioth the Mengii'e and tlie the earth arose, when, exercising its cniitivo imwer, 

Lena|ie ranginl eastward, tho former keeping t4i the Spirit brought into life t\w plaiilis the oiiiiiials 

the northwanl, and the latter to tho soiithword, and, hixtly, man, to whom wos given an arrow im- 

until they reached respectively the Hudson and biied with mystic fiotcncy — o blcwing and a safc- 

tbe Delaware, which tlicy called the Lcnajie Wihit- guard. Hut tho man, by his carelc:<siieM, lost tha 

tuck, or Itivcr of the I^na|)e.' U|M)n iu banks, arrow, and the Spirit, grieved ond oflentletl, soared 

* Bf mamf ikto ifwiiiiMi ti tu •migiMkM of iim Lraai uiw|m b away aiitl WOS uo loiigcr sctfU, and man ha«I there- 

^,Mr»s;.i "i-JT.'Si; ^ir:ji;j::r2ir »»«' <- <■<'""»■ «•» i"'»t i-y "•«»« of i.i. «*» md. 

■kMc til* Mu*uiM<*> o*«-(s«iii ami iMr tiii>utaik«. devi<'es Olid coiiiluit nature to gain his living. Htill 

•••.* # tt..icrrv»A*/^«-i^ iMih/uH«i«««n* «»"lher and very prevalent hetion of the Uiia|io 

tkm MHw «•> KU Ihlmm0, wT litrU ktmmf, ■(||iiir>lM« (*# mmim ifrMM b ih nxcrilM<S tO lIlO «h*llli-glMl MnMalMlxllO tllO Crcatiol) of 

i>^%«i«(iii.h.4i..hp»,M.rt*^Mi..ii.i*i M..hrrM.kM..i.. Tb- ihitrh «" the trilK-s of nnl men ln»ni the camii«vs of 

•In* %rf» III* sm «bn« i*ii4» *iiu mhmi Hf* iiw Uy kHii tWrr tmm^ vttrimis ttiiiiiinls, n*ptilcs and liinls, iis the lK*ar, tho 

Uiv lallrff Ih n4ilni.lMl»i'll«i« fhtiii lb* N(«t1b i« llwlauii MUvr XWf4r. • ., iji .• ... . .1 .■ 

«s.4itb khrr. •»4ib..y.i..r.iwd H .«(•«••• Nitt-r mkI i^riiH^ ii««: bcttvcr, the Wolf, the ser|M>iir, tlie turtle, the crnue, 

*M*««iiiMrif«Ri««r. Tb«s««k« rthtnd i« ic m lb* s»piMh* the coKle, ctc. MaualMizlio (ttlso Called Messou. 

•ri(««s««MM4sirMM). Tw KnciMi ■»«• tt lb* pMrnt rum In Michoboo oud >ttfittbush) WOS the oeutral hguro 

urunis* te Warn »b« «a« laM la ba*. pmm^ tha e«i«a la |ii thc Indian mvthology ; was tho restorer of the 

MiflL Tba imf baa alMbcva iviprctlvtly callad Kavpact, MeyaaaS ija.i.ii 1. 1.^ e.» •!• 

Otij^'% g«j. world after the deluge, brought on by tha wicked- 


of tiM MrpcBt Maoltout or eril tpiriU ; wm templei of Mexico and Ptn bear to thoie of Egrpt 

vegA'tlrd M working all of the mytterious changes and India. But Egypt, India, China and Tartarr 

io nature, and was nippcMcd to be Uie king of the have not been the only countries of the Eajrtern 

whole creation of beaat#. He was the son of the Hcminphero to which students of American antiq- 

wcst wind and a descendant of tlie numn He uittes have ascribed the origin of the red men. 

sometimes apficarod in the form of a wolf or a bird, Wales, Ireland, 8pnin, Scandinavia, Phamicta and 

anil often in that of a man of roajcHtic mien and other countricM of the £a.<«tom world have bvcn 

stature, but his usual maniffstation was in the fraintcfl to in turn an the rp<;i«ms in wliich the mys> 

shape of the Gigantic Hare. He had powvr over tcriuus movement of population finally itpreiding 

the magi ; was, in fact, a sorcerer, and united in over North America had its origin. Tlte mott 

himself the qualities belonging to Pnii>|iem, Ariel generally acce|)ted theory is that the Indian race 

and Puck, being sometimes actuated by n Hpirit of came originally from China. Humboldt tliought 

beneficence towards man, and again as an impish that in time, " by greater <liligence and pen*evcr^ 

elf d'lsplaying in ingenious ways insatiable malice anco, nuiny of the liii<t«>rical problems** concerning 

and malevolence. this theory might ** be cIcnriHl up by the dL«covery 

Tlie matter of the derivation of tlie Indian race of facts with which we have hitherto l)cen entirvly 

has been as variouidy, if not a:« wildly and fiincifully, unacfiiminteil ;" ' but Prof. \V. D. Whitney, one of 

speculated ufmn by scholnn* an by the red men the most utlvnnced studcntii of our time, is 1cm 

thenmelves. William Pcnn crnvcly, and with com- sanguine. He siiyM that it is " futile to attempt, 

placcnt aA*urance, ]iut forward the liy|M>thcHis that by the evi<leiice of langua;;e, the peopling of the 

tlie so-called aborigines of America were dcr«ccnd- continent from Asia or from any other portion of 

ants of the ten lost tril>cs of Israel, and men of the M-orld outside If our studies shall 

much more pretension of stiuly, and usually eon- at length put us in a posiition to deal with the 

fining themwlves to the few hard facts that are question of their Asiatic origin, we shall rejoice at 

known ctmeerning this jieople, have |)ennitte<l them- it I do not myself expect that valuable light 

selves pleasing, if pnifitless, dnilianee with various will ever be shed upon the subject by linguistic 

unsup|M>rted theitries of llH'ir origin. Ihincrofl evidence; others may be more sanguine, but all 

argues that a Culmuek or Mongolian immigration must, at any rate, agree that as things are, the 

was not lni|Mii«>ibl(! and, imleiil, not iniprobuble, subject is in no {Mifition to be taken up and dls- 

aud this hyiMitliesis has fouml many ndvtH'utes. cusmsl with profit." The author from whom we 

Hjianish legends have been addueetl to confirm this have ({uotetl, notwitlistanding his attitude upon 

view. M. de Ciuignex, in a memoir read lN*fbre the this question of Indian origin, is a warm advocate 

French Academy of Inscriptions, argtied with con- or greutor diligence in the study of American an- 

si<jcrable plausibility that the Chinese jienetrated tiquitiea. "Our national duty and honor,*' he 

America in a.i>. 4>i8, antl usiil the description and says, "are {tcculiarly concerned in this matter of 

chart of Fou Ktmg in proof, and Charles G. Le- the study of alK>riginal American languap:e8, as 

land, of Philadelphia, eminent as an ethnologist the most fertile and im|K)rtant brntieh of Ameri- 

and cx))li»rer of the hidden byways of history, has can archuwlogy. Europeans accuse us, with too 

Imvu fuscinate<l by the same half-myth and lent it much reason, of indifference and inefficiency with 

the approval of his imrtinl milence in liLs re- regard to preserving memorials of the race whom 

publication of the story of the Ho-culled island of wc have disi)oss(^<HHl and are dis|Mi!istv«ing, and to 

Fou Sang and its inhabitants. I>c Guigncs nM«erted promoting a thorough comprehen'^ion of their 

that the Chinese were familiar with the Stniits of history." ' 

Magellan and that the Coroaus hud a settlement <»n Reverting from what may seem a digrewitm, to 

Terra del Fuego. Another Chinese inimigratitin the nmtters of more inime<liute interest to the 

is assigned to a.Ik 1270, the time of the Tartar in- reader— to the Lenape or Delawares as the white 

vasionofthe" Central Flower}' Kingdom.*' China, man found them on the shores of the bay and 

Tartary, Siberia and KsniLwhatka, with the Aleu- river bearing their name — we find catise for regret 

tian archiitelugo, formed a natural route for immi- that the fint comers to these shores were not 

gration, though none of the students and speculators better oliser\'ers and more accurate chroniclera. 

who have );iven it consideratiiMi have succee<lc<l in Hud.-«m, Captain Cornells Hendrickson, Captain 

explaining how the honlcs of savages were able to tinnilison Mcy, He Vries, Cumpunius, Acn'lius, 

niaketheirwaytlirtMiKli the frorxMi wustt-s of Alaska William Pcnn, (iiibrici Thonitv. Thomas ihuld, 

and British North America. H<inio students, us Geor)^ Alsop (of Murylnnd). and othen* among 

Williamson, think the Indians of Cingalese or the early Dutch, Swe«lish and En^'lish udven- 

HindfX) origin, and that the Occidental world was turors and writers saw the Indians before they hail 

|)eopled from the Oriental world in pre-historic undergone any material change fnun Oiwociation 

timi-s is very gi'ucrully udHiillwl uiNin the strong .,, ^, , ^ , 

ground of the close rcsembuinoe which the ancient • - ungiMc* mmi ih« study or UMga»tmr by Pru. w. d. wucmj. 


wfeh tlie ciTiIiMd people. Mid before thej had the Minquae, of tKe lower part of the Delawmre- 

druok la with Holland ichnappa and Eioglish Maryland'Yifi^inia peninMila, appear to have been 

tpirita very much of that knowledge which bred at war with the Lenape, who were then chiefly 

iitfpicion in the eavago breast Had these pioneen confined to the eaetcm or New Jerwy side of the 

of the Delaware region been trained oheervera and Delaware Bay and KiTer, and tn the region along 

inrwtigaton, able to divett thenMelves of preju- that part of the wctt ihore now in Northern Dela- 

dicet and to have told what they learned intcl- ware and Southweiitem Pennsylvania. In 1638 

ligibly, they could have preserved many facts the Swedes came to the Delaware (as will be more 

concerning the Indians which now are lost forever, fully net forth in the next chapter), and founding 

Nearly all of theie early writen give speculations, the first permanent settlement within the re^rion 

and dreams, and opinions, often excMdingly ex- which u our ospccinl province at Christiana (Wil- 

travagant and riiliculous, instead of fact*. They niin^tm), and HubtfG«iuentlyestablii»liing themselves 

|iaid more attention to the Indian's ttitrology, and at other {toints, bofrnn an active and cxtenniva 

faliK*, and tnidilion, tlian to tho Intlinn's manner trade with tlio I^enaiie, Miiiquas and Nanticokcs, 

of livinir, his mK'ial system and IiIk language — the fur Aim. Tlicy Ixmglit tho land which they occu* 

UHint mxHwnry faci«)r in ethnological i«tudy. Kinio piod, and np|H*nr to have livc«l with the Indians 

of them mingled nimt outmgiiiiiHly false state- on very friondly terms. They were supplied with 

mentK, made evidently in tho utniont seriousness, prufcKKional inteqirctcrs, and systematically sought 

with the few tniths they chronicled. Of this the gooil-will of tho Indians for the |iurpoM of 

class, the baldest falsifier was Thomas Campanius, carr}'ing on an advantageous trade with tliem. 

of Stockholm, albeit a most interesting raconieuTt The Kwetlish govcmora seem to have understood 

and the preserver of some valuable facts as well how best to conciliate tho Indians and retain their 

as of many mora or lcf« interesting statements, confidence, and tliey soon supplanted tho Dutch in 

exhibiting high inventive genius, as, for instanoo, the esteem of the savages. They even exercised 

Campanius' stories of the rattlesnake which could a protecting power over the Delawarcs and the 

bite a man's leg off, and of the "sea spiders" Minquas, and when the Irociuois came down to 

(cralis) which had tails like edged swonls, with wage war against the latter, in 16<{2, they wero 

which they could saw down trees. The way in buttled by a regular fort, constructed by Swedish 

which Campanius allows his imagination to en- engineers, with bastions and momitcd cannon, 

large upim ami add to the marvels of the New With the Sweditth Governor Prints, there ciime 

World nuikcs him worthy of tho title Scuidina- to the Delaware, in 1648, John Camiwiiius* (to 

vian Munchausen of the Delaware. whom allusion has heretofore been made), rendered 

From the time of Hudson's voyage to the close prominent from lieing the first to translate Lutlicr'i 

<if the seventeenth century there is frequent co- catechism into the Indian lanpmge, from tho fact 

temporary mention of the Dela wares and their that he was for six years a pastor of tl>e Swedes, 

kinsmen, the Nanticokes (of whom we shall and laj«t, but not least, lH>ctuii>e of his keeping a 

pniicntly treat), and their m'ighlNirs the Mengwes, Journal from which liii« gntndson, TIuhuim Cam- 

.MiiMiuas or MingiNi*, known in .Maryland as the |mniuH, wroto his fnniouM " IXwription of iIh) New 

Su«i|uehnnnas, and lati*r in IVnuHylvania as the Provliu*o of New Hwnlon,"' illustnite<l with cuts 

Comvti»gas, ('a|italn i*ornelis llendriekmui who mid nuiisi made by the SwimIIsIi englm*er ]#ind- 

explun'«l |Nirt of the IMaware, in 16I.VIU,' mot strom, si*vend of which aro n*pnNluced in this 

an<l trndeil with the Mini|Uiui (pn>lmbly at the work. From Cam|NiniuB we glean somo interest* 

mouth of or U|M>n the Christiana), and redeemed ing infonuation concerning the In«liaiM taking 

fmni them three DuU*h )>risonere. His intercourse care to exclude much that is dearly erroneous, 

with theni was the la^ginning of the Delaware fur Ho Htatra that the Swedes in his time had no 

trade. In 162:i Captain Cornells JacHiImm Mey hiteretHinie except with "tho black and white 

na't them at the site of (iloucfHter, N.J., just Mengwes "^an expnvsion it Is difllcult to under- 

iN'hiw ttw place whert^ Penu's great city was to be nttind. The Mitupms, or SuM|uehaiuuis, had tlieir 

ftiundttl, unit where he built Fort NuM«iiu. ehlef |Nipulntioii U|M)n tho river lM*aritig their 

The flmt whlt(ii who fornuil a mltleimMit In tho name, and la the n*gion now Va*c\\ ('ounty, Mary- 

hme. Init hively wllderneM n>gion now Included hmd (where they wcro n*gularly visited by tho 

in the iHHiiiils of iK'laware— a little coUniy planted Swedish traders),' but they aro known also to havo 

by David Pietcrscn Do Vrics, on the Hoornekill, been quite numerous at times upon the Christiana 

near Lewes, in the year 1631— «(Nm afterwards fell and Drandywine, and thus in tho immediate 
victims to tho savages, though they wrought their 

own doom by initiatory acts of violence.* •Thto bm« h mmmOmm prtM»t j«b« (^mi«iiIh jmh um imi 

Wlicn De Vrtcs founded hu cokmy, and at the wur* i« m oeeun it !• .qiiiTid*!!! u» j«h« v^m^uAvs^ tum •> 

in l<a:J up tho Delaware, t^^Mm. 

* 'A co^ of iIm Miclml SvisIWi rJllhi* vi llita wmHi, imMMtwt iit 

MSt clw|i««r. SiMlilMlM In , !■ In tb« llU»ry uT iIm Dstevar* Htaiiitkal SocMy. 


intdligtnt coDJcrtun — (bouj^h thit ii 
DM Mirpritini; — in ttit vritin^ ofihe 
Swedkh chKiiUin. NolliwilluUDdiDg 
the liin lliat he dfeclaima inWrcoune 
eiccpt with Ibe KlinquM, be niniiy 
mtcn upon n ilcxcriiilHin or lh« lire, 
Biuinen und cuatonii of (he Lnin]>t, 
whom ha ocnifn nf bvinj; i-aiinibil*. 

Tbo KlIltiHia nf (Iw Indinni uf ilia 
IX'Umin tuwank ifae Mrl;r Hwviiiiih 
•dtlrn i* aliusn in an ircuunl uf a 
council which ihij held while l*riiili 
vol Governor, prolnbly almut 1S4<1, 
given in Canipaiiiiu' work and undiiulit- 
rdljr •ulhentic ia lu ownlinl ttBlcnipnla. 
The council ww called \>j llie Sndx^i 
Uatta Horn, who owned the gTound 
on which Wilmington Miinil*, and *old 
that upon whii'h Furl Chriilina wai 
built. At Iho tinw of the council niuat 
of the inhnlillanli ilani; the Itctinnre 
were Rwcdn, but Ilirn! ■tiv a few It'll- 
lanilcn in ifao country. Matin Horn 
ii npTncnlcd a* railing fint hii min, 
Afipt Horn, and aAcrwarUa u|iiin other 
chicla and warrior*, to aMcniin. the 
ofunioB of bio |iK>f4e a* to the adrinbilit]' of 
ailuwing (he white men la dwell pcacefullir in 
the counlrf, or full U|»n and diijiciw them. 
TIh diatoRne whldi cniun W thua rc j irtae n tod 
by Ctani|i«niu*i 



p.— Tm talk ««■, «• CMMM 

1W« «• *ai am Un all Um •««4i^ bM iwl IIWM oM vT llM < 
<«V«« wHik— X«v I9 M ■•»■& fW Ik* MadM KM gmd 
Mkl tlwjr »1H tlwfftljr iMw hw a tam* alilf fWII af all tutla of 

yw glf*! rfwMja.-lU«lH M. W«i Mrtiva Iwlkui^ win lava Um 
•««4ra.aa4tlw««««MalMUIWmu>iiaadArfoMlt. Wa. aad Iha llw«4»% 
aMlh«t*iiicli.«ballal«ay«liada«UhfackutlMr. Wa ahali Ml aMka 
war vpoa then aM 4ailMytkaaL Thia la tiail aa4 eaitala. Ttka 
can la akaarva It. > 

A Mchcm ruled over eaeh tribe, the office being 
hereditary upon the mother't tide. ** When a king 
or aachem died it was not,*' aayi Campaniua,** hia 
children who auciTcdcQ him, but hia brothera by 
the aame mother, or hia aiatcra or their dniightem* 
male chiklrrn, fur no fenialo could auccccd to the 
govcmment." It waa cuatoinnry, when any act of 
importance waa to Ite cntcreil U|»n, at the sale of 
land or making of war or peace, for the sachem 
to aummon a council consisting of the wise men 
and also of the common people. In making a 
treaty of peace or friendship, they were accustomed 
to give to those with whom they were making it a 
pipe to amoke, which act being performed, the 
treaty waa regarded as concludiHl and sacredly 
sealed. Their punishments usually connibted of 
fines. "A niimlfrer," snys Ciiin|NiiiiiiH, ** niiiy lie 
forgiven on giving a feast or something cIho of the 
aame kind ; but If a woman be kilttil, the iKMinltv is 
doubled, because a woman can bring furth chil- 
dren and a man cannot" Nearly all authorities 
seem to agree with the Swedish chronicler that 
murder was very uncommon among the Indians 
until **the white man came, when, under the influ- 
ence of intoiication from the liquor they sold them, 
aeveral were committed by the Indians. When 
they committed murder uuder th<ise eircumstaocea 
they excuscil thcnisvlvcs by saying it was the 
li<luor that did it'* 

.Another writer ' gives some interesting facta 
concerning the rvlation of drunkeniicM and crime 
among the Indians, prefacing his local facts with 
tlic remark that intoxicatitm was to them (the 
Indians) a new sensation ; they did not come to it 
by slow and imperceptible degrees, . . . but 
plunged at once into the vortex and madness was 
the cimsequemx.'* In the year 166M some In<lians 
in a state of intoxtiiition attacked and munlered 
the servants of one of the settlers iH>ar where Diirl* 
ingtiin, X. J., now stands on the IK'tiiwarc. **Tho 
liiilians when solwr ap|x*ar to have been ever anx- 
ious to live on terms offriendship with the whites. 
Accortlingly, we find that in this instance, as they 
had previously done in many others, they deter- 
mined to bring the oflcndera to justice. Having as- 
certained who the murderers were, they arrested the 
chief of them, a man by the name of Tashiowycan, 
shut and brought his liudy to Wicacoa, ' from whence 
it waa taken to New Castle and there hung in 

M^Mn|«B(as |i|i. lAVlM. 

■ WillMM llNflln«l.ti'a iMawam ll«vlMi>r. V»il. I. ft. VM. 

• Wh«i«i CW S«mII«Ii artllamaiil «« lliaaMa «f I'lillaiMHila. 

ehaina." It Is a notabU fkot that aftor thia ovent 
the Indiana themselvca requeated that an abaoluta 
prohibition of the sale of liquor to the Indiana 
should be ordered along the entira length of the 
Delaware. Qovemor Lovelace in 1671 actually 
prohibited, upon pain of death, the selling of spirits 
and powder and lead to the Indiana, but the law 
was inoperative, for we find that those very articles 
were the principal considerations in land purchasea 
from the Indians almost immediately after the 
proclamation, and continued to he for a century. 
Resuming our extracts from Campanius* work, 
though this time it is the engineer and map-maker 
Limlstrom who is quoted by the former, wo find a 
description of ono of the Indians' groat hunts.— 

*'A«aiMMiaathawlat«>rlt orar Ihajr eomaiaaea thair haatlag np»' 
Sltlona, wklrli thi>f tlu In Ilia minI InxaakMH inanaar. Tliay chuua* tka 
tlma witau ih* grmm la lil«li, anUtlry aa bajr. Tlia Stchviii culUcta Ika 
pMfila loKnlhvr, and |il4««a ihvai la a cireaaibraar* vt wn« or Iwv 
aillM, acronlhiii to tlirlr naail«n ; tliaj thra nMl anl all tha gnm 
■nMiml that rlrvaiuhranca, lu ilw ImNullh ut «liu«l f^Mir yanks a>» thai 
tha flra caaaut ran Urk a|MQ Ihani : «h«>n that la dun*, thajr avt tha 
gnmon flrt, which itf roavw axlvaila all iunimI, aalll II nashaa Iha 
cvnlr*urtlMrlrvainr«rrBc*. Tlwj Oivaa»lu|i (tval aalcriw^ ami Iba 
•nlMMbi fljr iwaapl Ih* r«>ntr*, and wbrn Ihrjr am cnlli<1ad wllhlaa 
■imII rinia, lh« IihIUw aliuul at th*m wllh Raua and hww% rimI kill aa 
aianjr aa thry yirmm', by «hk-h Mi»<NNa Ihry grt |ih>uty wT v^ntaoa. 
WhMi Itia Riwa haa nmm-*\ lu Rittw, llwy (•• «hiI ImIw lh» wiMlaaad ahwrt 
th« aiilaiaU ahkh lli«iy SimI Ikrrv, lu ablrh lh»y hava iml aiarh trun* 
Mr, r«ir thrlr *'iiaa uf aiiiolllnff la au iwutm llial llwy ran aM<>ll thoai Ilka 
htiiiwla Ttifir Mmlii^i rnuara a Iwrkoj In b* huiif np In Iha air, af 
whii-h tha liuwwia MuK Ukan «Ml and tha livlljr Sllwl wllh nwaajr, ha 
who alMwlB tha blid dwwn gwto tha nniiajr IIhU la wllklH IL"* 

The wea|)uns of the Indians were stone hatchets, 
the bow and arrow and the warnslub, and these 
primitive articles served them in the chase and in 
their battles with each other until they obtained 

guns and fiowder and 
lend, knives and iron tom- 
ahawks, the Delawarea, 
Buw|uehniiiias, Nnntieokes 
and some other tribes fnmi 
the Dutch and Swedes 
antl Knglish, and the Iro- 
<luois of New York from 
the French. Their bows 
were made usually of the 
limbs of trees about six 
feet in length, and then 
strings were made of the 
sinews and skins and in- 
tCMtincs of animals. Their 
arrows were reeds frum 
a yard to a yard and a half long. Tliey were 
winged with feathers, and in the end was fixed a 
hard piece of wood, in which was set a flint, a piece 
of bone or horn or someiimes the sharp tooth of an 
animal or large fish,which was securely fastened in 
with tough ligaments and fish glue. When they 
went to war each brave provided himself with a 
bow, a quiver full of arrows and a elub, and they 
painted themselves and plaeinl u|Mm their henils red 
feathers M the iiixiguin of liltMMl. Tliey fiirlifiiil 

• tVMHIHlUaa* •• Naw Swadan," p. ISA, 

noa:iBi.x!cnR axi. 


■MM of Ihetr bmun or groap* of hub agniiut the na panned, bciDf brat tovudi «cli Mhn anlil 
•uddm atUcki of tlicir CBflinlca. Ciim|iiin1iii Hiyi tlipy iulcncctcd. When I hi palbmlfii mml, > 
tba tlinqiuu li«d "> furtOQ * liigh inouDUirn iboul gnlltrr uf limber «ai ihrairn up fur tlie ikrcnJcn 
tvalra mltn fVom Kew Sweden" ' (Fort Chrhtlna. to >und upon. lu toniD am the palimln were 
on thaCliriatiuuKiTcr,at tbotlUof Wilminglon), placed perpend inilBrtj in rude pod-hulei, and Ibe 
earth fri'in ihe dileh dimurn up ai^itiM then. 
Kune of (hc*e foru wees reguUrlv buill ur gaite the 
appcaniice of any ei>i>*idenil>lc Mrea):th, except 
where Ihe Indian had tbe anutance of Kunqieao 

Thtir lial|^, areordinc tn Canipaniiu, the]rcon- 
■truclrd in tlii* way: "Tlier Hx a |»ie in iIk 
gruuiiJ and spread (linr mala aniund il, whicli 
on niadoofllio tcavea of (bo Indian rum rnallnl 
Itigellier; then ihey cover it above «itb a kind of 
ruuf made of bark, leaving a hole at the top fur 

p«aibly meaning at Iron or CheMnnI IIill>, near 
Kewark. lie Mji " tbcj aurrounded tbcir huuKa 
with round or aquara paliudra made of loga or 
plankiiwhich they fatten in the ground." Parktuan' 

•niokc to pau through; they fix hook* in Ihe pule 
on wliich tlipybaiig Ilteir kclllvn; underneath they 
|Hit a larjte uluiie to guanl thetiwlfn from llw 
Hru, anil nrrmnd il ilK-y ipriwl iiuiia ami 
aklni on wliieii llicy thv\i. Kur l>iil«, labk'* and 
chnim lliey iwu nothing eUu j tlw eanh wrvin them 
for all llirae imriwen. They have «vi-ral ilimra to 
, , . . '^'■''' bouscii, Keticrally one un the north and one 

nwn (tally dewrnb*. iho mode of erecling then ^ ,|,( ^th ,i^ When 11 blow* hard, ihey Mop 
defimtt. FiiM.a dilch oa. dug around Ihe vil- „pone of ihem with bark, and hanga niatotakin 
Uge,theearthheirglhn>»nuponthe.wtdo. The before ihe other." Tlio Uelawaiee. inlinaleaour 
treea of wlilch tho pott, of ihe paliMdei were ft„„|i,|, ob^Tver, ha.1 few Inwn. or (i.e.) plaeea 
of linbiintion KlHNiKh, aa a ninlter of fail, they 
dill haw Hinip iHTnianHit ablilii>|t'ii1n<iiil, aiHl he 
eoiitiiiUHi "Tlivy niiwlly wniidcr alxiul IWiiii nnc 
plnce lo Biiollnr, anil giiivralty go lo ihiaw plana 
whero tlicy think lliey are nii.l likely to find ibe 
nieani of aup|iott. . . . When they travel they 
carry their nieiiti with them wlierever thev pi and 
made were bumcd down and the Ininka anil Ur|,vr Ex them on |iat<«, under which they dwell' When 
brancha partly cut through by fire, the lork being f\,fy khuI fire, ihev atrike il out of a iHvee of drv 
flnithed by hacking Ihem with mch rudv tool) ai ,u^k1, of which ihi^ find jilenty; ami iu that man- 
the Indian* poa««d The t.iE« were Ihcn jilaccd „„ ti^.y ,„ ne\-vr'nl a huM Sir fire lo worm Ihem- 
upright in the enibuiiknient, ii> one or iicTcrHl con- t^,\y„ ,„ (,, ,,^,1, f\^, nml." 
centrie row*, Ih.w of each row, if Iho latler plan ll,u hul« i-flhe I^natwand olh.r Jii.Iiaii>-»rtlK 
re^ii. n wlii.-h we nru eon-hhriug ■'■iild ih4 hair 
t»^2rti^lwfcMS'nl»"M»>iii«w-T».J™«iti*Ai~»k»," bn'i viry iiiiiirorluIJa In winter. The Huuke fr-ini 



their iint had no outlet nve Irregularly through a 
hole ia the roiif, and the interion were itaincd and 
dingr, and the half-eUfling air lo filled with pun- 
gent and acrid odon as to cauee much inflamma- 
tion of the eye* and blindnetB in old age. The 
fleat and other vermin were numerous and pestifer- 
<ius) and noiie and conAision reigned luprcmo in 
the chwly-hutldled fsmily circle. Park man drawi 
a vivid picturQ of a UNlgo on a winter night, nltc^ 
nntcly in gk»w and gluoiti fKun the llickcriiig flnuio 
of nmiinoua woihIs that M'tit fitAil fltiidiea through 
the dingy canopy of smoke, a brouxvd group en- 
circling the fire, cooking, eating, gambling, quarrel* 
ing or amusing thcmselveB with idle chnflT; griuly 
old warriors, scarred with the marks of repeated 
battles; shriveled squaa-s, hideous with tuil and 
hardship endured for half a century ; youug war- 
riors with a record to make, vain, boastful, ob- 
stivpcrous; giddy girls, gay with paint, ochre, 
wampum and braid ; '* milcss children |)cll-mell 
with restless dogs.** 

Of foods the Indians ha«1, besides their game 
and fish, fresh and dried, melons, squashes and 
pumpkins, beans, peas and berries, of which they 
dried many for winter use, and several roots and 
plants of which they ate largely, and they all 
raised oom, the Indians along the Lower Dela- 
ware, and in Maryland, Pennsylvania and Vir- 
ginia especially, paying considerable attention to its 
cultivation. They ground it in the hollow plnti's 
of rocks either naturally or artificially formed, 
mixed the coanc cracked kernels with flour, and 
liaked tlie pm^to in cakes u|M)n the niilies. While 
enpigeil in the ehnms or traveling along dintaumM 
they carrieil |iouelies Aill of |mreluHl corn for their 
sustenance. They had, too, the luchthor (the;>r/f(/*- 
yuunutf of the IMawnres and the tnuqonuk of the 
Minquas), called by the whites the ** Indian loaf," 
a curious root supposed by some to be a sort of 
tnifllc. It was of the form of a flattened sphere, 
and varied in siie from an acorn to the bigness of 
a man's head. It was roasted in the ashes, as was 
also the Indian turnip, which, thus deprived of its 
pungency, made a wholesome food 

The Indians of Campanius* time had well-nigh 
given up tlie manufacture of pottery, for the cook- 
ing utensiU they secured from the Europeans served 
their purpose better. They were perfect strangers 
to the use of iron, and their own tools were rude 
and poor, strictly speaking, being those of the 
stone age. Charles ThomfisGn, who had an inti- 
mate knowledge of the Indians, but who, unfor- 
tunately, wrote but little about them, says in an 
essay: * ** They were perfect strangers to the use of 
iron. The instruments with which they dug up 
the grtkund were of woikI, or a stone foiitened to a 
handle of wood. Their hatchets for cutting were 

of stone, sharpened to an edge by rubbing, and 
fhstcned to a wooden handle Their arrows were 
pointed with flint or bones. What clothing they 
wore was of the skins of animab taken in hunting, 
and their ornaments were principally of feathers.*' 


Their skill ia some kinds of domestie industry is 
attested by Gampanius, who says: 

"Thcf ma Imi mi4 ywyw th* ikim cT i 
•aww«nltiaUM(rowawajr. Tlwj mmIm Maeh m» ol palaud AntlMn, 
Willi wblrh thvjr utunt iWlr AIm luri l«Ml-«i»v*n, Uwlliw tbMi wNh 
uklmd at uH-wvtk, whk-h !• vary Iw aJmi w mmi fiwtoM iIm CnlliPra 
wrll. With lli«M ilM>jr imIm tllht bimI wanw cw*rriii« mhI «'l«aiia|| fur 
tb^MwWw: with III* Imvw uT IiiiIUiii^wb mnI t»nU ilMjr MMka pmn*9 
MMta »n<l liMlivte. . , , Th#j nmk* vvry iMiitliunM •h4 MMac, 
MyiU uT fliMi hmUi, whlHi tli»jr |«tMl villi all hliHh vt Srhim: IWj 
\»*mtt thAf •ail* with th«wi aailn awl amh* ran>lh>nt Iwl aMb« «lr 
Ihrai. Tba ««mimhi w^n thmwl bimI yarn mil ut wallUa. hMH^ a«4 aiWM 
iriaata HiiliM«iwa la iia. Otiwniur Ihlntii ha4 a e»w|ilwla mil nt rlwlh*^ 
wllh mat, bivwltvaaail Ml, aiatlit by ilivw baHmriaaa with lh«(r waai. 
IMin, whk<b «a« curliMMljr wmuKki with ScurM uT all kliata vT aalaMla. 
. . . Th«i}r aMki> l«ihan-w |ii|M miI %iI iv««h, alaiM • maw'* Wnclh ; tha 
Wwl hi amtlv uThuni. aii4 u» «iinu(a a xri'ai qaantlljr of lolMV«a. Thajr 
fanaralljr |ir«arnt iIhjm |iitm to Ihrir ruibI frlvwU ttfamnk*. , . . Thaf 
bibImi tkrai wtbrrMrUa uf rvri. jrvlhtw aa<l blua rUjr. uT wbk-b thata la a 
Rival •inautltjr la lh» cnuBlry ; atau tif whtli*. urajr, cn«n, bivwa. Mack 
aatl blue ■tuiiM, «hlrh an m mA that Ih^jr raa b* rut with a half*. . . . 
TlM>ir bwat* an BMiiht wT tha l«rk vt cvtbr bimI Uivb Umb, bunnS to* 
fHhrr aad lariMHl rmrj mtvngiy. Thr j rarrf tbrni ahMf wharavar Ibaj 
go, and wh«n ibfjr cwbm Im mbhi rrvah that th^y waal ti> |«t ovbt thay 
lauBrh tbnii ami «o whilhvr tbrjr pbww. Thmy alw immI lo aiak* 
bualt out *4 cvtiar irvM, wbb-h Ibvy iMiriil lasiila and Mrapfd aS Iha 
cimU «ilh atiarii atwav^ Umra, or ihwk-I* afcrlh.'* 


ladbM Afl«ln ** (a (knffnaM). |MiUbh«d la Ti 
«aala UlMtorkal Soclalj. 


The dre^s and adornment of the Indian, accord- 
ing to the always trustworthy Thompson, oxhibitcd 
many peculiarities: 

** nay all paiaiaS or «k«br4 Ihalr he* wltk rad. Tk* 
aaly a taft «f hair Iw grow oa tha eiwaof Ikair baai t Ika 



H«^iM It <NM bf iIm i««k ■> tiMA <My ■!«■)« aiiwMiwI m If tlwy 
««#• ImM mi4 IwanlhMik Many ««f« In IIm |«Hlk» wf mbHiIiiii lliair 
Ih«^ araw sikI i««M( I9 piM^M th* Ala with UwrtH m»A ralMac 
llM iMrto wllk a Ba* pH«i|rr aavla vT mai <clMir«ial), wkldi, ivtwfnliac 
IIm imbtImim^ U4i aa lailrltM* «laia ur BMTt, wUrii iMaalHMl a* Umg 
aa IIm/ II««4. TIm |<aiMr|aiM v«fw aiwW la Bicanw aen««llMR fc> th»lr 
««»«al f aariwi. TIm «Ml}r |«irl wf lit* imatf whk-li tlwy cwvmU «■• frwai 
IIm waU lialf-«ajr •luwa llw lbi|ttM\ aM4 llwlr fW« ll*i>y xaartM aUk a 
klial mT •!•« MMila «< kklM iif iMlTalMM «r ibwitAla, Ui<«<l Uiilil w»«r 
tlw liMtr|( aa4 M|i l*i Ik* aahkw »lik Ikuaga. || mm awl Mill •■wMiNMra 
Im im a nwiiwm (•rwtfc'w aiNMiiR lli«> nmm !•• alll llM*lr iiMr^ |<«iiiInii anaia* 
IklMK IhIm Oh* lt«4» Iw |Hv«rHl Ma i'k«lii|C, HHil llivM l>)r iMiiiiiMN afiiiklfl 
|m llw litaiT |«rt lu Miwtt'k II hhI, m lltal U Immm iIumh Ikw iii«i>k 

Wiiiii|»iiiii mill Hiir mut iii*iii«u iK^ltmirv lU^'rilwil 
liy iliii MAiiiu wrilAjr : 


roUmiKIl KLfMIKR. 

nT awavy iWjr immI a klM4 mT knala aaHb «# nmtk tktU 
•alki-|«i«4 la a racluiM aMMaar. Tkaw IwaJa «••« aaalr, mmmw mC 
Ik* akilr, wai* tfT Ika Uwk wr ralund fmiU oT llM AAI. Tk**/ wvta 
IimvimI iaiw r)rlla4>nial«NK wHa^wafWr mC aa lack k<aK and a ^aaftev 
•if aa lack la iltaaMttwr. Hu-jt wrn* r>HiiMl and bigkly |Mjlii4i«iil aail |tri^ 
AmilMi fciNiilkarU* a Ilk a mwiII kwla, kjr wkiek IIk^ rtnins tkvm Iw 
fl»(k*raaii •««• lkMalalMlir||i^auaM>tir«klffc,bjra|«u|«^armHKt«iwMl 
uf Ik* Iwal* of 4li«*n*nl ti*ki«ts arm iKwiyd llli« «ii|wfiii|| a Ilk 
«UK4«fH ll«anMS atwiOiuii Im IIm varkiaa nan* fur wkirk tkrjr mmtrn 4*> 
■laawi, TImw *«c« a(#k> nan wf la lh«lr inwllaa awl lalmMuna a Ilk 
wM-k wlkar, aial mr%v4 !•• aiaJul itwlr tmtH>*y aail |««<a«rt«> lh«> tfummh 
limaav Mf lniM«i-lbNM. Wbra tllllrrt'irt lrt>M<a ntt aalbUM hmmU {wmv >w 
allbiHiv with MH-k Mlk«>r Ibfj fU-lMNMnl Mia uf itar mtx ; «kvn lk«>f 
vmHImI iwk iilkrr iMaar llwjr a«M| ■H<illM<r mtn. Ilrnt-v lliry aaiw 
dUlniaUka*! by |In> aaaia «if jawiv Mia iir war Iwlla. KiiTjr aaxaaga 
■•al fhMH Mail Iribw U» amilkor «aa aa^^aniaiab^ »llk a alHiiK uf I !•«••« 
Iiaaila tw a l«4l, aad llw alrinK ur Iwll aaa aniallrr »« K>*nb<r aivunlinn 
Im Ika aalKlit and lai|*i«1aaiv of thv «alj<^-t, Tk«w braila wan* Uifir 
rb*b«^ TItrjr wara *«ira aa bracwbHa mm Iba arwa and UIm rliaiaa 
iwaail Ika nurk by way wf Mrnaaivala.'* 

Willittiii l*vnu*ii (ilNicrvatioiu aud opiiiioM of tho 
Iiidittnn aru iutvrc«tiug nml well wuith rcprudiic- 
tioii ill tlioau imj^ni, for he uot only fint saw tho 
nalivvM of the New Worhl ou tho vhoriM uf the 
IX'hiwnro (at New CtiKtlc), hut thoHC whom ho 
aftcrwanln hail o|iiM>rtiiiiity of minutely stutlyni;;at 
l'liiltt(lel|ihiu wero of tho itamo |iot>ple, and duuht- 
kw, in many ihmh, tho name individuals who lived 
in tho re{;toii which now coiwtitutca the northern 
imrt of thin State. In a letter to Henry Scwell, 
dateil IMiiladelphi^ 30th of Fifth Month. ltiH3, 
ho thiM ehruoicliii hin imprcwioiis : 

"TIm nallTM an> imifvr anil alta|vljr, vary awlft, Ikrir teacuaicp hilly. 
TImj a|ir«k Hub*, bai frrwNlty aiwl wllk alejpiary. I Imvv ii»T*r mmm 
mmtn naluiall a*«a< ily, nmabbiriiiK lb»ai wtllHMit y Iwlp—I waa Rulii|| 
Iw aay y* afaiyl*— ttf iraiUiiua. TIm wtml la Ibal llwy am y* «i>n Air y* 
<1irb<lana«hMh«Tii^ru|M|CaU«l llivir t l«»a awl yb^bM tbvni InwIMbm 
fur y* w<wB A mmI fur y* Itcllar Iblaica, Ihay lirllvva a l>My aii>l lmmwr< 
tallly aiilKMii y* li«4|i uf nMl«|4iyalrka A mmw nf iIimn atlnilraiily aulwr, 
ikiMiKk y« iMifrb A naiwl «H<I Kiicllali have liy llmiwly ai^l Unai ahmMl 
IMaiurbl y* all, anil «lii>a Urniik ya hmmI »ri<irlwHl lif •(■<fl«rb«, wnaa 
iMuaiMH A atiMtiiniaa n««nk»rlu|| vna aMu(bvr,al nbkb llniaa y* 1 'bri*> 

Um bawd U4b vlymmdf U«, Ibay 

Mf t«u latflai Mrrltrva w* Ibvy hApt Mf Ikvlr in* fraHa vMb Mu«alb«a 
fi^vawy and labuar «f bMly anmllacaa If w a Ulk, lb>««brr blb-lr 
(>iBlbwa.aa Ibay f«a Ihrw, w* U ptti„rtmmt I7 Mmi ltanr««,aiM». 
UntM »Mttbt, tbm ninvs *>«• akunK l«*i *^»t la ya aibMla y* h*«ln 
and dlrarl y« r bwwia ; Ihb Ibry |»rfi«nM nllb n|n»l kfivnry »«| sraal 
aH»aianci< uf Juy. In Ibia t ailialrw lbr««. nMbaly aliall naat a* an- 
«rfbrT baa, >HI lb»y !««• ptki|irtH* (|4^a^y) ImI tnrty nNaaiaabafcK 
Ibay aaiilor rara Cur llllks a» IblliMf K«ibaa«» awr IblhU I^N*«. 
nil llwatvry awlUnar K\<iN«|M«r Aiil. ba*« lb*y !•• {■•r|4*« liMw4%*M 
•lib, llwy aia a>«M artlUla*!, and Uwlr idaMnr* tn-kt lliMn, I »an 
bNnlinc ami lUklnK,"! 

A mufh l\ilh*r ih«iH*rl|itloM of thv tvt\ meti of thv 
IMawan^wiw^iven hy IVnn in a MlvriotiK* Kr«<v 
HiN'icty of Tradem, writti*n In Aufnint. UUm\, *Y\w 
uativw, lio mtyM, are geiHrrally tall and straij^ht, 

** wHI liwllt, and wf alntfwUr |N«i|airlkHt \L r., •< ayatnirtry | ; Ibry tn«4 
alrutif ami fUviT, ami naMily walk nllb a biOy ibln. tit rMm|>W%»in 
Mmb, bwl iby dmiicn, aa llw Kl|«d>« in Catflaiid. 1V>y kwm ■ Ibi^n 
M-lvw a lib Imr'a fal «UnlW«l, and aalac nu d^fc-naa a^miMj Min and 
arallMf, ibvir aklna mwM an-d* ba ■aarthy. Tbrir ry« !■ Il«kl and 
Idat-k, md uMliki* a ■iraiKlil-kawfcad J»«. TW llikk li|a and Ami aiav, 
m» fr*i|ii*Mt a lib th* luwt linlUaa ami Idai-k^ mm md w>ma» n a ••• tb* w ; 
fur 1 ba«« aM^ aa i-wnialy KMrw|vaM-lib« ttt-*^ mtmfg lb>w, *4 UMt m>-%. 
ra, na un yuur Mda Ilia •■«: ami Irnly an llalUa v»n*|4«-Bb«a balb md 
naov uf Iba «rhll«>i aad lb» mavawf Mtrral td ibvm ba*» a* anab wf 
Ibw Human. Their laHituaco ta l»ny, ,«••! narrua ; b«l, llkv tb** lb-l«««, 
la alKMllbdllun fall. IJkr ■bwrl-liami In wiiiiimc, mm a>if«l MOrtb In 
lb«> |>Um-« id Ibiw, awl IIm ival arii aM|iill*«l by Ihr amlar4«mbHc (dlba 
liTMrvf ; Imivrfivt la tlM«ir iriM*a, naHltii« In llMrlr nM«aK |«wla l|dM^ 
ml«nl«, rtmjwiwllwna and tnlrrjrt.iluiw. 1 Im»« maiia ll my twiaiM Im 
amWfalamI ll, Ihat I mlifbl md aant aa Inlvritai'r mm any wi-mpm* ; 
and I aiMBi my tlial I knaar nul a bnKuaira a|Mkr« In Kani|M< tlial liaih 
•unb «d HM** aaarlnvMa ur Rnaim^iB^ la aiiMM and ani|Aa«M^ Uwn 
tbrin; fur ItNlam-r, Octurkrkwn. HancMn*. lirfalua, Hbak. Narma, IS^ 
HMnaian, all abbrh ai« aainra id |<larnt| and ba«r icramWar la Ibvaa. *W 
awnb •daarria'a*, aMw* la ati4lM-r ; nnMiMa, a LcuIImy ; ■•*>«|i, frnmd; 
MufMi vni, vvry itMal : fM«r. Iirvml ; hWm. aal : art|r«, nw ; knitt, t» ba%M: 
fmy, tw iMma ; i<r|«iHaM, t ^ i a i| J «m. Iba w ani w i af iilanw ; Taniaar, Mwivaa, 
M»uaiaa<, Sialamia, ara llm uainrB wf in-nuna. . . . 

•■•If Ibrlr «'MMwinaaml awuiivra llit*r« la mmh Iw hm tmUL I mil b» 
iHm «llh iblMn-n. Hw wwii aa lliry atv burn llm-y aaab tbwM la aalrr, 
and aklla icry >uun4aml in r«ild aritflicr |ucl»,a«ia, ib»y |>luitKM ibrai 
In lb« rl«vra In lmr>l*n ami rniUil'Inii iIivm. IU«ing aia|4 ihrM la a 
i-1«iwli lltry lay lk<<m •« a alnilt lltta Uatid a lllll* mut» iImm tbr Uitcfb 
ami litnaiMb id ibf tklM, ami •a«<l>tl« li f4»i M|«in Iba l-<Mfl i.t n«Mkr N 
Mial|(lil| «li»twfiili> all Imllaha liata> Mat lM-*«|a. ami Hum tliiiy iMity 
IbrMi al llii'lr !«• ka. Ttia 1 hlMiwii aiil K» |«Mlk|«>i.» .ii^ii«, al Ma* 
Haitiliia«'«MMniiiul)r. Ttmy ar«r unit a aiiMill i'lii«il aiii«iN>l lli»-it aaM til 
lliay am Mit. if lai>a, llir> ipi a A»liluir llll rt|a- h< lb» aiMk, akbb 
la aUiMl nnii'a, Titwn* lliry biiiil ; ami bavlhn |l«ra mfm- ft%n<t» id 
lliMir aiaiibiiiid by a ■•■■I (Hiiin «d aklms Ibry n«irr> ; riM ll b n alMaaa 
bi Iblnb wf a wIIp. Thr fflrla alay a Ilk lliHr nailbi-i^ ami hwlp Iw bi* 
llir terwiiml. |4ittit mrn ami carry liartlmiM ; ami lliry 4ii aril iw w« 
tlw«i bt tiMd. a bib ywanii. akkk Ihry Mual dii nbm Ibry aiw td>l ; bir 
tb« alvw* arw IIm tma aarTaaia wf Iba bwriaimb ; ulbrmb* tb« mm at* 
«rry afli«-OMiMilr Iw llirm. Wbaa llm ywnnc wuamn arr III fur aMrrUga 
Ihry arar aaarlhliiK apmi Ibclr ImwiW fwr an aalvrnWairai, biil ** Ma 
tWIr fMi^vM ar* barlty tu br aarn ImI nbrn Ibry plawi . Tbr m^- ibry 
marry at. If awnirn, la abiml tblr1«prn ami bwrlriM ; If an-a, ■r«pab<«-n 
mtfi riKlitwn. T1i«iy arv randy ••l*br. Tlirlr li<4i>Ma ar« niala «ir t«rka 
wf ln«ra, n't un pulra la llir fwdibin id an KiiKli>h l«m, bat umi wf tbr 
|wa«r id tha «ln>bi, ftir Ihry an* Itardly liiKlMr ibaa a man. Tbvy Im 
wn roMila wr itnma. In iruvrl ihry k>lica In iba mula mImuI a Krv«l Ki«, 
wilb Ihr iiHiiitIa id diillila tbry ami by ihgr «fa|il abual Ittrni ami a 
law iaHi|ih» alMk n<UN.I titrta. Tbrlr •Ik't la aialjrwr ImlMnrKmdifria 
aaya |«v|iMrvxl, MOMllaKa n«M«d In lb* mh»% awnMlim** lw«ira aad 
bullad with aatrr, wlibh dwy rail &««iiar. Tbry alai awkr cakm i|.i| 
MMilmmnt IwaaL Tliry bava Hkaaba artrral aurti«d latia* and |w^ 
that af«« Rwial mittrlabaM>iit, ami ibr «t«rli aad rlvria arw tbHr brdrr 
if an Kwni|r«H vwniM Iwma tbmi, wr ralla fwr balciBif at Om ir bwara «r 
allfwam, Ihry yl«« blia lb* laal |4ara ami flnil rwc If tlMry cwatr |« 
\lal« ua Ihry mlala aa arllh aa flaA .' which b aa marh aa t» my. * iMud 
U> lu ywa I ' ami art tbam ikiva, whkh la aiwally •« iIm irr»ai.>l, rb«a to 
Ihrlr hrria, llirlr lr|pi U|>riKbl ; It amy br thay ai^vk n>A a wi*r>l, l«i wU 
MPTTwall |aM«itcv"lail llwl f a»i-a|. If ywa |fl«M Ihi-n anyihiu^ t>i rai 
wr drlak, aril. r<ir lliay will mil ark ; ami, br ll liiih> •« mwi b. If It !• 
with klmlnn^ thry ara aril jdraM^I ; rba llo-y cw away M«lb-n, bnl mf 
nublng. Tliay arv irrMil (H>nrMalrt« uf thrtr wan frs-ntniMnli^ lm« 
lu It, I U'liatr, by Ihr |wv«ntfr iImU ImMi la*>H |<rai ilmi an»>atf tbnn. 
In rilbrr uf Ihrar Ihry arr n«t r\irr>b-«| hy Ihr llaliaiM. . . . |hin»a af 
Iba ytianK wwiurn ar** h»M b* taka nmbm lilirtly U>f>ir* marrla^r %f a 
pMttwii ; l*Ht wliru marrlnl, • haalr. . , . 

I rannaylrania Arrklrtw, Val. 1. p|*. M, «i. 



I • tM iMi MMl. m fllkiv f M^, H aiiWM II 
> II Mtek* : liKM iiThMft, MIWMC alMllw 

H*«^ fcaal Mri AiM« i^nw I wHy ; tlwy 
«Mllh HiraUMh Ilk* III* Um^; 
riMll »»al vhal ■ayHwf halh, jrvl 
) mT |«»if«t«j. Mmm» klMi lwv« wM, «IW«» p > — l id MM 
villi «>«ml |Mffrrk Mf IbimI ; Ifc* J^ttf ar inwkM* I liwdw «Im«i »«fv UmI 
lta««»M 1*7 lh» |i«nk «iUr M«iHPf« ; bm IIm> wH«hlii«<iMI ktiif* awl «Mr 
I Imm |« — I «Imni III* buhA* Wpiv l«MHlllt Mil, lh« |aU1lM rhMy 
•ImI BiiA to vImmh llwy sImiiM glw iImm. Tb 
vtvrj kl«c iliMi. Vf ll*i> hiiwU uf • f n wm ft* iImI WMrk •{•t*'*"*"^ ** * 
pni|w<1bMi «*••!, »• luflnl and MiInI, bmI vllh IImI Kmviljr llwl hi ad* 
MlnU*. Tlwa iImI ktMii MiMivMHk M la Ilk* aiaaaar aaMMiff kb da> 
Ilk . . . Tkrjr can fwr Htthf, k n -aa— tl*i>.v waal kul lUtla ; aad 
K ■ HMl» ftial w i a tkvab la Ikfa ilwy ara aHnrlMrttjr r«- 
«• ■■ ; If Ihvjr ai* IffwutaM vT twr idaawrM, ikvj ara ataw fraa 
I oar r«lMft . . . ttarw Ik* Kamivaaa caaw latw Ik*** |«rto Ikvy ara 
ffiMva fiMl lM««Ma af urMic ll*|iMn, ma aipai iaily. aad fur ll tkry •«• 
cka«f» ik«^tr«M«i oT lk»lr aklaa aad ram. If lk»y ara kwrtcd witk 

till Ibrjr kara MMagk to rinm— Ikat b Uictr 
wy , 9 — m MMM ««4 r vdl ^ l» darpi toK wkvB drask mm iir Iha i 
I to Um wvrM ! 




«K taiiwilaM to ka tM«i; aad fcr ll fif* MtfiMN 
llMlr-rMHiM. to «lMto Ihay ato —i Mw il y MlwU. 
dilak al thaw iImm a ttaaa, ar dacwclkMi uT awtoa naito la i|««Bf 
aad IT llMjr aal aay (bak ll aaat kaaf Ifca fc a ul i af aay craalafa. 
IkfY dto ikcf kary ikvto aHk Ifcvir a|i|«rfl, ka Ikry BMa wr waaiaa,! 

\ id kto tlag to winfclag Kwtoaa alifc tkna a* a tokaa af 
kM«. TkalrakNiialBcliMarklaffaf tkair hcM^aklck IkaycM- 
liirajMr. Tkry aia ctodM af Um Biavn uT tkalr dead, far. lart 
AiMkl kr birt by Itaw aad Ml to CMMwia aa^ ikay pick of tba 
I ikal (maa «|m4i Ikaai.aad k«v up ikaMlanaartk vlik graalcara 
aad itartawa Tbaav ^aar |aw|da ai« aadar a dark alski In Iklnaa ■•• 
lailBC to nllKbia ; to ba «m« Iba liadllbM vTit ; jral Ikay bvlWva a Ood 
aad toianrialKy wMtoial ika bdraf a wla|ihiw lr ^ fur tkajr aijr. *Tk«ffa 
baCfvai King tkal atada IkMM, vko dvalb la a gbirtow cavalry to Iha 
ftiMkaafd uf iWw, aad Ikal (ka aiali vf Ilia giwd akatl ga Ikllkar wkM* 
tWy ibaU Hva a^ia.* Thalr awfwkip aaaatau af Iwu pift^ MtMka aad 
caalkvL TW4r aacrtttra k Ikrir VM rralla: tba Sm aad fallaal back 
dbry kUI guHk to Ika Si*, wbmr k« la all karat, wItk a aMmraAil ditty 
af kiai Ikal |M-r1bmM<b ika cMaaiony, kat wlik aack aMwrvlbiaa far- 
vtacy aad lalwr af budy Ikat ka alll avaa aatoat to a faaia. Tba uthar 
fan to Ikair eMrtbM^ ffrfcta w d by mwid daanai wairtlawa wonla, waM- 
■ga^ tbaa abwato, twa baing la tba adddto Ikat kagla, and by 
ImaMnlag ua a baaid dlrtcl (ba rbania^ Tk«4r puataraa In 
lb* Aiac* ara vary antlck aad dlftprlug, bat all kai>p a i aaa w ra. Tbto to 
danr vltk r^aal r amaain*ai aad tokwr, bat grral apfvanara wf Juy. la 
Iba fall, «br« Ibv n«ra caatalb la, Ibcy bngia to faaal «ni« aaulbar, 
Ttof* ba«a bavn law grwl faallvato alnmly, to ablrb all raw* thai alll' 
I aaa al waa aiyaalf ; Ibato *al*rt«laai*at aaa a gfval wtmX by a afvlag 
waA^ aunw abady iraM, and tvaaty biM*ka, wllk hul rakra wT a*w ttira, 
bMib whaal aad baaMi, wbkb (Imot aiaka ap In a »|uara forai la tba 
laa«ta uf tba alMa and >di* ihaai la tka arfiva, and aftiir tbat lbi>y fall 
to ^ne*. Itot tbay thai gv aiwl carry a Maall |«aa*Bl la lb*lr a«wn*y ; 
tl nay b* ilsiAar^. abb h to anwto uf Iba Immm wT a fab ; Um black to 
wllk tbaai aa gwM, Ik* akila Bih*r ; Ikay call II all vaaiynm. 

**Tb*lr crr*raaM-nl to by Klag^ wbkb tbay call SarbaaM, and tbaa 
ly ■■axiwdun, bal alwaya wn lb* aMKhar'a aMa. . . . Krary Klag balk 
bia OMianI, and tbal rwaatoia af all lb* obi aad «b* awn Mf bto nailoa 
abkh, i^bafa^ tombaadrvd ymnda. Mwlblngwf nwiiaaal to aiMtor! 
lak*n,.ba ll aar,'|wac«^ arlllag wf toad, ar inAck, aitbMit ad* Mag 
vilk ibrm, aad, wkkb to aMia, witb Ika yoaag aan to*, ll to admtr* 
aUa to c«i«MMar baw iwwarfai lb* KlB«i arr, and yM bw lb*y mwt* by 
Ika kiaaik «f tkair paa|da. I kava kad occaAin to ka la aaaarll wllk 
IkvH apoa naatlaa af biad, aad to a4ia« llM (mna af inda. TkaIr ar> 
d« k tkaa : Tk* klag alH In .Um mbldto af an half maua, aad batb bto 
caaartt, lb* wU aad »br, oa Mch baad ; beblad thaB^ ar al a llttto dto* 
, Ml dw yaaagvr toy la tba aaaa Ignra, Havlag 

Iha Blaf aalHad aaa *f thaai to wftth to ato 
aa aa< In Um aaaN af bto Klag. ailalad aM; 
UMa iMMk aa by tba baad aad tobi awi, *ll* araa aidatad ly bto Klag to 
a|iaak to aw, awl Ibal au« It wai aul ha, bal lb* Klag tbal apuhai ba* 
oanai vbal b* alMiald aiy ara* lb* Klag'a ailad.' 11* Aral iKayVd aw ' to 
•irwa tbaw, ibal tb«y bad aul c««a|4tod wkb bm lb* bM Haw, h* knnd 
lh*r* Might Vm aaa* faaH la tbr latofp«*l*r, halag aallhar ladiaa aar 
Kagikh ; bfiMi-s ll aaa Ik* IwUan ca*.ai to drllbriala aad tab* ap 
Miah Itaw In runnrll bpftin* lh*y hmuI**, aad tbat \% llw ywaug i*a|da 
aad w«nrf« vi Um toad bad i«N-n aa nady aa h*, I bad wd awl atlb ■» 
MW k d»ky.* Having Ibwi latndlnrad bk nwllar, b* Ml to lb* biiandi 
af Um towl Ihvy had agn««l to dk|M* af awl llw |«k*, abkh awar k 
llltk aad drar. Ibal abltb wuaM ba«« iMVght ta^aly wlka awl bajlag 
awa t«M. Uaniig iIm linw Ibal tbk awn aiadia nut a aiaa wT lliam waa 
Mbwrwd to abkfivr wr mhII*, Um wM gnt*. Ik* ywnng irvrivnl In tkrir 
dr|wctawal. TWy aiaak IMito bat farraatly, and wllh rkicaM*. I 
bav* n*v*r Hirn aartw aalaral MVH-liy, nawblaring ibrw niibiiat iha 
b*l|i (I «a* guing to my lb* aiwU) wf imdltkn, aad b* will dvrrta lb* 
aaiiM wf wia* thai walwlu Ihvni la aay tivaly alMal a lliiag (hry aadrr- 
•laad. Wli*u (b* |i«rrba«* aaa agrai^l grxal lawmlwa pawrd liHavra 
aa, ' wf kindnw aad guud arlgltUtrbwud, aad tbal Iha Iwliana and Kng- 
Ikh wax II va la Iwv* aa hiag aa th* ana gav* llgbl,' wha-h diw*, aawlb- 
mt aauk a i i *ic b to lb* I wliaiM la (ha naaw wf all Ih* 8arb*nMkrt« wr 
Klaips flnl to toll tham what «raa tkiMa, imxI Iw cbarg* and rumwand 
tlwHi 'to tova Um ilirkltowi, and partkalarly U«« In |«nc« with m* aad 
Iha |«wpla awlar wy gavvrnaiaul ; Ibal away gwvvmwta bad toan In Iha 
rl«»r, bal that aw (imraraur bad cwdm bimarif to lt«« awl May b*n> k^ 
faiw, awl bating aww Ma*h an wiw, thai had liaalad tlwai wall, (bay 
■buabl aavrr dw blni wr bk aay wruag,* al avary aaatoar* wf ahkh tb*y 
ahwalrd mad Mbl A awa la Ihvir way. . . . 

■* Wa bav* agraad that la all dlianniw balwam aails wf cwrh aM* 
riwll aad lb* aiallvr. IW awl atowa ibaat, bal kl UHrm bav* Jwdka, 
and ywu win Iham. Tba wwi«4 k that tbay «r« lb* wu«»a far lb* chrto 
(laiM, who bat* |iru|Migal*il Uwlr vItm and ykbkd (hair tradltlwM far III 
and nwl fwr gwad things. Uwt aa Iwa an wbb aa tb«w p(<»|da ara al, aad 
aa lagluriuaa aa Ibrlr own cwwliliun Iwwba, Iha Cbrkitona bav* nwl wal- 
llvi-d (brir algbt, a lib all Ibrlr pratiiiaiwna Iw aa blgbar aMiilfeMallaa. 
Wlial guwd, thaa, wigbl wrt a gM»l iwwfik graft wliar* Ui*ra k ■* dW 
tlnrl a knwa iv«lg* kfl la-lawn gwial and atil ? I Imrai-h (tod to liHiia* 
tba baarto wf all thai cww* Into (liraa larta, 1* anllK* Ih* kwalnlii* «f 
Iha nallvM^ by a gird wbrtltrncr Iw lb*lr gn«i*r kawakdgr wf lb* will 
•r (iwd, far it wrrr MManldv iwbml fiw wi Iw fall andrr lb* jaal evnaar* 
af lb* iMMir Indkna' rwnacknea, whito •* toab* fvufrariwa wf IhlnBi M 
far Irnaarfwllag. 

" Kwr tbfir wriglaal, I am rrady to briktr thaw wf lb* J*wkb lara ; I 
awaa, wf llir alwrk vt iha ton Iribnv and ibal far lb* faltuwiag w aawna : 
Find, (hry arr* tn gw to a *kwl 11*4 |ilanl*d a*« kawwa ;* nkkk, to b* 
■aiv, Aate autl Afrli a wrn>, If a«4 ICiini|H>, and II a Ibal iulrwini Ibal *«• 
liainnlinary Jwlgiarni Mpwn (b*m might toak* tlw lawMgr nwl anaaay to 
tkras w II k awl iMfiwwibk In li«>ir, from tka «artrraan«l yarto af Aala 
to Ik* wvrtvmnMil wf Aawr k a. . . 

Gabriel Thomas dMcuuncd vf the ludiana io a 
manner similar to Pt* nn, but adds an interesting 
fact or two: **Thc Kiiglish and the Indians," he 
says, "live together very {Miccnbly, by reason that 
the En);lish satisfies them for their I^nd. . . . 
The Dutch and Hweads inform me that I hey are 
greatly ilecreiued in number to what they wvro 
when they eanio first into this ouuntry, and the 
Indians themselves say that two of them die to 
every one Thristiau that comes in liere." * 

There is not much more that it is worth while to 
deduce from the cotem|ioniry writers ufNin the 
Delnwarut, though wo shall hereafter ijiiote from 
George Also|> ooiiceruiug the MiiKiuas, Miiigoos or 
Busquehantios. What we have extracted from the 
writings of CHm|mMius,Pcnu and otiiera, endeavor- 
ing to omit matters of minor ini|M»rtanc« and those 
which are clearly erroneous, aflbrds ({uite a c(mi|>re- 
hensive view of the mannen, customs, character and 
appearance of the tupplaiited race, in regard to 
whom there must be a constantly increasing inter- 
est as the yean roll by. 

1 •* IlktortcMl Pa*crl|4b*a wf (b* Piwalaca aad Cuaaly «f Waal Ha* 
janqr la AaMrica," Lwadwa, IdM. 



The lmngoa|[e of th« Leoni LenApe.— '^ the pun 
CMtilian of the New World/'— iu the opinion of 
Mvenil competent judf^ is the most perfect of «ll 
the IiMlian tonpitw, idthiHigh all of theee bcloiiffvd 
to what philologinU rei^ard aa one of the lowcut 
ordem of aiiocch— the incor|Ninitivo or pcilyiyn- 
thi*tic ty|io. It l« dilftiiigtiitfhcd l>y beauty, ntrpiigtti 


b— iWbof tlw<Uw<tail wfcl tlM<— — fc*gtlw«i IU«w«»I»w«m 
CrMli.lMiwUacMdOMi9n4Mi41ac*n Ik* UK— ^^ aiiiirii n^ 
MankM. CVmIu * Watm bMvwa Ik* wM mvfmrmm PMMlMd Clwk* 
* iNrlw Crmk •gimtmU, T* hmxm k la MM Om mU tnvt «r Umi, 
MmrAM M fiiihi^ «Hh M »ihI IMBfvter Ik* •{•fmrtoaaMrw^ •• sIm all 
111* MlcHt, Till* mi»4 iMvrrrt of kim. tk* ■! M*> k*rkain. kl* krln sM 
A«4cM tkafvlii MNlu Ik* mM H*tor lte.r*H. kt* k*tf« •n*l tmigm sMa 
Ik* mmU> kiid IVi>r*r Mat * kvkwMfe of kl«, Ik* mU I'M*** IVyaM, kl* 
k*lrB a*«l AailciM r«tn>v*r. 

- la wIlMM «k.>n^if. k«». Ik* aU Markai k-lil, kalk kpfwato Ml 
kU Ha«4 A «Mb* at N*« ( WlU, la |i*U«ai«b llw Ilk uf May, ICft. 

•• Was mWrikMl Tka tkgnimt mt nark af 

#^,^^« ** MicNAnun (4 ■) 

**Tkla la tk* aairk wt At'iaaaamaat-HiB, M § i ika ■*■ of 

BIRD Ann Ton- 


duck'm mead FIPB. 


and flexibility. It haa the power of compreming 
a whole ■'•iitenoe into a aingle word. Thin ia done 
by taking the moat important ayllable of each 
word, and aonictimca limply a aingle letter, coiih 
bluing them in alightly varying ft»mw or with 
difliTvnt tcrminatioiM, the laws of euphony lieing 
oliMrved, and thus forming a new word.exprew- 
ing a variety of ideas Nearly all of the Indian 
namca, particularly thnae of the I^naiw, are rich in 
rythmical euphony, and some which arc exceptions 
have doubtless received their har»lmcm through 
inifierfect rendering into Knglish (or, in many 
camn, Dutch and Swedish). 

The earliest Indian deed trannfcrring lands in 
Delaware which is on record lodatMl May 4, 1679, 
and is proKcrved in the archives of the recorder's 
oflice in New Castle Omnty. It is a dcc<l for the 
island u|Mm the Delaware, in Duck Creek Hun- 
dred, Kent County, known as Iktmbay HiNik 
Island, of which Mccluickffit, a sachem, was the 
grantor and Peter Bnyard' the grantee. In the 

I A Dollvaiad la Ika ynoiac* of a*. 
**J. PLMAuaal 
**JwM« Aa*ii«. 
"A. WatuiiBM Xaatl 
*Kr« liKaa««, c*r. 
**Tkla abova la a Ira* coff «r Ik* oricinat I*wd 

Another deed atmiliar to the one here given 
niaile November 1, lOMO, by the mnie aachem, 
Mechacksit, transferring to Ephraim Ilvrmiin, *' fur 
two half aiicera of drink, one blancquet, one mata* 
cnate, two axes, two knives, two double haudi«fuU 
of powder, two barrs of lead, and one kittle,'* a 
tract of land in Appoquininmink Hundnid, in the 
lower part of New Castle County.' In conveying 
lands the Indian sachems usually signed their nwrlu 
to the deeds of conveyance for the various tracts. 
The autngraplia of the most prominent Indian chic6 
from 1082 to 1G92 are shown below : 




following, which is the full text of the dee«l, here 
reprintetl as of antiquarian interest, the *'an- 
cher" of liquor mcntione<l as one of the items in 
the consideration was a Dutch measure, erjuivalent 
to aliout thirty'two gallons:— 

•• a* II kauwa iinl'i all in*n kj IImw |«m»iiI«, Ihal I, Mrrkarrkiltl, 
llilrfr KackrMia iif CwkitNalMk. A *>l* ImiImn vmwut an«l l*r<iprl*-liir nf all 
Ikal TnM-l mT IaihI nannwaljr ralkd kjr tk* OirlailaiH n<*H|il«« IfiMik, 
awl \tf Ih* Imltana Naniiik, Air A la ruaalilrraflua vX iifM CNnn, fuwrr 
kanairnlla wf |Ni«4|*r, Iki** M«lan«f«, «ii* Anrk*r of ll<|iH>r A <•»« Kllll* 
k*fur* fk« Kimi<iiIb|| aial I^H%rrjr k*f« wT |u aw In liaaJ pakl, ami D«- 
lh«^«l kj tVIrr lUjranl, vt kVw Vtirku, wlinrcwllli I arkawwIpalKc awl 
C^MiffM* lajMrlfi* t4« liM fWlljr aallarjrpil. nMil*nl«Nl ai*l |Mhl, Ihi-rrftir* 'Iwa 
knvlty Ar.|Mtt, K«.iMrral* an>l rnlljr IMarliarM* tli* aaM IVI^r IkiyanI, 
fur Ik* Mam* llav* Olr**, (iiaMlr*!, narKaiiinl, aiil'l, aiiiiKiinl, Tna** 
yut\i<\ aa<l Ma«l* Mt»>r, ami hjr lk.«p |«nwnl« ikM« fullx. t'l>«ri; ami ak> 
M«lMl«>l]r gltrr, Uraat, Hanc*'***. ■'U. aMtica*, Tran«|Bir|* A Mak* nvvr 
MMlo kIm, Ik* wM IVlvf Dayaitl, kl« iH-ini ami AmiiciNS all llial |«rt wf 
Ltml (MWnI RiiM|il*a ti«i*k, aM Ijinx and Im-Idk ihi ik* wnl alil* vf 
D*l*«af» Rlvvr aiid al Ik* imiulk llirtvuf, liaiclMalnB at a tirrat l^tMd, 


I BajaH, a> fer a* Rarnpaaa law vaa runnwiiMl, «aa Ik* ow— r af Ika 
liaci St* y*aia krTwri Ik* maklav *f Iki* ih w l, 0oT*raor Aadma Im*> 
lac A**Ard It la klai D*c*aik*r 1ft. ICTft. 

t Tkh liH*r 4p«4 to |nUUk*4 la na8laKtMa*a 
V.d|. II .^ ITli, ana toflaiilar to tk* «m k.-rr 


SfMwthiiig of the tribal diTbion ami later hblory at war, but after tha advent of the French In 

of the Taaidicd Lenape natifm romalns to be tiilJ. Canada, the Iroquob, flniling that tliey oouki 

It b not probable that at any time aft«*r they lie- nut witlmtaDd an enemy n|M»n each eiile of thoni. 

came known t«i the whitoi the Delawaroi hail In ihrowdly sought to placate the l4*na|ie trllm, and. 

their whole roglun more than twenty-flve to thirty by the line of much etcillAil diphiiiiacy, Indoccil 

thoiiMUid |ieoplo or from ilYe to aevcn thousand them to abandon arms aiul act an mcdintoni be- 

warrion. In 1759, but little more than a corftury twccn all the natiom, to take up the peai-cful ptir^ 

from the time that the first knowledge of them wae auit of agriculture, and, by avoiding war» promote 

ctbtaincd, they had but six hundred fighting men their own growth as a |ic«iplo, ami at the mine 

between the Delaware and the Ohia It is pmlmble time exercine an influence towanli the preservation 

that their numbers had been greatly reduced, deei- of the entire Indian race. Into this trap, deviKCil 

mated time and time again by the Iroquois prior by the running Inxiuois, they fi^ll, and for a long 

to tlie coming of the Dutch and Bwedes and (xTiod occupied, as they themselves ex|)resscd it, 

Knglinh among them. The Delawares were di- the position of mtmeu insteml of inrii. Tlie Five 

vided into trilMwof which the most notable were tlie Nations, when op|M»rtunity presente<l itself, re* 

branches of the Turtle or Unamis, the Turkey or warded with treuehcry the confidenee that the 

Unalaehtgo, and the Wolf or Minsi (corrupted into Lena|)i- hud refMwed in them, an«l the hitter, then 

Monsey). While the domain of the Lena|)e extend- rcsi»lving to unite their forew and by one great 

ed from the sen-coast Iwtwecn the Chcsa|)cake and eflRtrt dostniy their |)crfidiotis northern neighbors, 

I^mg Island Sound hack Iwyond the Busquehanna again l)ecaiiie Mini. This was iN-fon! the era of 

to the Alleghenics and northward to the hunting- the English in Aiiicriea had niilly lN>giin, anil the 

gruunils of the Irotpiois, it seems not to have l)een Ijenn|ic were diverted from their pur|M»io by new 

reganled as the common cmmtry of the tribes, but and strange occurnMiecs. The Knglish came in 

to have lieen set a|iart for them in more or less die- great nuniliers U» their eotist. Tliey retrived the 

tinrllyMlelined diKtrids. The Unnmit and Unal- new-eooieni kindly, as they had the Ihileli, but 

aehtgo nations, sulMlivid«««l into the trilieH«ifAssun* in time the Knglish, even the follnwers of IVnn, 

pinkit. Mains, C1liehe«|Una^ Shaekniunxons, Tut««- tunieil from them and mnile friends with their 

lonn, Nanii(^»k'.«s and many otlicm, tNvupie«| the enemy, the Irotpiois, as the I >uteh had done. They 

hiwer eimntry towanl the e«Mst,U)N»n the I Ma ware never c«i*itseil to revere the fonmler of IVnnsylva- 

and its alHiients. The Uuaniis were the greatest nia. J/i'/ifofi, as they imlleil him, but laid all «if the 

am! HMist intelligent of the liCnape. They were a sulwetpient wrong to mist'hievmw iNiipIo who got 

fishing |icople and to a larger extent pluntcrs than into |Niwcr alter their gixsl bnMlier Jmd gone 

the ijthcr tribes, and e«iunlly skilled in the huut au-ay, and who, not eontcnt with the land they 

They had numerous small villagcti under minor hail given them, eontrivetl, they allegiil, by every 

chiefs, who went sulionlinate to the great ciiunci I of fraudulent means in their |iower, to rob tlu'ni of 

the uati<»n. They were less mmmdic and more all their isiswwions, anil bmuglit ihc liatiil Iro- 

praoeahic than tin* other trilnn of Delawares. quois to humiliiite tliem. They always nmiiitnineil 

The nM)re warlike trilw of the Minsi or Wolf, aa that they were insultnl and trealtnl in a degrading 

Hc«*kewel<ler infonns us, "had cliiwen to livcliaek manner at tn^nlies U* wliieh tlic Kngliith wert» |inr- 

of the other trilies, ami fornMMl a kiml of a bulwark tit's, and |mrtieuhirly at that whieh t«Mik plniv at 

for their pn>tectitin, watching the ntotions of the Philadelphia, in July, 1742, and at I'Inslon, in 

Im«iuois,or Six Nations, and being at hand t(» offer Novemh<*r, 17* (i, when the Six Nations were pul>- 

aid in ease of a rufiture with them. "The Minsi," liely eaileil u|Nin to e«mi(M*l the lx>nn|Mt to give up 

e«mtinues the authority from whom we have ipiote«l, the land taken fnim them by the fnniiius and in- 

"extemknl tluMr settlements fnmi the Minisink, a famous "Walking INireham;** of 17:i7. Hut for 

plaee (on tlie Delaware, in Monroe County, l*enn- this and other on I rages they divhirMl tlu'y wiHild 

sylvania) named after them, wltere they hail their not have taken up the tomahawk against the JOng- 

coiineil-seat and fire, quite up to the Hudson on lixh in the so-ndlnl "Preneh and Indian War" of 

the mst, and U* iho west and s«iuth far beyond the 1755-(K{. It is |MiKi<ible lliat they would have n*- 

SiiMpiehanna ; tlu^ir northern iNitnMlaritii wen* su|)- mniuiHl neutral, notwitlislanding their grievances, 

|H««<d originally to lie the heads of the gn*nt rivem had they not Ui'n lnelte<| to enmity by the Ini- 

SiiMipiehanna ami IMaware, and their MHithern that ipiois. Aftt^r the cI«mn* of the war, in 17(U1, the 

ri*lg<* of hills kmtwn in New deraey by the name |jenn|)e withdrew altop'ther fnmi the pmximiiy 

of Muskan«*cinn, ami in Pennsylvania by those of of the white Hetth*ments into the wilds anaind the 

liehigh, C*4ighnewago/" up|ier waters of the Susrpiehanna, and to Wyalu- 

Tlic lienafie and the Irmpiois cnnfcHleracy, as nJH^r, n hundred miles fn»m the pioneer settlers of 

has Uvn before remarked, were alm.«t eonsttantly JVnnsylvauia. They did not h»iig remain there, 

however, for the Inxpiois solil the whole c«>untry ti> 

nK*«*ru>r*s**MaMMnudctMiBM«ruMiadiMiNMikNM.'* the Kiiglifeh. Souic of tlic MitwM or MuMMTift had 



fone before this to the h«ftd-waton of the Allegheny, 
and thoM of this tribe who were at WyaiuninK 
joined thcni there. 8iibiic<|iicntly the Lenaiw triltw 
were In Ohio, and a conMiilerahle numlter, chiefly 
of the MIhmU, In Upper Cnnadn. while othen were 
u|MMi the watem of the Wiihanh, in Imlinna. be- 
tween the yeani 1780 and 17$K) they bo);an U> 
emigrate fn)m thoHo regionM to the territory west 
of the Mi»iMiip|ii. TIte n'ntiiant of the mi« thus — 
if their legend was true— retraecd the Mte|M of their 
anceHtun, made centurice before. 

It would lie inipri»|wr to conclude this Mketch of 
the Lenni Ijcnape without a few wonhi ufN»n itn 
greatest and nohlrst chaiaeter» tlie moel illufitriouM 
antl rovere«l chief in the whole history of the nation 
— Tanianend or Tammany, who once live<I some- 
where in the territory now constituting the iStnte 
of Delaware. Compiiratively little is kn<iwn of 
him. Ho lives princi|Milly in tnulition, and his 
name has l)cen |)er{)ctunted by fro<|uent application 
to civic iHM>ieti<'M among the [icople who supplnnte<l 
his race. He was a seventcH^ntli century Indiiin, 
and is supposed to have <lie«l about the time of its 
close. In 108.*i he, with a lessor chief, afHxe<l their 
hientglyphicnl signatures to a deed conveying to 
William IVnn a tnirt of lund in Ihickn County, 
Penusylvanin. ' Wliiln hishoiiu* was doubt Iiim for 
many years u|M>n the l^owcr IVlnwnn*, ntui, llu-n' 
Is reason to iH'lieve, near the (.■lirihtinnn, he ihiubt' 
l<Mi moveil n<»rtliwanl as the Kitglixh M^ttlcrs ru- 
cmnchiHl U|Mm his donuiin, and it is Inulilionally 
asserted that he liveil far up townnis the head' 
waters of the river of his |)eoplc in the extreme 
northeastern part of IVnnsylvnnin.' Of ihechnnic- 
ter of Tamanend, He<'kew('l«lersays: "He was in 
the highest d«*gree en(lowc<l with wimloui, virtue, 
prudence, charity, afltdulity, meckncHS, h«iNpiudily, 
-~in short, with every g<KNl and noble (piiilifinition 
that a human lieing may iNtsHcsri,** and Tlintcber 
dei'lares that the Imlians '*e(Mild only account ft»r 
the |ierfeclions they as<*rilM'd to him by sup|Mif<ing 
him to lie fuvoriMl with the sisfial comnuininttionM 
of the (Ireat Spirit." 

The Nantiitikes, Iji wlumi allusion has M>verol 

I lViiii«ylfiiiiU Anbhr*. Vul. 1, |.. r.1. 

* It b lwll.>tr<<«l IImI TMiiwiirii.t IU.-.I Ut m mn^Mt-nVh- |»-rb*l ••n Ui*- 
«««( l«Mh uf flir |v-bw«r«. In wiml la loiw |iamNn-n« lu«n^il|i, Wa>iM* 
I .MiNly. Tb«* I'iMinm-fli-Nl wlll^iw, wIhi r»nM> llirn* In IT'.T, raU*s| tin. 
frrllU biliriMii ImhI **Si. TamnMiif KUI,'* stMl In ImIi-t ymni IiU imm* 
«M niiiillnl lit U» rammlrfU Ttirm lun lihal |iiiIk«*<4 ilit* MuMmli- fm- 
lornlljr. Tb.* InnHllixiiil lkm» «tf TamnlH-nfl'H tirlm', «l*l«ni nM>l ■»<*(■ 
NrM lawMM* *< nkl.* •{•rnwl aNitific lH«i nlilln OimI h« •■•• v^lNlilUlinl am 
M. TiimnMnjr, IIin IVInin Kniul ut An«crl«-n. Ul> iMiiir «••« (kIiiImI In 
mmf *M thiM r«lt>iwl»ni antl lila h^\w*l rfk(liiBt.'«l <im |Ii» Im Amj uf 
Mux rvi^y jrmr. On IImI tiny « m«-IH> ••f hwi Vularir* «HJk.<t| 
|«i|lHhrr In iinirnvlun ibnuiiili IIh* ■lr«<rlii iff l'liili«ik'l|>lil« nllli Liw kiNtI, 
■■■••rnlnR Ibv^r Imt*, »uA imM-rt^M Iwn " wlnnniN," In ■ rnrHl {•■'mIMjim 
•htfw llif jr MMtilml llif niliiniH .if |«w«w binI lit*lril(rr<l In iMiltlijr nimI 
Mirth. Til" ••rif InnI Tiinimnnjr K«-if«)r In llw Tnil^l .SImm« »•■ • IMiiU. 
•lrl|4ibi NrannlMlkNi of hlicli n^fnil*. whirh lra«l Mi irflirr |iiin"«*- Omn 
pl m wifr nwl <|iMint liut lnn<>rrnt illT4>n4>in. Tin* Uirr ft«-lHi*«, Iv-lnx 
Srf<4n| ta |wrllMB l«itlllr», Imv* ti«l llM>dMrni nlilrti tWiJd ■■Hriy 
^■•Mwd. H hi hilfrwitliiit lu ni4t<, liM«m>r. iImI un« uf tbr iM.x>t 
wkMjr known |i«4tlii-nl ■Nha'UlloiM in tlic cunntrjr Iwnn llw nnnir uf lh« 
ffinl cbwr id llw Lrnnl Wnmf^. 

tlmfs lieen made in thb chapter, were kIIms and 
kindred of the Dclawarrs, whom they ealled 
*' grandfathehi,'* and oceu|Ned the lower part of 
this State and the Kasteni Kluire «if Maryland, 
and were distinctively a fishing and trapping 
people, rather than hunten ami warriors, llicse 
fads were awerted by one of their chiefs. White, 
to Lorkiel ami Heckcwelder, the Moravian mis- 
sionaries and historians at Ilethlehem, PennsvU 
vania. The Nanticokes moved northward Ite- 
fore the pressure of the slow, but inexorable 
advance of the white settlers, and aAer waging 
for a h»ng periiMl an intermittent war with the 
early cohniists of Maryland they retreated to the 
head of the Chesapeake liay, and thence, some of 
them, under the advice and protection of the Iro- 
(pioin, moved to tlie Wyoming Valley, and othen 
went farther up the Sii«quehnnna to Chemmenk 
or Zvningix (Shenango), Ui whieh region they all 
immigrated at the lieginning of the French and In- 
dian War against the Knglif>h. The tribe suffered 
even more from contact with the Europeans than 
di«l the l)cla wares and 8us4|ucliannas. *' Nothing," 
Hnid White, " had e(|uale«l the derline of his trilie 
since the white |)eoplc had come into the i^iuntry. 
They were dcstmyiil in part by disonlcrs which 
they liniii^ht with them, by the smalI-|Mix, the 
venereal diM'tiM', and by the frtr um; of •piritutms 
lii|Uon4, to which cn'st numliers fell victimn.** ' 
The trilie hud S4» dwindUnl awav that soon after 
the Uevoltition (in which they had j«>ined the 
llrilish stiiudard) they did not number more than 
tiny men. 

The last remnant of this people in Delaware 
took their defiarturc aliout 174H,* from the neigh- 
iMirlioiNl of Ijaiirel, in 8u>««x County. In this 
hwitlity — alsiut a mile from l«aurel, on the bank 
of a small stream — there was quite an extensive 
iMirying-gniuiid, which was o|M'ned early in the 
preseut ctMitury by workmen engage<l in digging 
earth for the pur|MN(e of n'|miring a mill-^lam. 
They <lug up several wagmi-limtls of bones and 
lefl a large quantity still remaining io the earth. 
The nkeletoiw were in a fair degri'e of pn-nerva* 
tioii, lay sUle hy side and each Ismo was in its 
pro|tpr plaei". Several of them were of mieh siate 
as to denote ihnt the men wIkkm* remains they wen% 
|Mi»^<Mied remarkably high Hialure ami great 
Mrengtb, one of them in |iarti«iilar lieing si*ven 
lii'l in length. At the time the grave-yard wm* 
oiN'oifl by the H|iad<'S of the lalsm-rs them wen* 
living in the neighlNirliiNMl M'veral very old nH*n 
who n*memlM*re(| "the In^t of the Nnntieokes." 
and said that a short time lM>fore th<*y lefl that 


•A nNnila^tif XanilrurkMi frutm Mnr7Un.| fo^trA bj ShanKifcln !• 
Ii-n niMW* MM tlirlr Vny l<i W/dMlng. -l»M«y nf ttr*. 1%riiHrm I'^tmmm, 
Mmf SI. ITW. <Kbrn, my llm-fcrwrliW, rf^tn^niljr |iiw m I bv Ub4 
tbrwiKh IbHbb-lM-M, an*! Ibrnr* lbr«i«iKb lb* IvUvafw Wairf lUy w 
NMcuiMrk iir Sn*|n*liaiiML 


put of Um flouDtr; itwjr kII MNmbM tl thh ipot, chkb, dldiniubhed bwd or vcij olon kindrad. 

mnd briBgtnR witli llwid Iba boon of tMr dcail Hcckswaldcr k autborilj fiir Iti* lUMmaDt that 

wbo htd batn buried eUawhera in the ngkin in tha jMnbatwceo 1750 uhI ITOO muijr of (hoM 

touihI aboat. Interred tbam hen with manj pcfu- Indiani went down to the DplBniB-MB>7]iDi1 

'}r totheir mouraful DiibI dejiai^ PcninMU tn carrj the Ikhih uf their den' 

tBrafiuoi theUnd of their filbera.' Hccken 
Rmarlu that " the Kantieokc* had the h 
nHtun of remnvinjt the iMint* nf their d< 
frienih fnim the biiriat-]ilHce In ■ place nf < 
In the oounlrr thty rt*e]l in,"— a ■!■ 
vbteb ii (jualifleil bjr the aiitlwntic accoii 

Wyoming »h1 N(w»|ieck. and he hij'i, '' I veil 

iilar remember weiDg them loailnl vith auch bnnea, 

ucd which, being (rah, cnuied a diaagrrcalile alcncb aa 

■nail they imaiwd (hrougli the itiedaor Uethlohem." ' 

lent The SiiM|iipliatinaa, who had thrir bonw upiin 

*e (he Patoninc and th« fliwiiwlianrut, and ]ierha|ia 

tliHr grrntrM Urcnph in wiinti* ninr Cecil OHintj, 

exteihliiig their |i>]Hilatiuo even iutn Ibe lerrilorj 

nf Knitheni Uvlawari', erere a povcHiil trilie wiih 

khum the carl; ndvcniurcm, tnnlcn ami netlleni 

nf tho Delaware hail much iiilrrcourw, and tliejr 

have received ftvjiienl nmiliim in tbi) cbajitrr, 

but their importance, hiMorkiillj, makei them 

wofthj of a mon upccilie coniideratinn in thcee 

patn than hai yet been aeconkil lo tbem. They 

were — cuncluda Fniacia I'arlmiaii nnil oilier >tu- 

denti who have given iiiccinl and inlclli^nt alien' 

tinn la the ■uiijevl — a hraiK'hor iHitlyingmluny of 

that <jHitF wnHhrrnl ibv-bku r<>nfi-<li'nu']r, Hie Kivo 

(alWnmnla the Mix) HnlUin. nr iho Jr»'|Uiila, ami 

Ihcf MTin bi have acliil an u iiuanl nr rlieck Ujiiin 

the IX'lawarea nf llie luwer river aiul ollwr anntlivrn 

tribe*, ullen waging n-ar agniiiat them and nlau 

coinniilting nceoHonnl dcjindnliona no the fronlier 

•eUlementa of Maryland. Tliry were the Min- 

quai or Min'|U«y uf tlic Dutch, Ihe kU'ii|prn of 

I Campaniut and ibo Swciln generally (the Engliah 

I cnrm|>ting the nanie into Miniion), Ibc KuB|ue- 

hanna*OTSuH|U<'hanni>vliiii>rihe Marylnmlen, and 

I vcrc alau called tlie Andmtca nr QDiHlaMiigur* 

I (eiirril|ilnl In JVniuiylvania intoUini«ti<giiii). Tlio 

I Siwi|uvhannaa ur Mingue* w«ra a t^alwnrt rare nf 

I warrium, and thnec who mv lliem tn ibdr jn-inw 

attnit tlieir pliyairol auiieriiirily ovcrotlicr Iribra. 

Cp]itain Jnlin Kmith ilmcrilira tlioiu aa 

hav* Mwb uaa nf In rerarpnce lit 
Mar liKiirel. U thia Imlaiic* ihit Itldlant diil 
indeed renHiira the Iiunea of llieir fVienila ti> a cen- 
tral locality and conmon burlal-]ilare, Imt they 
did nnt lake them lo the localily hi nrhich tliry 
were abont tu emigrate. Tlial in lome iiiilaneci 
they did renmre the bnnn nf the dead fmm their 
old home in Delaware anri Maryland lo Nnrtbem 
Ptauylvanla ii iDconlntalile, but in auch cue* 
tba remaina were dnubtleii thuec of lochenii or 


The SmquehaBiMt were on goud tennt with the 
Dutch and Bwedci, being notably amslcd and 
championed by the latter, who, as heretufure stated, 
built for them a fort which, in 1062, saved them 
from defeat at the hamhi of their Icindred, the 
Six Nations. The KiijcHsh scttlcn u|ion the Dela- 
ware were eiiually skillful with the Swedes in 
gaining and securing the friendship of this tribe, 
and carried on a large trade with tlietn. The 
niaintcMauce of relations at once agreeable and 
advantageous constantly exercised tlie diplomacy 
of officials, and comnmnicatiuiis of an advisory 
nature were incessantly |iaming lietwcen the Gov- 
ermirs at New York and the minor officers U(mmi 
the Delaware during the early |)eriud of tho Eng- 
lisli r^jiMt, as they did Inter l»etween Penn and 
his functionaries in Pennsylvania and tho ** three 
lower counties." (Jovernor Andrus, writing to the 
court officials at New Castle, on November 23, 
1676, says: ** Iff the Susciuchunuas should apply 
to you for any thing, you are to use them kindly, 
still as transient friends, butt for more than that 
to liefer tliem to come hither to the Govem<ir, 
where they may cx|H*ct all further just favors w*^ 
diM|iatcli in what they may denirL'" ' — which allords 
a fair lUustmtion of the prevailing disjKwition of 
tho Knglisli towards the jwoplo they wcru destined 
to supplant. 

Alternately at war with the whites and other 
tribes of their own raee, — with the Maryland colo- 
nists, tho Delawares, the Chcsafieake and Potomac 
Indians, and the Iro<|Uois of the north,— the 8us- 
quchannas at last gave way before the march of 
civilization and its attendant evils, mm and small- 
pox, combinetl with the onslaught of their savage 
enemies, until a mere frugnient of their nation, 
called the Cuneslogiui, was all that renuiined of a 
once powerful [icople, which, as late as KU7, had 
thirteen hundred warriors trainetl to the use of 
lirearnw by ISwcdish soldiers. These Conestogas 
were treacherously and brutally murdered by the 
*'Paxton boys," in the I^ncaster jail, where the 
Pennsylvania authorities ha<l sent them for pro- 
tection, and not many years later Logan, incom- 
parably the greatest of the Mingocs, whuse ]NUMion- 
ate but dignified and sententious elo(|uence, as 
displayed in his wordi* of mourning for hb slain 
kindred, is world-fam«ius, fell a victim to the tom- 
ahawk of an Indian aiwuMin while sitting by his 
hinely cam|Hfire in the wilds of Ohio. Thus \mm.%\ 
the lust of the .Mingoes, the noblest of all that bm ve, 
if barbanius, |)eople — his own fate typical of that 
which befell his uatioii and his race. 

wT M«« CMU Cuuatjr Cuwt. 


DltOOVBRY AND aKITLRMRinr hy thk dctcb* 


It is not positively known who discovered the 
territory now known as Delaware, but as early aa 
1520, the Spaniards not only explored the whole 
coast from the Mexican Gulf, mirthward to and 
U'yood the thirty-tiflh degree of hititude, Imt had 
even attemptetl to form a settk'nicnt about that 
imrallel. There is evidence,' apiwrently Ihcontio- 
vertihle, that the (.*liei>u|K'ake was known to the 
S|Mniardit, and that an ex(ie<litiou had been made 
by them for the occn|iation of its cfiasts at least 
twenty years iHrfore we have any knowledge of 
any attempt of the Kngli»h to establish them- 
selves in any |«rt of the American continent In 
view of these facts it a'ouhl have been strange that 

■E2cay HUOHoar. 

the great basin, now kmiwn as Delawaiw Bay, 
should have rvmainc«l unknown to the S|«niarJa 
until it was visited by Henry Hudson in 16t)9. 

In thesixtceitth century enterprises for discovery 
were numerous, and the daring and skill of the 
early voyagers who led the way t(» the ooloniiatioii 
of the United States deserve the highest admira- 
tion. The character of the prevalent winds and 
currents was unknown, aud the ships employed for 
discovery were generally of Icm than one hundred 
tons bunJcu. Frobisher sailcil in a vessel of but 
twenty-fivc tons ; two of those of Columbus were 
without a deck, aud so perilous were the voyages 
deemed that the sailors were accustometl. before 
emimrking, to fierforni solemn acts of devi*tion, aa 
if U» pre|inre for eteniity. 

It is certain that the firat practical dijiofvery of 
the iX'laware ISay and River and of the New York 
Bay and Hudsim Kiver was made in 1600, by 
Henry Hudson/ an English navigator in the ser- 

• DbMyaCVwUnfVwiMMb //MfewteSrlNnwOa. fW4M«a*HrfSb 
Oir4«MU f Oh>ii. M<»4nd, IT'A. 
> Wr km** MrprWuclj Itillr ••€ llMiry Hwlwa. R« liaM I* tev« 

•aA It U pcwiwiil* Ibat S« »m mC th« tmmtiiy wT that Hrnry Hwd w «S«^ 
te lAM, WM«M uf Um MifflMl laoocyuflMMn ar.lh* Eaglbh Mi 



viot of Um Dulck Km! Indbi CumpMiy, wImjm 
titlv lo iiumurtality mviim to bn Miuivil by ilio fliii't 
that oiM of the lurgnt bnjm aud ono of Um uubl«it 
riven in tlie world cc|ii«lly bear bis imnic, aud aru 
adniilted to have bi-eii diMcvivvivtl by hiui. TIm 
discovery of Delaware Ibty aud Kiver waa nuule, 
according to the journal kqit by Itubert Jewctt 
(or Juct), ibis lint olfitvr of lIudnoD'H i»lii|i, ou 
Aui;utft 2M, KiilU (ir*w rtylo), ami <hi tbL» diiHMVvry 
iIh* IhiU'h fiiuiubil ibvir cbiiiii to thv «i»UHtrii<« 
bind ng u|Mm and adjniviii lo ibti Norlli (IIuiImiu) 
ami tbo Houtb (IX'lawan*) ICivcni.' 

Hw ai*cmnil» of lluilnon** tliini voyaytu and bi* 
diMt>very of the North and South Kivvn arv ttio 
aceurati*, cin'MuwIaiilial, and MitUrartory U» allow 
of any i|ue«ti«iu in nsf^anl lo them. lIudiM>n'H jour* 
nal a» well an tluit of Itolivrt duel are |>n-«erv«'«l in 
Purrhaa' I*ilj(rinia, aud tltiul has )(iven uot only 
tlie oounw and dliitann<» nailed on tlie niiwi, Init 
tlitf varioua (b*|4lw of wiilor obtaiiietl by MMimliiip* 
«iirthe ban and within the i'n\n% orilhi luti biiyN 
duii'* liiK-lNNik of AiiKiMl -M. HKNI, hiw Indnil 
ta<«ii UMw\ by aiiunl MiiindbiK'* mu\ Miilbijf ilU* 

l\««l««]r. Hila twiM'a »m, t1iiHii|ili»r, Mi|i|MH<4 lu Imiv !■<«•■ IIm 
UHmvmT tli» ffrMi iMtliiiiHir, %m M mr\f m l.rfMiaMtl n|i !•• Hmt llw 
lai-tMr aiHl aiiMit wa Ik* if«4 ••f iIm> I«i>imI«i« <\iM|«iiy IiwUhv lit Hit«^a, 
•Ml H ■■!— Hkt4f IImI tiM jruMiiiirr llmUMi. Auwi lib iMMllUrily allli 
k9c^^e aavlicillua, sihI kli 4«ri ■§ ivrlliMitij la allrwiHliiv !•• IntMhi 
lk« ill WaaJ MMttlMVM w M«% mmf Imt* menmt bb ■|4wvMtli-v«Jil|i mm • 
■«vlcal«r l« tnHllMC, «hi Mulf tif IIm MiMwvy (Wi|«njr, frmu IM*(i4 iw 
aw4», M «M lli**« «ift«a ilwiM IhrwHidi IIm> Kurlh Hianiwl, and niuatl 
Ikr IMwU^s OHiiM-y«i llkHla«*K bmI Kaith (^H*- lu tlif While li« aiwl 
Afrliaiiarl. At aajr ratv «lia« IIn4m« mmiIum lib Iral |il(-lanna|ar a|*- 
pmnmn l«fi«« Wt >■ ll>« "aaiMvr vt INiC, la llw diarrli uT M. Kllni' 
tariEis Bblai|«icalr iMrrH, latHaliiM, «Im'I« Imi aail kb rn>w an* fmw^m 
•• |«ruk« vi IIm> ll>4jr Kai nuHpal iMKrilirr, it b |irr|ainil«ir7 Iw • 
«afaca l« Ik* mmninvf |k» Nf«ljrHirvBnliHl ••|«mhI<im ruM|M«y/' Im 
Ja*«ll'au«a WMob, oft* k* Ubaittrr a |i— <w ky lk«> N<4lk IVtkt lu 
Ja|«a aM4 fklaa.** Tka aattcalMf aaa at Ikal |laH> a iMl<Mk>-«i|M| 
aMa, rK|ai<ffk>Mi-r«l aa4 tfaalml. Ilailaia rrwkMl |i|4l<t«>rK«in, aifi lltM* 
lk» If* t>*v9d kiai kai-k. ilr r«ia«l<nl pmU ymt Ikw allraiH Iw f«<arli 
iUla hf rf«ai4af •lln<lly w«i*r llit> |%<U. ami aRalii k# falM alKT ka*lN« 
wai- k >4 N«iva X>-«it4a. Tka Uattlwa ISiat|iaay auw lirxawHi ill>lM«n> 
«ai4,aiHl na*U>a ai uara Iraaak'n*^! kb a^tk-tn Im tlM> Ihiiik, «ka 
••I* Ikra al»i MRrrly mh klim a mirtbrra nmt* Iw AaK ai^ IMvtMrlail 
aa4r* IIh* aMral anifa** *^ r«M-llMB (•■# ahwai aiwrw will Im< Mthi 
pimt a l l) > Iw wlaMbk a W««4 iuilia (%«M|«ay. TIm* ANia|rnlaai«iln<r- 
iMfa vf Ika IhMrk Ka«« Iwlia <VMM|Mn* fM kiai la nNMa«iN*l t4 a jrarki 
«r tH* kMrf, tka ** llair-Mwua " (Um* » |aKl • Halt* Maaa ' *'). «r Cuiy 
■■la<4a** wr «4Kkly Ittaa lairtba, aMiaa«>«l ky a aa4bjr cn»« *4 Mximnt ur 
atcklraa Katflbli aail Ihilrk aillMrs and bab klai rtialiiiMa lu>M»r>-k lur 
m matrlw Ik* ICai4ifa aaaa aark m IIm« |l|«Nbnb aail ISirlHHia<n« rwaM 
awl wUtraii. it aaa lai kb tlilnl fnya^ «Im>m, krak-a l*M-h l>y ilir k-a 
fttaa tka lif«ralaa*l m-m^ kw aallvj aa Ikr pwaili aa I|h> ia|»« uf Ilia 
«'kaM|«ak», >a4 Jia^rtruM Ivlaaara Ihy aad llwUia Mhrr. la lib 
kiattk »n>aK« ka iHaraad a«alH Iw Ilia Mf ti«« %4 KNH>aiHl,4br«i«Hnl 
•Ml Ht|fl«4 llaJ**a'a Ibjr, atnlximl llwits aiai la Iba attiluckatlNii 
aaganil lib«>i«« ky |iai>liiiaM aiwl ki |«'i«la|iH« la iii4M|| at«lai«i«l, »aa 
1*4 a4iin ky Ikaia la a mimiII U«« aail kn, allh kb tua, In |*iIbIi la 
Uia k'v wa Ika ik^ilaic laM^k-t wT iIh> h»y a kk h iwn lib aaaia. Hi* aaa 
aa««r kaai«l «f aaantanl. Kur Ivilkrr faiilkakiiaitf Ihb i4«tii, Iii4>l, 
a»>l lalclliiiral aavicatwr, a Imi «a« a aiaa fall lif aiUrll, ria-rK.*. Ba4 
««ll-4irtaMl |Mir|«a*, Ika faanbr aaiy rwaaah run-laas llaklajri. aa^l Iha 

lia vt Uwa. II. V. Man4i7, Ur. AiOwr. <k>a. Jwha M. Uvad, Jr . 

ML r.4»i\* 

I la aa «4lkial fa|Miri 4lumu af kjr a Ualrk Ckaailwr, hvm rfuramaala 
aad |«t««« |ilaea4 la Ikair kaa<K linvailiar IS, IMI. II b mM llwa 
"Xav SHharlaad, allaala la Aaifrtm, Ia4«*«a Kaiilhli VlrKlntaaial 
]lew KaftlaaJ, ailraillait fniai Ike Sumli (la-laaafr) IU*i*r. Ijiim ia 
lallMda aS!-^-*, la <'a|w Malalatf; ia laitlatif *\li\ waa llrrt r(n|MHai«il 
ky ikalalwMtaala wT tkb cwaaify la IIm jmv lUai, aa4 tafwvblly lif 
Ikaaa af tka «»r— a l aaJ Cwaiiatajf, kut attkual aMihlan aajr flm^ ivIlW 
anala, aaty aa a Jit4tay la ika aialrr; Aar whk-k lairfww iWj fraii«4 
Ikaia l»« Mtia k«1a wa lli# l^mA aial Niink RlTrn, aaaiaM Ik* Imiif 
iiaaawrika l»liaaa.*' t/taU t hmmt Jfubry 1/ .Vw .V«l*»rjaa4< IW. i. 


taneiM, and la found to be io aocurato to thb day 
iliat \m routo eau be minutely folkiwed. 

AL noon IIudaiMi liaving inmnnI tlie lower eafiei 
the nbonw were deaeried aireiehiii); away north- 
went/ while laud waa alau Meen towanla tlie uortli- 
iiiMt, which he at tint lo«>k to lie an inland, but it 
fiitived U> lie the iimin laud and the M.'coud |M>iiit' 
of the Imy.' 

Tlie n'liiaiiidi'r of iiie «lay wan a|ient in Noundiii); 
the walen, inhich wore in mime |Nir1a lilkil with 
hIioiiIi*, aa tii the |iniH>nt time, au thiii the '*lJnir 
Moon," tli«ai);h of liKht dniii)(lit, at ruck U|miu the 
hahlvu miiiiIm. *'Jlue that will throughly dia* 
iiiver thi« great liay,*' Miya Juet, " luuato have a 
Kiiinll INiiiituMe that muat draw but four or five 
fiNite water, toaound lieforu-liim.*' 

At MUiiiwt the iiiiwter anehorvd liia little veiwel 
** ill eight fiitlHiiiii'a water,** niid fiiiind a tiile runniug 
from the iKirthwcMi; **mii«| it rineth one fiUlmme, 
and lluweth Sonlh-HMitb-eiiat.**^ ** Knim theNtrenth 
of theiMirrent that m*l out ami etiiiiHil the aivumii* 
hiliiin III' MiiiiN,** he "MiiM|NH't«it thai u large river 
dU'hiirgint lulu the Imy.*'* 

In the etiiinie of the night, the wiiilher, whh'b 
had lMt>ii iiiieiiM'ly warm all diiy,iiiiddenly ehaiigitl. 
A |Miii!«iiig Htorm ili^iH'IKil the bent, while the brei*Be 
bloiniiig Irom the land relKiihed the wmry men 
with the moiat fierfiiiiH^ of iiweet ahruU and mini- 
nier llowen. At early dawn the ex|ilorntiona were 
reiiewiHl aud IIiuIkuu atooti towunla the ** norther 
laud,** where he again ** atniokc grouml " with liia 
rudtler. Coiiviucetl that the nmd to China did 
not lie that way, he hiuitem>d to emerge from the 
iVlaware in leareh of new ehunnela through which 
he might |nmi i|itickly to Imlia, the giail of hia 
wiHliem liiibiieil with lhi« iih'u, he eontluiieil iii« 
voyage along the ciNii«t of New derm^y, aud cant 
anchor, on the .'hi of S*|>tenilier, within the Nhelter 
of what ia now Haiuly Jfuok, New York. Ilia 
»ulii(c«|iieiit diiicovery of the river which liean hia 
name, and hia aaceiit to a |M>iiit in the vicinity of 
tite iireNcnt city of Allainy, are facta too well known 
to lie given n!|K*titM»n here.* 

The KngrMli early gave the name of IXtlaware 
lliiy and River to the Hiatth Uiv««r of the Dutch, 
U)Min the |iretext llml It wtm diiti«overtHl by Imrd 
de hi Warr in bin viiyiigi« to Virgiuin hi iOlll. 
Mr. Hr^Mlia'ad and other writon, however, have 

t JwH'a Jirtiraal, I'Nn-baa III. ^ Aiw. 
••iV|ai May 

Mbljwt Nbva Wi>n>li lul. Aaa4anlaai, l«l\ Ikwii lli.'Cka|hY, 
llaaanl'* .\an4b, |i. \ N. V. tibl. Muii. 041. Vwl. I. K. M. p. ftm 

* JaH'a Jwaraal, l*an-kaa III. Iteai. Vaaifrr |)wa<-fc aiMililaKur tka 
Ktaiik Mi var, wr m<ta«an<. mym : "Tkb b IImi |4ara wkaiwlkr 4il|i U^ 
JTmm Nni u»A |aw«kia." Ik-a abw 0'CMIa«kaa'a llbl. vt N«w Krtkar* 
Iaa4, Vwl. I. |i. .14. 

• lif l«H'a !i(k<aarn WafvH. 

t lira llbiurk-al la>tninr <^Hirrfala« llvanr llailana ky Juka MaMlIlk 
Uvtal. Jr., drllvi.ft'U brfufv lk« llbt«irk-al H)B-k4y mT IMawara^ Tka 
Hub" Hair- Mwiia,"llHilln4«*nini4krr Ikaa tk* fmlt laifUii raawaa, 
Ikal i« tttuwa !•• Iiata fMlfml Ikn aah-ra uf tkw lk>la«an> Ibjr, aaa 
an-ikiol aUMi als yran lMli.r (la ln|.%) at tka kiMal wT Maarllaa. 
analhaa4\ M. V. Ilbt. Cwll. Vwl. I. |f(. U. 


plaialy thown tkftt Lord La Wiirr nerer mw De'a* far more Ikvonible in Rgard to the Xufth tbta 

ware B«j, and that Um name Oipe La Warr* was the Zu) dt or South River, and to the li»mier were 

giren to CSa|io May by the roieieriug Gapt Sarotwl directed the first oommercial cxpeditioiM of th« 

Argallt, of Lord Somen* equadroo. who, licing Dutch. The *" Half Moon " in IfSlO wamentback 

•eparated from hb commauder in a fog olT the to the North Uiver with a trading cargo, and look 

Bermudan, in that voyage tl»o narration of which to Holland a heavy cargo of cheaply biMight farm, 

b nipiMMcd to have given Khakspcare hid theme for In Kill (the ntue year that HuiNon was alain- 

the Trutprtil, was cnrricd by a cyclone as fur n«>rth donvd ti> a horrible death) Hcti<lrick CbrL-tiaensvn, 

as CH\m Cud, and duscttKliiig the c<iiist again to of Clevoi near Nieiiigueti, Holland, a Wmt India 

Virginia, sighted the ca|ie in <|UCMtioii and gave hb trader, and Adrifn Dliick. of AmMenlnm, cbur- 

lonbhip's name (o it. ten^l a ship in ciini|ittny with tlie Si*liip|ii*r ItvMtr, 

The Dutch eventually rwtcil their claim to the and iiiadu a voyage to the Miinhattaiii* ami ** the 

New Nethcrlnnds u|Min the niiignifiecnt dincovcrii's grvut river of the mouutuinit," niurning with a 

of HudMm, as opiinee«l to the Knglinh cluim through (|uantity of furs nnd bringing nUi two siiiw of 

the general discovery by the C'ulN»ts, but they did Indian cliiefi», wIknu they named'* Valentine,** ami 

not imnHHliately profit by them to any great ex> ** Omon.*' Tliiiie young savugfs, anil the rare but 

tent, nor did tliey make promfit endeavors to by cheap furs fmm their niitive land, np|icar to have 

that liest of all nietli<Mls, orgiinixcd colonixution. n»u«e<l the plilegniatic Hollundent Inim their li'tli> 

IndM^l, when it is tnken into iiinHdiTatiim tliHt nrgy, and publif inlon-Kl in the newly distiivered 

Holhind WHS then llm first imiritiiue |N»\ier Hud territories U'gHn to hImiw wioie liyeliiieMi. A m»- 

the greatest trading eounlry of the i^nrhl; tliiit ninriiil on the siibjeet whs preMiited to the I'ro* 

Amstenlnm was to the iiurih whiit Venln* hnil vineini Hliil<<s of lloiliiiid iiml WtM rrienliuid by 

lanii to the MHlilernineiui nnd tin* hf*s known M'vernI inenliiints niitl inluibitiintii of the rnitiil 

si>iis of two etnillnrntii; thnt her inifHe with Uussia Pnivlnirs, nnd, p^iiys JlnNllitiid, ** it aim jud^itl *»( 

froi|Uenlly ucicessitnteil the sending of m ninny as suflieient interest to lie formally eomniuniealed to 

seventy or eighty shi)Ni a yiwr to An*han)!el, and the cities of Auislerdam, Rottenlsm, IIo(»m and 

further, when it b brought to mind that her Kuckhuyi*en.**' J n the follow iuj; yitir Christ iaen- 

pe(»ple had for years lK*en nrge«l by the energetic i**-*n nnd Jllock rceeivi'd material niil from several 

Usselinx (of whom much more anon), to system- leiuling merehnnts, and fittetl out two vet>9<el«, the 

atically seek the rielH>s of the New SVorld, it b *' Fortune" nnd ** Tiger,'* u|mjii which they Ntile«I 

difficult to form other ctmdusion than that the again U* the Hudson and tradi'd along it» lianks 

Dutch were somewhat dilatory in taking advan- with the Indians. In 181 •'( other nM'rt'htints,allunil 

tage of their eidarged op|s>rtuniti«ii. There were by the hundiwune pmfits of these ventunit, eau^ht 

reasons, whic h will presently l>e explninetl, for the li>v Nvw World lever, nnd the ** Little Fox," 

avoidaniv of eoltinixiition •eliemes, but the tnnli- under eomnuiml of John Du Witt, and ** Nt);htin« 

ncss, the cotii|Hirntively in»»nNei|uential chnraeter K>*i^'/' nnder Tliys Volkertsin, werv sent out I'mm 

and tlioincomplelelyorganixedcitbrts of this nation Amslenlnm, whilu the owners of the ship **For 

of merchants, towunls establishing Imde with the tune," of Hoorn, placed their veiMel under charge 

rich, new fouml regions i»f the world are facts not ^^ Captain Conielis Jaitilisen Mey (or May), 

easily accounted for. What the Dutch at first This little fleet sailed t«» the Hmbou River, where 

undertook and actually accomplislu'd, however, was BhH'k*s vessel, the "Tiger,** was divtroyed by fire 

iuspiivd by monetary rather than |H>liticiil ambition. j>i<*t na he was alsiut li» set sail for Hollaml in tlie 

The it'iiorts carried to Holhind by Hudson were ^aII. IJiidnunled by this misfortune, the nmriner 

.... .. built a hut on the shore of a snuill i^liuid (named 

• UiTil il* III Warra n>«l imm* mm Sir Tlw<niM Wi«l, himI Ii« •«• i i « m i i i ii i . .■ i . ^ 

i..«it iM«»«rn' ..Ml; 17 ...uiiM.>. UII.K II.- iMi.i.i.N ..r ur.i ibiiM "X hliu llliH'k Inland ), Hiid sfR'nt the winter of 

W«u mh,\ ib.t< r..rv iiH<li|iM» i.i il.» iiih>. \\» «m Hi. rm <i.i«.oH.r Mtl.'t-I-| ill iiiimtnieliMlf a IsHlt tti SUIiply the phut) 
mT \ IralHU •itti »M ■|<tii>ttiliM| |u Il4«l |ii»ilk>M M Ut-, IniI •«•«■« ,t.| ,,,mi m m*i i i V .■ ■ i i . 

nii*.|»tM III mhmi 1.1 kiwUHii HH.I UK M..«-riiMiriii •«• »iiM •.! <•■ llio Tiger. 1 his WHS a ynelil ol thirty •eight 

iv4.|«i».« II- mwospI I- iiiri 11... .u««i.irr ..f mr Ti.Mm« N,iri*f f^.^ kefl, forty-foUf aiid oiM-hair fi-et long, and 

nvm wImUM IM« MIH* .if lll* •rll-hlniWH wl>l VIikIkI* •«(••>•• ntm*. , !• . • I • t • • <> • 

ivr uMii—i-wMriMN iihi ttns •!.« h wv Mill lioi.* iM virRiai* ^M clcveii Icct Wide, With a carrying ca|mcity of six- 

5?/*^.?' ^..^•\''T'r7'^'"r •''.'••' '^'**'^*'I"'*'"*^.''^''*- ^•*'" l**"*- Thb little craft, the first built bv 

ibri lb u wiirr, wIkw imrfiirr, iiwa. L. s. iia.iiuii« Wi««, to iim I*'Unt|NAiui lu that {wrt of Aiiienca wliich Iwcanie 

jn^M Briti.s Mi.M.r I.. Wmihu^m. Uni .w I. w.rr i. «h.« |he Uiiitcd Statca, the buildcr named the " Oiirust - 

hwMwr III* l«7, riv«r kwl Mill* mrtr immciI W BMrflMl lo ii>t» dtrd in . ., , „ , , , • , • 

ii.iiiwbiwn(urninf rrMNVimiDUio Kaiibii.i,ftiid MiMM vriimiMv* or " ICestlcw, auu tlic name pasee«I into histonr, 

•iiui.1 ihM iM «M pi4«ijrt « iH,«*%cr >^»« imp«4-ii.i, .i«i ,„j bccanKS fauious as that of the vesucl which 

ility ivniMM |«Yirfi*il urn llw ■hip, m^um umllKnubl NMlanly pr*%iitliaf. . i^ , ^tvi 

wbiw iiM MOitfiiy of his iKiaM iircbr* iiMt h« .ii«.i at wa, II la rir. uorc tlic first actual cxploren of the Delaware 

r«Mataiitlall7 and |H»ill«vlj a«rr1nl in Wali^ilr'a R..)al aiiU Nwtila Wlver Rv the lime thill ihft " On runt " VAn fin- 

ANlliuraaaaalanirU hy T1i.«iaa IVrii mhI .|ii.4.M l.y llaurroft (Vui. I.. .*V , "^ ? . "1 . V,"™f* ^^ "°" 

tiwt k* di«<iai wtiervrii, iiauia, In biKUmi. juna 7. iiiiM. BaaeroA ished aiul nearly ready for service, in the spring of 

Mva o< liila |wra«n«av In li.-oiir t4 wIukm Ivlawar* rvrrivad Ha aania) 1<S1 • *!«« <««>•*« nan !«>.■> mmuaI^ .ftK^ i?- . ,.___ 

• M, aib«til fcr virviab .^^-d M.iy .ith hb Hb." and .11 aiMb.!. *^*-*' '"® compauion vcsscIs of the preceding year. 

MvwSbiMablcticliaiwtoraaaBiaaMdnibr. • BruSbtiHl, T«L I. ^ M. X. T. UbI. CoU. Si Safta^ TwL IL pu SSSw 



hcf«toibi« cnumenited, were on their way oTer the of the Statee General, by John Van OMen Bame- 

oeean, to begin their eeeond Beaaon*ii work. Thb veldt^ the "advocate" of Holland, they unfolded 

tinae, however, they came under new auspieee, for what tboy culled a *' figurative map'* of the We^ 

in rouee(|uenee of the presentation of iietitiom by India (or American) coast, told their tale of ad- 

** many mercliants iuteruvti'd in the maritime dis- ventures, discoveries, loss and gain, and asked for 

oovcry ** to tlie ** High and Mighty 8tiitos General the mono|ioly which the edict promised. It was 

of HollMnd," anotlictorurdiuuucehad liei^n imuiHp at once grante«l, nml a s|iccial chiirlcr to tliem of 

declaring that It ** was liunorahle, uscAil and pn»- exduMive privilegin to trade for four voyages in the 

liuhlc" that the inniplc of the Netherlands should region tlicy had explorctl, which now, for the fint 

be cucoumgcti to adventure tluMiiMclves in discov- time, ol>taiuc*d the name of the "Kkw Nistiikr- 

erin); unknown cnunlries, and for the puqiuseof ijixiifi, 'was drawn upandnigucd Octulier II, 1(U4. 

making the indui-enicnt ** free aiul couiiuon to The territory covered by this ehiirter wai* all of the 

every fine of the iiihnbitants," it was granted and n^gion from New Prance (ns the French powes* 

concetled that ** whuevcr shall fnmi this time f«>r> sions in Camula were callc«l) and Virginia. The 

wani discover any new |miwiges, havens, lands or e iH]mny was granteil the privilege, i'Xclusively, to 

platxis shall have the exclusive right of nnvigaliiig navigate to the newlyMlit(c<ivered lands for five 

to the same for tour voyages." It was provided voyages, within the ihtIimI of three yeun, com* 

that the diseovervr slimdd, within fourlct^n days niencing the 1st of January, IU16. The privl- 

fitmi his ri'turn, deliver to the Stale **a |icrtiuont lege ex|»tred on the 1st of January, KilH, and there 

rp|iort of his disitivcrics,*' and that in case any is no evidence now extant that any of the vessels 

discoveries were made simultaneously by diflerent ever traded on tlie Delaware. This charter had 

parties, they were to enjoy in common the rights a broader historical im|iortance and greater in- 

adfuirvd. flnence in the chain of cause and eflcct than the 

In the spring, when voyaging began, Christiaen- mere granting of a valuable franchise to a half 

sen iMJKhcd up the Hu«lson and erecte«l a trading dozen or more individuals, for it. in eflcct, asserted 

IN«t and bhtck* house on Castle Uland, juKt liclow that the Dutch territory of the New Netlierlauds 

the site of AllMiny; UliR'k, with the " Onn^st," ex- endmiccil all the territory ami cimst line of North 

plortnl lioiig Island Sound, and Mey sailiHl directly America iVom the fortieth tit the forly«fillli |»arallel. 

siHiihwanl,u|Min the** Kortum*," chart<Ml the const lleudriekiH*u in the litiU* yacht **Onrust** 

fnmi Sandy ll<sik to the IVIawan* aud, entering (s<*iirtvly largi*r than the smallist oystei slinllop of 

llmt laiy, gave his surname (now s|N<lletl May) to the pn-m^ut ilay\was meanwhile engnge«l in making 

tlie northern ca|K*, his Cliristiait name, Ci»rnclis, the first actual cxpUiration of the lK>lawnre Bay 

to the southeni ca|)e opfssiite. and to the Mmthern and Kivcr, a work which seems to have occupied 

ca|)e, facing the (K-ean, the uanie of Hiitdloiwn or the greater fwrt of the year l(il/>, and some iM»r- 

Henlopen, probably after ThymcnJacoliscnlliiilop* ti<»n of the succeeding one. Authorities radically 

en,of Amstenlam, or a town in Fricsland, though dilfer as to the extent of the Caiitain's explorations, 

the latter, applied as it was to a false cafie, was sub- simie firmly asserting that he went as far north as 

soiiuently transferred to the Delaware ca|« (near the Si*liuylkill, and that he was, therefore, the first 

Ijevvn), which now liears it. There is no evitleiice white man to gaze ufion the site of the city of IMiila- 

that May atlempttHl to change the name of Dela- delpliia, and othen stoutly denying that he went Ih>- 

ware Kay and Uiver IVom that given by the yond the head of the liny or the mouth of the Dcla- 

Dutch, Xueydt River,' or that ho landeil at any ware Uiver pro|ier. Without entering into an elabo- 

pohit. In the fall the vessels of the trading rate and unsatisfying discussion of the merits of 

si|uadn>n all returned to Holland, except the "On- these clashing iwscrtions, it nwy be stated that the 

rust,** which was left at Manhattan under the former jKisseescs the greater portion of i»robabili- 

command of Cafitain ComelisHendrickseUpdoubtp ties, and has been generally c«>nceded by the not 

less for the express purix)se of making a more over captious class of critics and historians. The 

minute examination of the country. The returned chief ground for belief that he did sail up the 

navigat(»n and tlieir associate merchants formed river is to be found in his re|M>rt, in which he 

a company, drew up a report and chart of their s|ieaks of having *' discovered and explored certain 

several discoveries, and proceeded to the Hague to lands, a bay and three rivers, situated between 38 

claim a concession under tlie edict of March 27, and 40 degrees," ci>rresponding rcsjicctively to the 

1614. In the presence of the twelve mighty birds south boundary of Maryland,wliere it touchca the 

...w_^.,.«.. Atlnniieand the latitude of riiiladclphia It 

i.\i« *«ri,»ifiy .-aiM hj th* laSba nuiim of fMitaMt, Makiri. woiud sccui fn>m tliis sUitcuient that HO otlicr than 

^Mt.«, sl.k«w..KlArt^ •«! u.«p. Wibituck .hito "•jrii*. •• kh the Delaware Bay and River and the Christhina and 

i«raMrbrttrrkM«a,iii«Dvicii wmHiBiMniMitUMXMMu,riinr« Schuylkill could be mcaut But little has been 
He^irkhwrito-tww ium;.*i ihes*^ prescrvcd of the information which Hendricksen 

Qo$f'9 9tj. carried to Holland conceming his voyage. W hat is 


Mfttl frMB obllTioa may be regarded ■• the ilfBt the Aaom Xslandi, and had beoooie tborooghlj 

reeord of man upoo the Delaware, and it ia enough familiar with the pro6table commerce carricii on 

to ihow that be landed at leTeral placc8| took between thooe coootrics and Wert India, an all of 

eoundingt, drew charts and discovered the contour the then known America wat called.* 

of the ba) and the ca|Nibilitice of the river. He As early as 1591, on his rrtitm to Holland, he 

tells how he traded with the Indians for skins of propusiMl to crrtain merchants a |»hin to «iii«liliiih 

various kinds, sables, otter, mink, lionr r«)lH*K, etc a compauy Air carrying on trade with AnK>rii<a, 

He ii|icaks of the vogetati«Mi of the shores and men- and in the following year he pnwntvtl that plan 

Uona the kinds of trres that aliouml — the oaks, in writing to the Statm U«Micral, to several cities 

hickories and pines, richly draiml and festooned and oumcnMin individuals. Hu socuntl an ardi'nt 

here and there with grape vines and flowering adherent in the |)en<on of Prince Maurice, and at 

ereepers. his snggestiiHi tnivelc«l tlirough«»ut Holland to urge 

The ibrests he sajrs were alive with game, his scheme ufmn the inhabitants, but he could mit 

bucks, does, turkeys and partridges. ''He hath annme them, for as he expmwctl it *'Tlie peviple 

found," says his report, " the climate of sai«l roun- cnuhl not In* awakeneil Ironi tlivir sU-ep.'* Now 

try very tcm|ierate,'* and he belicvoti It to besimi* that IleiidrickK'n's n'|Mirt had awakeiuil fnnh in- 

lar in tcm|ierature to Holland. tcn-st in Aiiierien, rmnflinx In 10 111, rei*unH*<l lite 

At Christiana Creek whore he landed, and poe- agitation that lie had eoniniviMxil at the lM*giniiing 

iibly walketl over the very ground that was dee* of the century, and in that year lie prcvi>tite<l a |i^ 

tinctl to be covered with the streets and buildings tittnn to the Stati-s (Seneral of Holland and Wert 

of the City of Wilmington* Hcndrickseii met a Frie^lnnd, in which he olfered to pnive the fulk>w- 

band of Mimpias (or Mingse) Indians, anil re* ing |Niinti : — 
deemed fnmi them three white men, who in the 

** I. T1t«l ikrMMtb Mvli • WmI IwHaa C>i«i|«By Mm l'»lt*l S«tWr- 

spring of 1G16 had left the Dutch Fort near the i|»*i ««mm u Mfvii|ttWH«i .na u bHtm«c«rt^ ACkiM ii» kuh^ 
site of Allwny, wandered up the Mohawk Valley, 

S|«Ib iImm llirii«(li nil Ikrir tr\rmmm 

" 1. ThRt IImf « iMntrjr riHiM r\|w«i wi<f* Iw— una wmI • Mmc* e«l« 

croMicd the dividing riilge to the head water* of the ^y *">^ '»**' '••"• "»•» ''••'". •• «* »* c.*ii»iw i* i--«r. «iis lu 

Delaware, and denceiulnl that stmiiu until they '''"5.'1itlTM.,.*.».piMmi.i !«,-.-. id»..if^Mi,w.r. in, ih-Ki.,-* 

ha<l enf*ountered the Minuuas and Imwi niado prls« •'i*'"- ••"•••*'••. H^^mh t^ »«••• wUI-h wr H't^M •••ixi*'. fc* ••••»> 

_ I .1 I ' r»UlM I'Ullnlio |<l««'wa lHi« la Ilia U«wra»Ml, iif rrn>lrr llirHl •ll«<«»tk«f 

oners by them.' ft..Hi.-i..i..H. 

hi the suuinier of KIIU, Caiitiiiii Heiidrieknen "* i »•••»•••••••.» r,*M u ^^i^m i.. ,^,ty .4. im. :^k Hi»»* 

was again in Hollniid. A»r on AiigUNt lU.lie laid »«•• .ii..iim •i.i.«i.i i.. i^i. 

his n*iN)rt of diseoverii's and cliiiiiMfor exteni«ive "'^ ti««ii.i. m.^k -UmiW i«4 wI» i«i.«*- • umim io ■i.r.iMM*. 

.,.* ... ■« I .^1 «■ ■> MfrlMiik^ ■■•I aMfMlliifi |«^>|4r, l<Ml IImI rMk aikI f%rty lnliaMfwil 

trading privileges before the States (leiiernl.' •iNwU.u.ri»»>ii»u«HUic.- rmmti.-^ 

For some rwu^n which does n.>t clearly apiK>ar this ^ ^„ „„j „„,;, „^,,y ^ ^^^ ^ad pasiK^I that 

was mK granted, and the brave and eiiergt»tic ex- ^,,j, ,|,^„„„.„t ^,„ ,K.niiltt«rio ht» read, and even 

ph»rer rea|ie<l no advantage hi. an uous and j,,^.„ |^ jj,,,^, ,,f f„,i,i^„ ,,^,, „„j ^,,„„. ,„,, ^^^ 

danger.>us undertaking. m»r did he ftirther figure ^.,,,.„ ^ ,,i.,^ j,,^ ,„,„, ^,,.. ^ml fo^ten^l and mmr- 

in the eisal antic afliiim of his nation. j„,,„, ,,„. ,„„^ ^^^.j,.^^, „„ „.^.^„, ,;,^ ,,„ i„,,,.f^,j. 

If t.f little um* t4. hiinw'If. Hendricksen s dlse.»v. ,,^, ^.^^.j^^^ ^^.^.,^ ^^.„. ^,,.^.^^, ^.,^,„,. ^^^ i,j^,„„„. 

,,. — .,.,,..^.., »..,..^ •...,.,.^. ...... ^*,.., , ^jj^^ j,j j,j,jj 1^ iM-eaiiie nec«*iMiry that be i^hiKilfl 

the great /uydt Kivcr. did more to bring aUuit ^ ,,^,terteil fn.m arrest bv \m crf.lii.,w thr«ujrh 

the organixation of the Duteh W «t India ^,,^ ^„„.ting of surHc dn cin^. Hut further than 

pany than any one power, if i»n«iil,ly we except ^,,j^ j.;^ f^ ,^„j pleadings for n^iniineration le- 

the long enntmited patient, iiowerfiil ami adnut ^j,.„, „„ ,«^gnition. aiul the verv |H.,plc who rc- 

manipulations of public opinion by W illiam I .^^l- ^j^.^ ^^f^^ j.^,„ ,^.^ ^^ ,,^^,,,;. ^.^uiu.'.l them, 

inx. This man who had l.,ng liefore l>een a char- ^l^j^ ^.^ ,,^, „,„^.,, f„^ ,,.^ fi^^,. V,rit lo Umr. and 

acter m the action of the drama of human«« ^^ ^^.^ expn»i*.n to his in.ligii.ili..n in unniL^Uik- 

miw biKnjnie a mcsit primiinent one. He was a .uie |,u,^,„rt^e. "Cnuk-bmim^l and overul^. pn- 

native of Antwerp, in Hnilmnt, a nierehnnt, who |4.,„|j,,.^»» i^^, |^n,||»:-_ 
had traveleil si*vcral yearn in H|miii, Portugal and 

•* WIk« lltlnh llial vliltli llifjr r«niii4 niiM|ini|ifiii| In llNilr miy li*»b 

1 B» th«M «h.. Jhnj llHit llriidrlrk-ii •»-rn.M lh« IfcUwar- t«> lh« *!.!•"•.*".'* ^""L' '" ""!"*' '7" " "">''*«'"*•• *'•■« »»•* •— "' '" 

Srbyyllllll it I. cl«|M«l tl»l Urn wM.I.Md lito kf^wMgn «f tli« »n«r »*"• •*••' •?•' "•*:* "" ••|f"«l«"- *«> »••»; »-'*. •" ?-« •» »*t*H|. 

i«r«lM tr lb* ri..r fnnH llMw m^ «W pMwl <W». II. .hMf*. ■«' ""^ «»^ l-.d-mUr U,. ^-1 •-rh .ml «y pf».,«iH..i^. I*i r,«i 

. _ daf» to WTUW umiiM wf high nmk bm latvlliK^nrw uf lw''*i»ilifcnn»- 

«rnia. ArcMvM, HI H*riw^ Vol. I. r- m 

•H*iMlrirlur« vw AivMIrM • Uullanilrr, •HlmiiKh kta am* wu iJiMfph J.MIcklvjr'a **1lame AmMinti/ Wtllhun ImHImi aarf fM** 

S««4lil|. II* U mU ia iHili b ikirutw«Nl« tu bav* W«a Own Moaaikaa. Miaull," |MiMtab«d bjr tb* llUwriral SurMy vT IvUvKra. 

daai, viglii wUm ftwai AHHt«nJMa oa th« Zuyil»r Zm. •MtckUy. 


ii^dwMAkMwtacM' ••»»«••« Dadon had been In war with Bpaia fbr wvwal 

^ , ^ ,.... - yean, but, in 1609, a tnlc^ to lait twal?« yean. 

If wa Ibllov for a brief period the bistory of ^„ negoUnted in liea of a pemianeDt treaty of 

this remarkable man. before Ukmg up the organi. ^^ phjUp jj, |,^ eonaenied Co the indopen- 

ntion and aflkin of the com|iany which he did ^^^ ^f ^ Netherlandi, but would not eonnnt 

more than any other one man to create, we find in ^ ^j^ ^j,^ f^ ^j^ in the Ewt Indies. The 

his misfortunes th« eiTect of an ingratitude which Netherlands would not accept a final and per- 

it Is difficult to account for. except upon the ground ^^^^^^1 treaty which did not guarantee Uieir 

of the baseness and selfishness of the common herd oomraereini freedom, hence the truce as a com- 

of man. who often when enjoying the results of wu>e promise. The ncgotiati«>n was effected by Grotius 

action forgets the instrument by which they were ^^^ BanicveWt and was bitterly opposed by the 

accomplished. Prince Maurice most earnestly airtinctively " war |Mirty " of the day, headed by 

nrged a settlement of |K)or UsMlinx's claim, and in Usselinx, for the reason that it destroyed the 

a letter to the States General of the Uniteil ^eth. ^^j^^ f^^ ^ ^yest India Company. Thb |«irty 

erlands under date of August 30. 1CJ2. said :— ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^„ every means to injure and 

••i*mUa«iMa*irtMa>w*i*rr«')rMnMn|juy*ii Miieii of kutiM* humUlo tlicir haugluv aiid srrogant coeiiiy. and, 

toteterin«faMlif«llyto|»w»rti>aiHlff«(«MMiili»Wri«liM(i«<%<iMfiMy. • • i |]^.Hn» aniiMn tii have had a bitter 

ta»hkiiii«iiMi*MiM«UKrHUMi4 Narfni ivrv(cM.Mi4a(iiin«iiunM inacc*!, UMWiinx apfiearB lo nsvo oau a uiuer. 

ta II wim III* wiw Mil. for «iiirii iM jiMiiy iiHrnrra lu b* iNv|wrtj penoiial haired of SfNiin and the other C*athulic 

•urr««itbfeft«iu«r»BdfwiM«i«-rvic«^Md«iMyuujuiirbiM. i»» coiiutries lU «nicu lie nau iravcieu. ine iwny, 

•a<k«»f4«h««nH«.iloM«MMniu ftum hn% far lliat imy ptors ^qq^ ^q^ infuScd SS a wholo with the hcttt of rC* 

******'*^" ligioiis rancor for the Calvinists and ruritans 
In sfHte of this strong advocacy of his rights by (the latU*r exiles in Ijcyden) were in bitter autag- 
an influential pcrwnage, the States Geneni! on onism to the Arniiniuns, who controlled the Sute.' 
July 4, 16 A fxisitively refused to settle his claim, The Itcforiiicrs, finally in 10P.I, carried everything 
and refcrre«l him to the managcm of the West liefore them in the Synod of I>ort, the Ariiiiuians 
India Cnm|iany. with a letter in which tliey warm- were put down and thus oue obntiicle to the succcvs 
ly attested his ical and affet*iion for the continuance of colonization wns reiiiovml. The charter to the 
ofthe Comiwny,s|Nike of his williiigiiom to remain Amsterdam iiicrchauU expinnl in 1618; tlie 
and his williugncM ** ti> give and explain the know- twelve year truro with S|miii ended in the spring 
Icdj^e he had aci|uired by Kmg cxiiericnce,*' and of 1621. and the United Provinces must soon be 
be{Q^ that the managers ** wouhl examine and renewed while the nece*siiy for a more viguroiis 
consider everything favorably, and aceonling as |H)licy «m the |Mirt of llulland. in sup|Mirt of its 
they fmiml him worthy of his services, make a sui- claims to the New Netherlands was given an ad- 
table disiNtfition.*' Usselinx did not deliver this ditiunal force of demoiMt ration by the fact that 
letter, because in the first place ho did not regard the Knglish government was prefuring to renioii- 
the maiia}^*ni or com|iany as his debtors, but ** that itrate against the expansion of the Dutch territory, 
their lli;;h MightincMH^s ihel^inhi StutcH Genemls b(»th on tho New Kiigland side ami on the iX'la- 
owed for hill fforviccH,** and setHiiidly, lM>eai>He he ware, tho Virginiiins having, in fad, sent one 
had niuMm to fear the jenhiiiKy and unfrieiidliiu>ss alnirtivo exiHHlition agaiiMt tho tradeni on the 
of wvenil i»f tho managers. •* For them' renHoiw,** latter stream. Thus various causes coiwpirvd to 
he says, ** 1 finally reiiolv«Ml not to trouble mym*lf (iriug ulmut the result that Uiwlinx and his 
any more aliout the com|Niny, and. aflcr giving due |mrty had. for more than twenty years, Uiliorcd to 
notice, left them ami the cimntry to try my luck bring ab<iut. 

elM>where, out i»f the country.'* And thus |MK>r, It was U|K»n the .lil of June, 1621, that the Suites 

di?«piiointed, stung with ingratitude and end)itterc«l General, under their great seal, grante<l the Ibriiial 

in s|Hrit. he tnin9ferre«l his valuable knowlc«lgc and intent incoriiorating tho West India Omiimiiy, 

energies to the service of Sweden and of (fustnviis for the encouragement of that foreign settlement 

Adolphus. where as will presently lie shown they und commerce that its ailvocatcs asserted the wel- 

were not only used to good advantages, but better fare <»f the Netherlands largely rested. Tlie wm- 

a|*t>Tcciate«l than in his native country. jiany was invested with tremendous iN»wcni. It 

The Dutch West India Ci»m|Niny was finally was authorized, as Jirodln^ad says, to make in the 

incor]M»ratcd on the 3«1 of June, 1021, for the time name of the States General, "contracts and 

was ri|« for the ctmpummation of the great scheme alliances with the princes and natives of the 

which, imlced, now looked to a colonization of tlie countries comprvhcndcd within the limits of its 
new world possessions of Ilollaml, as well as the 
ertablishment of trade. To understand the long ' "J- ""if* «>-««•«■ »^riu»^ i. ioii«..|iHM la u-imi.^»k 

«»«»■•«•••■»« • ft Oini«»li iM Aiii**nlwii ■wrehMita, ftir |»m*l«kia lo Mill* u^mi lh« 

delav of this measure, it is necessary to recall one x,ctb iu*m. ui iiim im«w wT nif •ii»«i»ff r*ii«t«MM |Hvirr«MM« «# 

„, t;« cim.n«l.n«. in th. wmdiUon and KttUu.le ;ru•'';:Lr;;;^X^lr^r.1l^^rS.r'JS^ 

of Hollaml early in the seventeenth century. The imt* \mn um cam* ur AMrkmn binury. 


ehartcr, build lbrti» appoint nnd ditcharg* goT- happened, howerer, that the books were nol doted 

oniony loldieri and |Mtblie offioen, administer until June, 1U23, when the organitatioo wa» conn 

juitioe and pronnote trade. It wai bound to ad- picted. 

vance the peopling of these fruitful and unsettled While the orgnnitation was being completed, 

part! and do all that the service of those oouotrtcs several shifis were scut on trading veuturvsof mure 

and the profit and increase of trade shall rc«|uire.'* or lew privato diameter to the newljr divct^veml 

It had a pifiwer in America practically equal lo countries, lietwecn latitudes 40^ and 4.>* ** Utgether 

that of Holland itsdf, for all of the functions of with a great river lying between .18 and 40 de- 

that government, appertaining to its foreign posses- grees of latitude,*' which of cuurw was none «ither 

sions, were unrcMrvedly delegated to it. The than the Dclnware. There b no evitlence that 

States General, reserving the power to declare war, they actually traile<l on thin river, but it is to be 

had a sort of general supervision with the privi- inferred from the action of the Enjrlinh in Virpuia 

lege of oonfirniing the ap|MMntment of su]ierior that they did. Imleod it is pruliable tliat they 

oflicera, but that was the limit of its powers. The visited all of the watem of the coQMt from Bui- 

charter set forth that except in the name of '* the Kanl's Bay (within twenty miles of IMy mouth) 

United Cimiiinny of thi«e United Nvtherlamls,'* for down to the Delaware. 

the s|Micc of twcnty-f<»ur years, no native inlinbitnuts A plan of colonization was aluo matured. Tliere 
of the Netherlands should be fiermitted to sail to were then in the NetlHTlanfliianuml>erofWall«ions 
or from, or to traflic on the coast of Africa, from (Bd>;ian Protestants of suppoHeil Waekfche or 
the tropic of Cancer to the Cajie of Q(nm1 Hope, Celtic origin) who were refugees fnmi Simnt:»h per- 
nor in the countri«i» of America or the West In- secution, who hati M>U);ht to emigrate to Virginia 
dii«, l>etwcen the suulh-oud of Terra Nova, by the but could nf»twMiireiKitiMractory terma. Tlie West 
straits of Magellan, T^ Maire, or any other straits India Com|Miny tpiick toi«e« that these |ieople would 
and iwssnge situate therealmut, to the straits of l>e good imiiii;;nintj< with whom to begin the per- 
Arriaii, neither u|m>u the North or the S<»utb Heas, manent settlement of their |mMMi«(ioiw in America, 
nor any islands situatwl on the one side or the at once made pruvidiuii to carry them over in 
other, or between both, nor on the Western or oneof their nhifis smm to nail. Thii* wai the ** New 
Southern Cmuitrics, reaching, lying and between Netherlands** in eonimnnd of Captain C*omelis 
both tlio mori«lians from the Cn|ie of CioinI Ho|w •laoilieen Mey, who firnt al\er lIudMm had iMtihil 
in the west-end of New (.Suinca in the WMt, ** under into the iX*laware Uay ami who wai* g<»ing out now 
penalty of foHbiture of goods and slii|M.'* as the first resident din*etor or giivenior of the 
The government of the ci»m|iany was veitled in etilonies. The ve^el railed from the' Texel in 
five boards of managera — one at Amstenlam mana- March lG2''t, (Adriaen Joris of Thieu|)oi»t Mng 
ging four-uintlui of the whole ; one at Middlelturg, second in cimiinnnd),without alMiut thirty WalliH»n ' 
in Zealand, nmnnging two-ninthit; one at l)«»r> families on Utanl and tiMik the wuit hem course t» 
trecht, on the Mnest;, managing one-nhith ; one in America, (the one then comnumly follow«il) hy 
North Holland, oiKMimth ; and one in Frienland ' way of the nriii}>h Channel, the Canariti«, 
and CironingtMi, one-ninth. The general ex«ru* ncniM tlie Atlantic t«i («niana and the CarrtlH^iti. 
tive |iower was plactnl in the handi* of n iMmnl of tlienci* northward U'tween the IUTmnda.<« nn«l Ba> 
nineUvn delegatcK, (usually denominated the (*«il> hanuis lo the Virginia miiKl, ami then i*kirtin;; the 
lego of Nineteen) of whom eight Wert* ttt come Inmi nhon* to the North Uiver. Reaching hii* thiiiiua- 
the Anuaerdant C'hamlHT. ami the ivst from the tion Mey dislrilmteil hin handful of ci»loiiij«tM m* far 
other ChamlH>rM in pnt|M»rtiun to their hhnres. ex- as he could. The majority were taken up t«t the 
cept that the SlaU.'M General was to lie repHMcnteil site of Alliany where the Dutch had built Kort 
hy one delegate. The Ktntes «ere pleilged ti> de- Oniiige (Aurania) in 1GI4, a few to the Omnecti- 
fend the ci»m|Niny against all num^rM, to give for iti* cut Uiver and f«iur oaipK^ who had marrittloo tlie 
assistance sixteen shi|iMofwar,ofthree hundred tons way out, with sevend Miilon and other nM>n mere 
each, and four yachts of eighty tims each, and were sent ti» the lX*ln ware, when* they were eillierac-' 
to ailvance a million guililcra in mimey. The com- (H>m|ianied (»r «oon visite«l by Mey. The stite M'le«*t 
pany was to provi«le at its own cx|ieni« a nundier ed for this South River i^ttlemeiit was* Verhul^ii-n 
of sliiiw equal to th4iHesupplie<l by the goveniment Island near the pn>«(i>nt city of Trenton, N.J. 
and to arm and etiuip them all. The fleet thm* While the Walhioikt were hicaled at this* place, it 
cimstitutetl it was provide<l should lie placed under api>enni that the sailors ami iMiidien* were stnti>»mil 
theoonimand of an Admiral sclectiHl by the States at a little fort which was hurrieilly built fnr their 
General. Tlie Ixniks of the c(»m|iany were only to prote(*tion at a s|)ot which tiie natives cnlle«l "Te- 
bo ke|)t o|K!n for stock sulisirriptions during the year kaacho *' near Gloucester I*oint, imuKHlialely op|M>* 
1G21, and while any inhabitant of the Netherlands site the lower |iart of the city of Philadelphia, 
might become a stiK'khohler within that iierio*!, it ._ 
was announced that noue could do so lat?r. It pruUMy. riMi lu uu G«n«.a «»ni waih. .ic<*>ry>Mc . iurrt«.« 


Thb wtm Fofft Nmhui, the flrat building known to While sUpt ngularljr vUtad the Sonth River 
have been erected by clvllind men on the ihorce fbr purpoeoi of trade, Iwlf * doien jenn elapeed 
of the Dehnrare. Its exact site cannot now be before any ftirther attempt wai made to place a 
pointed out, but it was euppoMd to be upon the colonj or build a fort upon iti tboree, and when 
north branch of Timber Creek or ae the Dutch thi« was finally brought about it was largely through 
called it "Tlmmer Kill,** * then called ''Sapackon." private enterprise and resulted in tbe founding of 
!t was built close to the point of rocks, its southern the firat settlement within the prpseot state of 
rampart being within a few feet of the creek.' Delaware. In the meantime changes had taken place 
The year in which the fort was built is disputed, in the manaj^mont of New Nethcrland aflkin and 
but it is probable that its construction was under- in the policy of the West India Ouropany. Peter 
taken about 1623, which was doubtless also the Miouit' came out and Micceedod Verhulst as Di- 
time of the settlement near the site of Trenton, rector of the New England colonics, in 1024, hold- 
The men and women of the Walloons at this iso- ing the position until 1632, when lie was recalled 
lated station grew homesick, and within a year or and Van Twiller became governor in his stead- 
so relumed to Manhattan. The fort too was abnn- Minuit (as will become apparent in the succeeding 
duned aAcr one or two yean of occupation though chapter) was a man of great sagacity and energy, 
it was irregularly occupied by a few soldiers fur but be was compelled, so far as what might be call- 
short periods, down to 1642 when it was cuntinu- cd the home aflairs of the colonics, to follow a very 
ously garrisoned until 1650 or 1651 when the Dutch conservative iralicy, for the West India Oimixiny 
themselves destroyed it, because it was too high up was sadly neglecting the colonization and oonimer- 
the river and too far from the chief theatre (if their cial whemes it was supposed to have lM>en organised 
activities to serve any valuable |Rirpusc Itap|)ears to foster and devoting its strength to far more 
to have been occasionally used as h lu«lging place ambitious and adventumus imcs. While the com- 
hy the Indians, probably at such timrs os they ex- |mny had been nominally chiirtfrL*d to trade with 
|iected trmiing vesHcIs to arrive which was at least and colonise the New Netherlands, the rval object 
once a year, and DoVrics found it thus tenanted of its ehii>fs, had lK>cn a ciiliswiil system of legal- 
by the savages when he visited it in 16:i3. iscd piracy against tbe commerce of Spain and 

In 1625, the colony at Manhattan numbered Portugal, in Afrii-a and Americn. And ala*ady 

over two hundred souls, and Comelb Jacolwen had it won brilliant successes and acquired vast 

May, who administered its simple government, profits in following this manmion of unrighteous- 

during the year 1624, was succeetlcd by William m-ss. It had preyetl ufion Sfsinish fleets from one 

Verhulst, as the second director of New Nether mJq of the Atlantic to the other. It had in two 

lanils. He seems to have visited the Suuth years taken one hundred and four prizes. It fre- 

Kiver, and his name was for a long time ctmi- qucntly sent out wiuadruns of seventy armed vessels 

niemorated by ** Verhulsten Island, " near the to sweep the sens. It hud capturetl l^liia and Pern- 

l)end of the Delaware at Trentim. U|Min this ambuco and aspired to the conquest of Brazil. It 

island, which is descrilietl t» being '* near the falls had declared dividends of fifty iicr eent These 

of that river, and near the west -side tlH'reof," the f|)ectaeular and enormouiily profitable perfurni- 

W«!»t India Cimi|)ony vstablishi'il a trading luMtse, ances had dozzlc<l the wealth-worsliipping Dutch 

*'wliere there were three or lour families of Wol- niind and completely cast into the shade humble 

loons.** The com|jany alim hatl a hrirk house at proHu of plodding, but legitimate trade and the 

ll«irtfkill. The Walloon families did hot remain cimi|Miny did not care to be Whered with the 

very k«g in tlieir lonely frontier home. By order discharge of rtuvh common-place duties as direct- 

«»f the West India Com|Miny, " ail those who were ing the settlement of the Dutch possessions and 

at the }fouth Kiver,*' at Verhulsteii IflHud, and organizing commerce. It was this abandonment 

Port NoMau, in Mi2H, were r(*m«»ve<l to Manhattan, or dwarfing in im|)ortance of the original pur|HM>s 

A Muall vcMiel only renminbi there, to ktH'p up of the ci»m|Miny which had l)cen one of the chief 

the fur trade. That trade, h(»wover, was leM pro- oMv^m of the withdrawal «»f William Ui«<<>linx, its 

titable tluin trallie on the North Itiver. pronmtcr, in 1(»24. lint there were, nevortheless, 

MMitiH>iM|iiiii\»M|«iiiiH*wurkiiiaanj|tMitniMWiM«i»i«watiM niiiong the UK'nibers of the Amslertlam chamlier 

•7x':::;::I:Ti:i.T^r.irS;r-i.,« •*.« ^^ m jis«... .i««i. w"»c shrewd min<ls allicit of c.,nsi.rvalivc charac- 

«ii«KiM«*tiit».M««/ib-f^.rt. iH i7«'>a M|«ntpii |irUiii»<Y tiiiMirnM (er, wlio did uot, amid the excitement of conquest 

•» Uwl ^ Ihr |vU«»ra. anJ fiwi» wine •NlrmlM«l Ikal llirjr »uiil4 , ; u .....kj,,., ..f vimt fortUIUV fofifOt that 

rtt*v wiii«iii«i.«^uir«irto WW "i-ie ••»!*«* tu«uWfcm« iri»ir. awl quicK mnRing tu a aw lorumes, i"rge^ inn 

i« 4«ne4Nc III* tt*mm>» ut tku i«n*«<^. *^s f*'***^ «T-nii HxtmiiT thcK wos su abiding value m lands. Of this class 

■MMj ran*.* K•n^ ffniMMiMMt •«*! uiiirr •imiur (l•lNR^ «iitrh tad atiptiort sud dcvclopmeiit of the colon le*, all, also, 

snj2U'::::2r::"tnt::2t;:C-,2J'r^ mi «.*!!«..« u. n.«kc i..v«.i, *i.ieh 

rio»t.nMty. M •! lb* ifwijr mt an k iiw|<*iw>, la iMti, •■ Kn|[ii>h fyrfhcr curich tliemsclvca— Were John I>e I^ot, 

■Ual* «M S^<4 rrMH Umw, !• ImmmT wT IIm liw««nMr, «Ih> «m ||«iIu« Iw . . ^ ... . ^ «. 

I th* LivfeUM* ■! .N«« CmIW. 'TIw mam U thIumIj ■ip.IM «hi»«l, Ulum^tt mS !«•■.••. 



the hklorUii, KUIimo Van Reiiaielaer, Micbii«l 
Paaw Pcier Evertaeo Huofl, Joiim WitMo, Hen- 
drick Httiuel, Baniuel Qodjrn aimI BaiiiucI Bloin- 
maerL Then AiiMterdam luvti of tuhttauce, after 
cuoiHiIting with Itaac 0c Ilasicrvt, Miiiuit*a aecre 
Ury, who, for loinc rcaaon, bad boeii sent back to 
HuUaud, Mcttrvd, from the College of Nineteen, a 
" Charter of Kxeiiiption ami Privile);ni *' lo all 
Kuch as idiall plant colouiea ui New Netherlands, 
which tlie States Qeiieral cooHrmed on Juno 7, 
1G29. This createil a complete feudal system and 
planted it upon the soil of the weHteru world, 
destined not, indeed, lung to nuurish it, but to 
become the globe's broadest 6cid of democracy. 
A landed aristocracy was brought into exiKivni'e 
and the New Netherlands were liamlcd uvrr 
pretty much to its coutml. The charter gave the 
privilege to mendwrs of tlto company to senil to 
America by the comimny's shi|iK, on certain con- 
ditions, three or four iiersons to seli-ct lauds, which 
on iMirchase from the Indians and on proicrilied 
conditions of jilauting colonies, should in tracts of 
fixed sixe, bee«mie the profierties of feudal birds, or 
patroons, who were also to have the control and 
government of their inlmbttanis. The land select- 
ed for a coUmy might extend sixteen Dutch miles 
in length if confined to one side of a navigable 
river or eight miles on each side, if both banks 
were occupied, and extend as far into the country 
as the situation of the occupiers should make de- 
■irabte (though this latter clause seems afterwards 
to have been revoked and the extent inland to 
have been mtHlified to one half of a Dutch mile, 
or two English miles). These great gnints were 
to be bestowed upuu any memliers of the company 
(to none others were the privili*ges open) who 
should within four years plant a colony of fifty 
adults U|iou the tracts in iiuesttoo anywhere in 
New Netherlands except upon the Island of Man^ 
hattan More immigrants entitled the |Nitroon to 
pr^)|iortiouately more land. The palruons aciiuireil 
their estates in fee simple, with fiower of divimsiug 
by will ; they were magistrates within their own 
liounds — "had chief comntand and dower jtiris- 
dicti«»u" — and each fiatroou had the exclusive 
privilege of fishing, fowling ami grinding corn 
within his own domain. They had also the {Mjwer 
of foumling cities and ap|Miinting oflicers and 
could trade anywhere along the c«Mist or to Hol- 
land on imyment of five |ier cent, duty to the 
com|)any, at its reservation of Manhattan. The 
com|)auy prohibited engagement in nnuiufacturing 
and retained exclusive uiooo|)oly of the fur trade. 
In all other matters the patroons were to be sov- 
ereign in their lordship 

Among the very first to act under the Charter 
of Exemptions and Privileges were .Samuel Blum- 
maert and Samuel Godwyn. In 1629 they sent 
two persons to the Delaware to examine and buy 

land, and these agents |Mirvbascd fron the Indians, 
on the south (or west) side of the bay, a timet, 
tliirty-two miles long and two ndlvs «lce|i, extend- 
ing from otfi VtL\it Heulo|ien (almut wliere the 
south boundary of iX'laware Uiuche* the ocean), 
northward, to the mouth of a river, the |jatent being 
registered and confirmed June 1, Ib^iO.* <HlK-r 
would-be fiatrons soon followed the example of 
Biommaert ami GiMlnyn, and ma«le similar ]Hir- 
chases elsewhere in New Netherlamlit, Van Keui^e- 
laer becoming the pn»prietor of nearly all «if the 
present CiMinties of AllNUiy and RcnNH.*lttcr in New 
York, while their c«»mrade^ secured alnuait ei|ually 
exteniiive, and in some cases even more vnluable 
estati-s. But these lunU of the soil began to (|uar> 
rel among themselves, and to avoid ex(iui«ure and 
scandal (for the hind **|MMd" had much to fi-«r 
liecause of the {leculiur nature of its tnini>aclii»ns), 
they divided the lands e<|ually aniung the diitaf- 
feite«l ones t»f their number, the historian, De Lact, 
Biommaert and Ciodyn, each receiving a fifth in- 

> Till* trart vT Imi<I «m Ib^ SrM rv«« |Mi>-hMnl by thf •bilM «ii1im 
tllr llMliU •/ thi> .•M^IV »if |WI««al>P. TliU Srot |>wl< ItM* fniM iKr Im- 
«lUiM «■■ r>«-«i|(iitr«nl !•}[ lb* iHrwIwn niwI rw«M>il t4 Now Nrih»ftj»U 
■rihtK lur h«iMHf| tiwlfu •«•! t«aai«*rl HI>i«iiaMi rt, ia a ■i«-oall«^i -W-r^ 
ilalml al Itia I«IiiihI nf Manhattan Jul) l\ liV»«. Tlib •ka-«i»wni. «ihhk 
y rulltrr an w< rittaar* « mrwiiintioluiM >4 |Mr< haar ttiaa a •kW, twins 
MiwtKnttI by Ibr lathjtti Kranltirr, baa l^vn |ir«afr*^i in tbr >v« \-r% 
Nat* IJIirarjr an>l a |»h«>lu(cra|4itr oafty «^ (<%*• Iw lb« lli>tv«hal 
SmMi uf Itrlaaarv bjr tb>«. Mtrctitb Mra4. It baa alaw !•*• |Hil>li>i|i>4 
In llamrd'a Aitnala. p tX. It b impoMblr al tbk dajr !•• •lH>-nHin« tb« 
Umnab tiT tbo Irarl UK It niaai bat* cmiprimi tb» grra|.-r tmtt vl lb* 
kay ffuat Mfllir |irra*ntrtM«htira tifrtHwra awl K«al ttx^a <°«|* M<-<i* 
b(|a-M iMinb«ar«l livinic thin>-l«u mlln Mgbl l>Ml(b miImi b«nt an4 
t*w Miiaa (ur huir a Uiileh ffmtr MgUn bnaali. Tha 0%it< b \i*A^Aj 
wvtr-Mraaurvil Ui« laiol aaJ caw* nurtb l« lb* iiKNitk »f tb* Mab«« 
Ki«rr, |:t^) Mtairail iif i.l.'i aiibM, ai'il Ibal in a atniiclit Itn** iiwt tw l af 
MhialMic thv i-Hr*M iif tba cuaat. Tb* Stiraairnl »b^ b m Micn^ bf 
iVlfr MtiiHil, Jat^ Kllwrlaua Wl^ink, Jan Jan*-n Urvowrr, Ma»i« 
iNrrkapu r««s Kciuar llarmaiMaer and Jau Laa«|« rrnal* la pari a» 

•* W«, tbe IHrvvtan a«4 t'iMinrll uf Nf>« NMb>^Un>la. i««l>Un« m tW 
lalaivl iif Manliattan anS In I'ttrt AnMlrnbun, uicUr lb* anib»nij «f 
Ibfir ili«b MlKlitinwwatha liwnl- l^tair ii*ii«vMl wT Ibr laU*^! Nvtbrt* 
land*, an*! uT tba lnt.-<iff|iorai««l Wnl lual'a l'wMi|«njr lliamWr al A»- 
■lanlam, b*rrliy ai-hiiual«<«lK« and «ln-Ui«, Ibal «• tbK dajr, tbr data 
•mkr written, Cjihw anii aiiivanM livli>r«> aa In Ibrir |«^i*r par^iM^ 
t|nf«baf>i«M a»l Knfi|n>-t. Momcnlna an*l tb* inbal>liania c4 tli* «ill^*. 
■Ilitatr at tb* A^Mlti t'a|i« *JI lh« laiy wT S>i«lb Rit*r, and frrrU and 
tuluiitaril; dmUml bj ii|i*rlal aiilb»i1ly uT tbi* mbrrs and mnarni wf 
Ik* it«Mnwnalil> tbviv, that lb*; alrradjr u* tli* Sr»( day uf Jnn». «f 
lb* \mM >«ar i<*/tf, fur, awl t>n a<ru«iil %4 i-rf lain |an*b vt i-ariuvs 
«rbk-b lli*y |irp«bMia lu lb* |<*iMnc brrt«<f. arkuiiala*l4c-d Iw ba«* rw 
rvivrd and (ut into tb«ir band* and }fom*r, lu ih«ir rail Mii»f.iHrti.j«, 
ba?v li«iMr*«Tv<l, «-mI««I, iiivcn uv«r, aad r«>n«ry*«l, la jual. Irna. anJ 
frr* |>r«>|a-rl]r, aa IImtt b*rrbjr tnui«|i«tl. r«nl*. |ci«* ••vrr, an>l rwatry f*. 
and b>r tb* b*lMiwr *4 Mratrt. 8aatu*l «i««ljrn an>l :la»«trl ltiwtnnia«fft 
alarnl ; and for vlMnn, Wr, l>/ tirtu* %4 vnt t>nioiun>b*r |^i* r aliiNi. 
lalluli, ibt ■rr«-|4 lb* nu«m>. liaMM-ljr, tb* laial t« Ihrm I* lonniMtf. Pitiut* 
•Ml til* MJUlb •(•If wT lb* afwmMbl llajr, bjr na rallail lb* Hay i^ lb* >>iilb 
Rlv*r, *ikt*ii<li»i: la l*n(th fhna <'a|a< llinlollin. i>ll Intw ib^ ni-Mitb '4 
lb* ar«irp<«iid i<<»uth lUtrr, alaMitviisbl U*i:wr« ri;r«-ii* M^bm. «i»l balf 
a l>«Ktt* !■> braadtb lulu lira int*rl*r, rxtftt'liiiK u% a rwrfcita mmftk 
{\\rjW\ <•* ruUrf, iliruMKb ahlcb Ib^a* llniita can drarljr tiaMtich br .li^ 
tinK><i*)«**l. And, tliat wttk all tb«< atlii>n. rliElil. ai»l Jnr»«ll< tt-in. In 
tbrm In lb* afunrMl'l •inalltj tli«rria a|if»-naiBiiiic, cwimiiiiiiIiik and 
MirrtiKalluK tbr >1**h«. tiiolyn and IMniHniaril, In Ibcir ■tr>»>l, •<at*, 
■mI, and actual fwmi m-hm lb*rr<.f ; ainl i(i«ia|C th*m al lb* nini*iiai*. 
fbll and IrrpTaa^M* autbwriljr. |»w*r, and ■|i*«-ial oMiinMiMl lu b«4d in 
qalH |«an**al<>n, «««.U|ian(-)r awl nm, taiM|Uani Artttr** M l*ri<aratwr*a la 
ram imfrlam tha afufvaatd land. ao|iitrr«l bjr lb* alu*** ntaniiMtird 
MeMfi. Owdyn anal Mumntarrl, (4' th*im> «tb« tmmj li*r»*aflrr ul4aia lb*ir 
tnlf rrat ; alau, lu mt l«rtpr an<< di«|*iM* tb*rwr, a* tb*y ntajr ib* wUb 
Ibvlr oarn wril and lawfully art|u<rrd laiwl*." .... 
So murh uT tliU tiiiaal «l*«d niual •uffir*. iba r*ntalnd*r l»ln« nnlwipo*. 
lant and tMbnk-al. Tb* SrM mtmit Indian dt«d w« r«««4d Ik Imlawai*- 
It gifaa la Um fifwadiag cliaptar. 



i«rwt !■ Vm RpiMwlaer't iMlcnti, and DIoniBMerl 
aimI Godyn ahariDg ■imiliirly with their imrtnen 
the tract iin the Huuth River and Bay (or Qodyn'e 
IUt, a* it now liei^n to be called). 

Godyn and Rlonmiaert, tn order to hold, or 
rather aecure full title to tlieir tract, had to oulo- 
niie and inipnive it, and, in the avconiplishnient of 
thi*. Daviil IMetenen IH Vrica, of lltioru. a North 
Holland imrt, **a liold and akilfu! waiuau and 
iitanlcr of artillery in ihoiH'rvivuof tht* Uuiteil Pnt* 
vimnit, iKHtiniv tlie Utitlinjc iui»truiiH'iit." IX* Vriiit, 
a itki|i|ier wliti wiw known to (Sotlyn mid, who in 
IU*i4, had triv«l, uiiKiivciiwfully, to inviide the Wmt 
lu<liaC«»iM|MiRy*8niouo|ioly,and now newly rcturne<l 
fnini a three yean* eruitfe to the Kant In«liea, wa« 
ollered an opimrtunity to go the New Netherlands 
a» a (niptain and **wcond |wtru«in.*' But he de* 
cliufd to enter into tlie |>n>ji*ct on any ternui itave 
n|uality with the rut, which finally being a^^rced 
til, he wa« made a iiatnton on October 10, I6.'*0, 
an«l taken into partnciship with («iNljn, lilom- 

nAVin t'lKTKHHKN OK VttlliK. 

■Mcrt, De Vriea and Van Remmelacr, and about 
the Mnae Uoie four other dirccti»ri of the Wcat 
India Coiuiiany, Van Ceulen, IlauK*!, Van Har- 
inghoeck and Van Sittorigh, were admitted to the 
land *'|iool," aa it wi»uld now lie called. The 
captain now net to work to advance the enter- 
prise of hitf aMMiciatca. TIte ship ** Walvin," or 
** Wliah*,*' of eighteen gtiiw, nnil a yacht were lin* 
nMiliately cipiipiicil and Milled from the Texel, in 
lVtvmlR*r, lU''U),ti» plant X\w flrxt iH'ttlenieni within 
the prtwnt boun<lariei« of the Htnte of Ih^liiwan*, a 
vcttlcnicnt which haa a iiMHiriifiil iiitcnvi, from the 
fact that all of iUi |ieiiple were maiwncrutl by the 
Indian*. Tlte rciwela carried out ininiigniiitii, cat- 
tle, fiiod and whaling iiiiplemciits, fur l>e Vriea 
had been ti>ld that wlialea abounded in (jodyn*a 
Bay, ami he intcndeil eatabliidiing a whale and 
M-al fishery thert*, aa well aa a sett lenient and 
plantatitMia for the cultivation of lobnceo and 
grain. The ex|K'«litliui itaihtl (Vom the Texel, in 
IhnvnilNT, nniler the comniniid of IVter lleyca, 
of Kdain (for De Vrk» did not go out at tliia time. 

aa atated by aame writen).* They arrived In South 
River, in April, 10.*11. Sailing up the aouthem or 
wuatalM>re the '*Walvia" and her cooaort, Juat 
above the preaent Gape Henlopen, entered *'a fine 
navigable atream, filled with ialanda, abounding in 
giNMl oyatcra,*' and flowing through a fertile region, 
and tliere the imniigranta — about thirty in nuin- 
lM*r, all nmlea — were landed, and the firat colony 
in IX'laware ii«tabliMlied. The place waa near the 
aite of liCwtM, ami the atrcani waa what ia now 
known as liowcs Creek, but waa then naiiKnl, by 
lleyca, lliN>rnkill,nn4l sulMe<|iicntly corrupted into 
Whorakill or llorek ill.* The settlement was called 
Zwaaiieiidael or Swanvale, and a ainall biiiMiug,' 
Biirnmndeil with |iolisadea, wim isivcii the name of 
Fort Oplandt The land at Zwamicndael, or the 
Valley of Swans," was again purchase<l, evidently 
in a kind of confirmatory way, by Peter Ileyea 
and Gillia HiiMHitt, ruiiicctivcly the captain and 
comniiKaary of the ex|Ktlition, on May 5, 1U31, 
froui Saunoowouiif, Wiewit, Penehacke, Mckowe* 
tick, Tcehe|iewiiga, Miitlmmem, SaeotM'k, Anchoo|»- 
oen, Jaii<|Ueus and Poknlinke, who were either 
lionais* or Naiitleoke liiiliaiis. 

Koon tttler the etilonisla were comfortably settled 
at Zwiiunncmlacl, 1 leyes crossed to Gi|h> May and 
lN>uglit from ten cliiels on lielialf of Cimlyn, 
Blomimiertand thcirassociatesa tractof land twelve 
miles aipinre which pureliiise was n*gistered at 
Manhattan June .'1, ll>3t. Then nf\er demoiiatra. 
ting that nothing was to lie exiH*cted from the 
whole fishery, Jleyes sailed in Scptemlier for 
Holland to re|Nirt to his employers, leaving llosactt 
in commiiml of Fort Opiniidl and the c«ilony of 
/waaneiuliiel. Just how the tiias5acre of the set- 
tlers came aliout was never known, but there ia 
reason to lielieve that it was incited by wrongful or 
at least unwise acta on the {sirt of Hossett and hia 
men. The Dutch says one account (given to Do 
Vriea by an Indian) aa waa the custom, erected 
a pillar and plui'ed a piece of tin ufion it, 
traced with the ci«t of anna of the United Pro- 
vinces. One of the chiefs not knowing the gravity 
of the oflenee, took away the tin to make pi|iea 
fniiii it,whicli created great indignnlioii among the 
ollicers of the little garrison. The Imliaiis, con- 
tinues this narrative, were exceedingly anxious to 
make uniemis to the while men, for they enter- 
tained an awe and reverence scarcely inferior to 
that which they accorded the goihi, and slaying the 

> rfrrlii anil Vlnmit li>v» bnlh hllr« Ulo IhlN rnur, 4oiil4li« (Wmi 
lli^ bet llwl Up Vrim wm At IIm WhA vt IIm r«l«r|iri«F smI Ibsl li« «M 
•flrr«NnlaiHi lira IMawarv. 

9TlMf« tenwt llM>llKbl««4*vl<hiiir* lh»l tlila tuam liwl lln «rlKis la 
llMslliiKrd III IwlMtlor of lira Iih1I«ii «wm«hi of IIm n*Kiua. It *■■ ■*■• 
«l.i«|.|mlljr iMMinl mIIit llwirii uT IIkIInimI villi llw aRlv uT •• kill " llw 
iKilt-h fur rlwr, ainl nirrtt|4Ml Ity IIh* Kii|ill«h lulv U lK>n-kill whlrli imiim 
•nMrlli»«rrl««liif l*«iin •MKMtIM luali tif lli* Itrrlliiry InrlniM In 
S«aM>\ I'tiNiiljr, r«|« IKirn »m hIm* h«inm| Hilar IIi« "f«ilirrUHt| " 
liiiTN iif ||iR«ri| lijr William ISinirllMald-lwtMlrn, 

'Thla i« Mid lu liHV* lirru n lirlrk buovt, latt lli»r«> M iw nwHlhiS wf 
Hiker uf III* alil|« Mnsliis u»«r lirtt-M M lH|rk*iiMklHS lM|>li-in*Nto Is 


oAtediog obief brought a token of their Ml to the that tUj, \J\nm the next, the 7lh of Deoenbcr. 
Ibrt hoping thus to appease the white M anitou't they Uiecuvered Kveral Indiant near the ntins of 
aoger. They were rebuked for thb act, which they the fort, but th«y would mit ciaie down to the ship, 
thought would pruTC propitiatory, and went away They evidently fvared to apitproach and desir^ 
ditplcaaed. Some of the frienda of the muitlered the wliiUs to come on shore, which DcVriee did 
chief who had taken no part in the crime and re- the following day, being anxious to learn aumc |«ir> 
gardeil it as being actuat(Ml by the Dutoh, reiolved ticuUra of the niassacre if iNMsible. He went up 
u|ion revenge, and stealing upon tliem when with the stream in the yacht in order that be might 
the exct*pCton of one sick man they were all at ** have some riielter from their amiws,** and fuund 
work in the fields, slow tlicni, aflcr wards going to a number of the untivcs, but they were very shr. 
the fort and nwkiiig the massacre complete by ami it was sonic lime U'fore he euuld induce any 
killing its solitary uccuimnt, ami sluNiting twenty- of tlH'in to go «fii the veiNH.*!, thiMigli lie finally suc- 
five arn»ws into a huge ehnincil mastiff. This ao- ouede<l in giiiuing tlieir cimfi<lence. He tlieti re- 
count of the destruction of the first colony of white oeived tlie story, already given in sulistaucc, which 
men within the bouiularies of Delaware is oficn to was very probably a fabrication designed to pal- 
doubt, SI* far as the provoking cause is concerned, liato the action of the Imliuns and at the same time 
but it apiMsars oertnin that the whites were greatly to conciliate tlie Dutch. lX*Vries did not care to 
to blame. Whate\'er may have been its causes investigate trio clearly a deed which was irrei»ra- 
the massacre was a melancholy fiu;t, and thus was blc, an<l which he fell a«sured originated in simie 
shed the first whito blood u\¥m the Delaware. brutality or debauchery anniug his own race. He 
DeVrics early in W\'l had made pre|mratious already knew siimcthiiig of Dutch cruelty, and at- 
to visit the e<»l(iny, ins|iect its etuiditiun and place tributiHl the niaiMicre of Hosiiett and his men to 
more settlers there. Just as ho was ready to sail "mere jangling with iIk* Indians" and made a 
from tl)o Texel in comiiiiind of another ship and treaty of {icace with them and Healed it with prvn- 
yacht, on May 'i4, Governor Minuit arrived from ctit4---du(rcis. bullets, hatclK-ts and Nuremburg 
Manhattan with the startling intelligence of the toys" afW the u^ual cuittom. 
massacre at Zwaauendalc. Notwitnslanding this De Vrics and his ni* n lingered in tlie region of 
discouraging news he sailed, and aAer a tedious Lewes (Vcek through the remainder of Dei'cnilier, 
voyage (making their customary immense detour to atleniptiug. it is sup|M wed. to capture whales, but 
the southward) arrived oH* the Delaware cuusl early on January 1. IGii-'t, navipitiou lieing o|ien, they 
in December, knowing long liefore he saw land that weiglicil anchor ami sailml up the Imy auti river 
it was near '* by the odor of ihe underwood which tt> Fort Nio'suu, where he arrived on tlie 5th. 
at this time of tlie year is burned by the Indians There De Vries met some of the natives, who de- 
in order ti» be le«s hindered in their hunting." On sired to Isirter furs for cttrn, of which, however, 
tlic 3d of IX-ccmber the weary voyagers saw the he had none, and was thus unable to trade with 
entrance of the liay; on the 5th sailed around the them. The Indians made a show of ottering iwace. 
Ca|)e, and ou the (>th ran with the coast up the but their actions were suspicious, and he was 
Hoomkill, having first taken precautions against warned by a si|uaw whom he gave a cloth dress, 
an ambushed attack by the savages. De Vries that their intentions were evil, lie noticed, too, 
doubtless had hoiics that the niaasaerc would prove that some of them wore English jackets, and pres- 
to have been of a low {lending character than had ently learned that they had recently munlereil the 
been represented; that some of the men had cs* crew of an Kiiglish sloop, said U» have come up 
caped or lawn Sfsired; but lie found that his worst the river from Virginia, and, as they greatly out- 
fimrs had been rcalixcd and the scene that met his iiuiiilierLHl his men, the wary capiain dealt with 
eyiw, even before landing tohl too well of the fact them very cautiously. On the Gth he anclumil in 
of the seltlenient. The stockade had Imhmi burned fmnt of the TiuiiiK'r Kill (TinilM>r Cnrk), fully 
and the dwelling or store house which constitutc<l prepanil for the Indians if they intended harming 
the stronghold of Fort Opinndt was nciirly ruined. Itini, and s«siii their can(N*s came shiNtting from the 
Dut the worst was n.*ached when they came to the shore and approncluil the yacht. Forty «Mld of 
place where their countrymen had lx»eii butchen>d, the natives clambered on iMNinl. Their visit was 
when they found "the ground bestrewed with prulwbly made with |Nicific intent, but they were 
heatk and bonet of their murdered men, and near closely watched, and when the captain thought 
by the remains of their cattle. " Hilence and ruin they had l»ecn there long enough, he ordered 
and desolation reigned in the once lovely valley, them ashore, thivnteniiig them to fire if they 
The melancholy little search [larty returned to their refuseil to depart, and telling them that he hatl 
ship, and having as yet seen no Indiniis, De Vries been wnrnctl I ly their Mnnitou (<i<n1 or devil) of 
ortlertnl a cannon fired with the ho|io of bringing their wtck(*(| dcfti){iiN On the Mth, ancr cruining 
some of them down to the shore» hut none cnine up and down the river, he again rrturned to his 

i|taVrKi*.tfti. liusition l>eforu the fort, which was now thronged 


vitk laduuM, wmI pfCMBtlj a cmmm eane off with Two jmn after the departure of DeVriei and 

■iae of them, wlio, vbvn thej came oa to the hie oolunietii from the Delawaro un the 7th of Peb- 

jacht, were f«MiBd to be chieik They crouched io ruary, 16 (6, the whole of the iwtruou Uind« on both 

a circle, and gave the captain to undentaod they ilioree of the hay, one stretching along the ooant 

had found he wet afraid of them, but that they thirty-two niilve and ilio uthcr enibntciiig Capo 

desired only |ieace and trade, and pmented ten May and I lie wirnHiudliig country for a distance of 

beavor skins, with much ccrenMiny, in token of twelve niil«M, were sold by Owlyii. Ulommacrt 

ihvir friendship. l)ti tk' Uth and lOtli he obtained and tlioir Hi«imciut4is lo the \Vc*t liidin Oiiiii|miiy, 

from tlami a bumII «|uautity of oorn and a few for fiUccu thouMiiid six huudivd ^{uildcrs or six 

funik and on the latter dnydrop|H5d down the river tliousniid two huudrutl au«l forty dollars. Tlib 

ami anchorcil half a mile above the Mimiuaa Kill was tlio tint laud sold by whites u|iuii the Uvla- 

(Christiana River), on the lookout for whales ware Bay or liiver. 

His yacht was afterwanb twice froscn fast in the Fort Nassau, which was uuocciipied except by 

ice, and he was in some danger from Indians, of Indians in ltf.'l3, must have been gttrri:iuncd sunn 

whom he saw numerous hands, there being some aAerwards, for in 16:io a |Nirty of KugUsliinen 

internecine war among them He reached Xwaan- from the colony on the Cuiiueclicut River, who 

eudaci, after most vexatious delays, on February sought to make a scttleiiivut un the Dclawnru en- 

20th, and on March 6th sailed for Virginia to pro- deavoretl to capture it, but were thwaric<l, captured 

cun*. If |HHwilile. supplies for his ctilony. He was ami sent as priMiuors to Manlmdau. It is proba- 

U|iiin his arrival there root by the (lovcnior and ble that the fort was ciMitinuoiinly occupiinl by the 

some offl(*crs ami M»ldicrs, who trenlinl him very Dutch from this time t(» nud after tlio iK*tlleiuvnt 

conltally, but told him that the Booth River Iw on the river by the Hwitli's in lU.'IM, ami ilcvrtain« 

longed to the Rritish by right of diac*jvery. The ly was in that year as the aeciuints of ex|»etlilii»ns 

Governor apiienrcd never Iwfore to have heani that for its maintenance in the Wiwt liiilia Ciim|Niny's 

the Dutch had built forts and placed settlements b<ioks prove. Uut other than this infiiiilusinml 

upon the river, hut spoke of a small vessel tliat dot of slowly dawning civilization, near the pres- 

had been sent some time before to explore the ent town of Gloucester, N. J., tliere was nowhere 

stream, and of which nothing had since been U|ion the siiorcs of the river an.l l»ay any sign of 

heard although she was long since due. De Vries human habitation, save the occtisitma! wigwam 

then narrated what had lieen told him by the In- of the natives; and the great wiUlernu»s that 

dian squaw in regard to the murder of a boat's stretched away, no one knew whither, fn>m the 

crew, and related the circumstance of having royal water-way lay as a virgin region awaiting 

eeen some of the Indians wearing English gar- the coming of man. Hut prcpuialions were again 

menta. Purchasing provisions and receiving a making beyond tlie ocean— this time in far away 

present of half a doien goats, De Vries set sail Sweden— for the peopling of these shores, 
again to the northward, and in due time readied 

Zwaauendael. He found that his men stationed ..._.. 

there had taken seven whales from which they 

had rendiired thirty-two cartels of oil, but as the CHAPTER V 

fishing wus too expensive in pro|M>rtion to the pro- 

cee<ls, and the colony being so snmll that it could new bwedem ON TIIK DKLAWAKB 

not itiiMmably be exiKHitcd to maintain itself and 

reniia the Indians, ho t4M»k the few adventunim Bwedkn was now to Imkihuu tho c«)m|)otitor of 

then* anil wiileil to Manhattan and thence to llol- Franco, and Kngland, and Holland for a f«M»tliold 

land some time in the sumnwr of li):t:t. Thus tho in North America. TIk* lilieral mimi of Oustavus 

iK'lawaru Ray was again alaindoned to tho lu- Adolphus early discurne<t the lieneHts to his |ieoplo 

dians, and no jieoplo but they bniko the solitude of cohmies and an eximndod commerue ; and 

of it* shores or trod the melancholy. bloiMl -stained William Usst- linx, the projector of the Dutch 

and deiolate ground of tho ** Valley (»f 8wans," West India Gmi|mny, visiting the Raltic, quick- 

the site of Delaware's first settlement, for many ened the seal of the sagacious sovereign. Turning 

yean. to Sweden and contemplating the complex U-gin- 

Accordiog to English nde, occu|iancy was neo- ning of her coloiiixation project, which n*sultc«l 

cssary to complete a tilk) to tho wilderncM. 'Hie in the planting of the limt iiermanent organised 

IXflawaro having been recompiercd by the natives, K^ttlement on the iX'lawuri*, in IGXM— Christina* 

before the Dutch could renew their claim, the |Nit* ham, the site of which is now embraced in the 

ent granted to Cecilius Calvert, secoiul I»rd Raiti- city of Wilmington— one of the immt noteworthy 

more, on June 20, lti;)2, gave the Dutch an Eng- and curious facts, which presents itself to the stu- 

lish competitor in the person of tho proprietary of dent, it, that the three individuals chiefly instru- 

Maiyland. mental in accomplishing that work were men who 



htd AlroMly beoome |»rt)iiiiMDt In the Dutch eolo- 
nUiI entcr|)riiios Thcao were William Uwelinz, 
Peter Minuii and Hamuel Bloniinacrt— names 
with which the reader of tlie preceding cha|iter ia 
already familiar, knuwiiig them to have been re- 
■fiectlvcly thom of the fint |>nijector of the Dutch 
Went Iiulia C(»m|miiy, in IG2t ; a Uuvcrnor of 
Now NctliorlancU and a imtriNin pnitirictor of 
great land tracts on the iX'liiwtire, one of which 
incladMl tlio nite of the unforiiinate cohiny uf 
Zwaancudacl, ujion tlic Hoonikill. 

Umclinx, as liaM licen shown, left Holland late 
in 1023 or early in 1()24, imfioverished and stung 
by the ingratitude of the Dutch. He went imme- 
diately to Sweden and tliert* nmde, through Chan- 
cellor Axel Oxenstiorna, to King Gustavus Adol- 
phus, — the, then, nitMit commanding figure in 
Kuro|io and the chief ih'fcnilcr of Pnttiitlnniiitm, 
—a pro|MMition to cuinliliKh a HwtHliiih Trading 
CtHnpiiny to o|M*ra(e in Ai^iii, Africa and Amcritii, 
hut to ci(|NH*ittlly dircrt iu energies t<i the hilter. 
Doth King and ('hnnivllor endiraced the enthusi- 
ast's pn»jvct, with aliicrity, and their interest and 
assistance knew no abatement, save through the pe- 
cuniary embarrassments, political changes and wars 
which unfortunately ensued. Uwclinx, in urging 
all the advantages that might accrue to the nation 
and indiviilunls by the enterprise, stated that there 
were thousamls of miles of shore in America 
where no Spanianls ot Dutch had ever been, with 
fertile soil, and gocid clininte, to the natives of 
which their sujicrfluous goodi* could be sent and 
from whom other goo<ls taken in return : that colo- 
nics might be plttntc«l on theate shores to the great 
bcnclit of the mother country and vastly extend- 
ing His Majesty's dominions, and that the causes 
of civilinitiim and Christianity might be greatly 
advanced. '* Altove all," said he :— 

•*lt MMl truly U mM that Ih* muit ImihwIabI obJ«ct M vkkli aU 
|4mm HirtrtUiia pliiMiM ain, b thai a liiM<«|nlK* ui and fH««>Uil|i »ltli 
»• MMhy dlflaf«ki imiliiiM miMt aprva naart pumwrtuUy tw tli* li<>M«*r of 
(ital, wlikli U rfli- lr«l \mrt\f bj |in«( liiiic Itii* li>ailOlnK wimi %4 nar 
l^»M Ji««ia riiri«l Iu IIkmi MMi««« aliti liat* hllbtTlu \\y-A In lilliKlif««iiS 
l«l<4i»ir>, aifl ak-kwItiM*, Ml llitijr will U* limuMhl In IIm< HhM 
uf Iruili aifl rii>riMl «kl«allMM. In lk«a«niNNlrtr« atMr* Irwlx kiul 
lilth<rt«>l«-«<N i-arrtnl •>«, iha imIItm, f>«r want nt » miM (irtf^nnifnl, 
luwl lirrii In a |rrv«l |aiit vftllrtolnl, an<i lh»aa lliat mnaiiinl «) wmb 
m|i|i«v*mI iImI UU- kail Im^-wiii* a li«rib>n lulki'M.*'* 

For the sctlleincnt of su-h a company as Usscl- 
inx pro|Miee<l the King grante<l letters (tatent, 
dated Novendier 10, I<i'i4, creating the .Swedish 
South Son Company which it was providetl, should 
go iut4) o|)orati(m May 1, IG25, and ctmtinue twelve 
years, or until UilM. On the 21 si day of the next 
nitMith CiuslavuH AtKilphus aulhorixitl IW-linx 
III travel through the kiugtlom and M>lieil sulweri- 
Iters to the sttK'k of the Com|Niiiy and gave him a 
kinti tif general letter of rect»mmeiidutii>n in which 
he said : — 

• "StMia AnmintarwilliaM rarllni uS PM«r MlnMl«**b)r 
J. MkkWy. 


TnJiM Cwmfmmf' 


MMMHlmtMl to Mi by •hal 
enaM ba a<abll«bad bwa In war I 

•hM Into ciinrf* W *atlaw, Mi4 SmS II b fjnnSad aad hmmi mm mtk 
tmmm tkal «• canaal Mmtffmmm of h, bat wa^ If Omi (!*«« lacb, Ibal M 
CHtaluly will tand l« Iba Uumi^td Ula baljr aawa, Iw aar SCMta^ r*«* 
fMiil/, aaJ •awaranHacM' lM|tfwT«MMrt and banvSl.'* 

A second charter for the c«mi|iany was grantetl 
by tlie King, Juno 14, 1020, which was similar iu 
all cmential matters to that of two yearn licf^ire, 
except that it cliangi*d the time fur g(»ing intti ef- 
fect from 1025 to 10*^. ft ctmKitfted of thirty- 
seven articles and was intru«luccd with the lollow- 
ing words by the King: — 

•' nndlnc It a»>rTlc«»bla aad niu—fy la Om vatfci* mm* li 
manl wf wtir klhgdoa and ml>J«rta tbal tnuW, p^«larr and f*munrwm» 
•bunld gptw aliklu «Hir klng^k^m and diiminlitna, an«l !« rartkvrMlby 
all |ir»*|iar lafan*, and kavlnic m.'«lv«d Hf m^libla and rtiwrirtw^aJ pmf 
aMM Ki«d InftimMtiun that In Afrit a Ada, Anirrtm anJ MHr>'>l*ntra, wr 
T»rm AnattaJK v»rj rirk land* ami UUmU dn rklai, mtain ••T akkb 
ai» |Mm|<|ii| by avvll guwruml nalt«n, rartaln i4k«r« I.) kwUkana and 
»IM nn-M, and titkvia allll uii(ak«l«tlr.l ; ai««l •4kvri ni4 »■ yM |vrfcriljr 
dtaii^rml, and tkal n<4 ainljr ntUi autk |tla4-«« a gr»ai Irvki nmf ba 
diltvn, km tkal IIm> bi>|i* Miriiclkrha id krtiiKln« a«M p»<|iU pwIIj, 
IkrtMKk III* WlllM« •« ^■•■t i-oMlhlvfi UI lnlrniMt«i>, Iu aUll.r ii«il aMta 
and IM Ikalrntk tdlliai'kiMlNa ivIlKkm. %^v liiiatatiM II. \ik<l|-k«a, 
KInc tiri«ai«li>n," He , " hf Ik* «|Nf«d «4 tk« kidy li**!-! an*! ikr |irw. 

pvriljr wf war MiltJMta" lM*a n«M Iwknl lwvf«<t "a a^nmtm,\ 

Ci«ii|«ny ar unllvd |aiwf« nf ^rwprlalim of anr ••«• n nwlni, ami Mirh 
i4hara aa aliall aaucUta lli««Mr|t«a atth tkaai. and Imlp S>r*ard Iba 
work, prumMng to atrvnitbvn It wlik iMir mwo« a»l awblanrai*' . . .« 

The charter fully set forth the objects of tb« 
corpiiretion ; provided that it should be ufien to all 
countries, cities and individuals, and that those «if 
them who should bring tme huiidn'd th«iusin<l 
thalcrs should be entitled to appoint a directi>r; 
guaranteed national protection; assured a erowu 
suhflcription of four hundred thousand thalcrs; 
fixed numerous other details and prescril)ed a form 
of government for the comjiany. 

That the services of Uweliux were neither ig- 
nored nor inadec|uately estimated is apporent from 
the thirty-third article, iu which he is nnwt favor- 
ably B|N)ken of and a plan establbhed for his pecu- 
niary recimiiiense, yix: — 

•' Wlmvaa William rawlinx, bun In Ant«>-ri^ Rnbanl. baa 
Iba nwMi uT kb lima in IntartlRaOM tli* nrndtlkni U llm al»ta> 

*Allk<iiiKk tim bt>niir <d |«ii|<'*'<l"l O** SM Hvmliak mitk-im>nt in 
Amcri'-a IwkiitKaltflkadMlMiMUIi'd ftximlfr nf Hm lNii< k W>M lm(M 
('■•Ht|«M)r, WtllUm I *to-llN«. llm r^-•IM *4 driMug llm >k(«il> ,4 |k« 
■ k'M«r, ami »l aiai i««duH)f »«M-M(liirf ll, i« dm* lii lb* h^tttft tHt*-h^ 
uYNpa ^iHkorUmla ami Ar«l Ouirrmir i4 Nw n«*>k*M. |Vl<r Minalt. 
In a Irlirr mklraMnI lu i'Hrr H|-lrln«, Janv V; ••••••, •« lk« rf- t4 bla 

•k>|«riuni fnaa llidlaml lur Kat-ilt-n, nkbk a|i|««r* tf kavr !*»« laal 
bpr>mlm HwyaM'<WM'll>>« '•firf'-mWr '/7, U-P'; >m imilir* ili» r.4mal 
•dl.^uf kbM*rTk-«n f«ir tka f'MtmlthK ••rtkond.inj id N>-« !ta*<lra inon 
nrit«<-<^llnl),aa«rll aa n ■!«« lite atalrHiml iir «kal «a« f»pii«kd •• 
an tmmtf f-r Ilia c.|nl|tmM»l *4 Ika Aral ^wnlUli r\t«>litt><« tu Iba 
Ik-lawara. TlibMtiir kaalwn tmm4al»l tr*mi tlw ••rlicinal Imirb bj 
|*nirnmirn. U K»^n, a v<*rj akif ami imluatrl>tHB IVnM«)lt«Ml« wril^, 
aiKl k |Hildi*k«d in Iba l\ oMayfniaM .Vit^ m. Vi4. \ I., |t |.>. Pamw»l 
lUummaprl, wko wmi aaaa-lalnl arilk .Miiiiitl ami I nuplinv In Omir 
wkf«w Iu (uk>ni<*> m-laaarv, waa a nirM kMiil t4 \n«aM<L*M, dMl<n< 
fwlakMl klni«>ir in liiuT v in On- M>nkv uf ikf iHttth »Um Imlu ('««•• 
|«iny, and waa tiaiw (!••>■) a |«irln.T in lln- lNit<i« %lr4 Imlu •'•••M|«n«. 
In |n.l>l, aa Imm livrn alalwl rlapnk<-rr. !••■ Ia<< 4Nir a iwrUwr in tli' i-«d><aji 
wf Haiwwia-rawjri'k, and In a|«tiuiiM»kl|« alil<-k*aia>ilKlMi.| a M'lik-monI 
t-albd >Hiaanrml««>l, imat Ika alia %4 tlm iHrtwM li>an <tC Urw««. t»>-U- 
wara. Ik* Mlwwlnii jraar. Ha waa anadnlrd i'tinuMk«l<MP-r kir ik* 
Swvdiali anirriirkwal Amatrnlam. ami Iw-ki tkal *4Hrw wntH li«r I^K»n- 
kImh mC liiHi. In hilT ka w^ a lVjmmi<«iiNirr in lk<- Ihiaitl ••# An-ttwaia 
vt Ika Ihitrk Wtal India CV»M|aiu)r. ami waa Areuuntawl i^ravfal ■! ||w 
lima wT kU danib, wklvb uciwrrad alaml ir.'.j. 


id onmn. •»* MVMi kMutfaM. Una b. to ih. •(>« pf^^iMOT lu Uiis doconient dated October 16, ltf32 (ngncd 

■'^*^T^'^**'l;f**'^.****J'f'*^"''V"".!!!!^;"i'^ and scslcd by Chmnoellor OjccDstieraa) the King 

•s 19 hto iai4 adTW hi4 iBMrniiam grMi MiikAK(iutt.-b« hM ■tylce UMeiiDX, *'Our HOW autboriud Orer Di< 

Micirt^iiiMr to i«ini.t« imr •rfir..«d roMH«iik.i» fciihfeUjr j^i^r of the New South ComnaiiT, our dear and 

tkfvaffh k«« Mi-^a^ Ml MMrtf^.-iiiM^-fH* Imv* »•, ftf iito pMi raithnil Willtani Uwielinx. After the Kliign 

.nJtaiMto rf^wwd »r«kt.s »!«•«... w.* M«i rtiw-^ .ikrtr«i kiM ,jjj„i|, ,,„ j„„^ 26, lO-IJl. OxriMtierim in a public 

•u tk»R««to««.inM>r.'UiMi«««kkk«k«ii iw bNigki. iiwtoii,.Nr».u, Icttor cuiinriiiiiig bli Bp|M»iiitiiiciit a* ageiit fur 

sr5r:si:c!ri''/i:j::-'tsrrivi^::r^ ««"'»iy «•"• ••'"• """i «"» i,n.jjcu,r «f th. 

(Cuitai) to rwiiBs. kto •it>«iM>jr or k»in.*'t Houth Cuniiuiny, uuw appi>iiited Over DirrctAr, the 

honorable, our |Mrttcularly beloved William 

Hie King was a profound, far-eceing itateeman Uaaelinz/'* The diBastroui engagement with 

and liberal thinker; and he therefore propowd that Germany in regard to the company waa entirely 

freedom of conacience and 8|iceeh should prevail in broken olf by the defeat of the Swc«)ish army at 

any colony founded under the SwediHh ii*gis and the buttle of Nonlliugvn, August "7, 1644, and 

that to It should lie welomictl all exili« from the UsM'linx then endeavored, thi»ugh inefloetunlly, to 

hattle-Uirii fieldn 'of the old world. No sInvM iuteniit the French (lovernmeut in the seliome. 

should trend its si»ll**for," he mid, ** slaves coat a And now in HIJA, nllcr nine yenmof, for the 

gn*nt d«*nli lalmr with n*lue(anee and mnm iierish most ]>nrt, well-diri^cted but intermittent nu<l pro- 

from hard usiigo. But the Sweilish niition is In- ductive labor, and tw\ amid the very snmo diMid* 

dttstrimis and intelligent, and hen'by we shall gain vantages which had defeated the original project, 

mcire by a frre people with wives and children.*' there was begun what was, in many csscotial re* 

The project thus warmly endorsed by Gustavus spects, a new movnicnt for the ooloniuiticm of New 
Adolphus was received with enthusiasm by his Sweden, and one which eulminnte<l in success 
subjects. "It is not to he describeil," says one Concerning the aHhirs of this }ieriod in which the 
writer,' "how much all these new si'hemcs dc- Chancellor Axel Oxenstierna, Peter Minuit, Sam- 
lighted the Senators, particularly that relative to uel Blommaert and l*eter Spiring were the chief 
the establishment of the West Indies (as America actors, a S«vedish investigator' has in very recent 
was then called), to which all |ieople suliscril)ed years discovered intercHtiiig data, 
readily and gencnMiHly, in conformity to the ex- The King, a short time liefitre his death, had 
ample set them by the king.'* 8hi|is were made freshly urgeil public attention to the trading ami 
ready ami according to s«iiiie authorities actually c(donization scheme, and Oxenstierna, to wluMe 
sailed for America,* but fell into the hands of the wise guanlianship, he had entrusted his little 
Spania^1^and then theThirty Years War being re- daughter, Clirisliua, the future (^ueen of Sweden, 
Dewed and Sweden nee«ling all her nien and money oflicially reiterate<l his well-known desires lie 
at home, nil further efKirts towards colonization also stated that the work was almost carried to 
were fur the time almndi»ne<l. During the |)eriod completion, but was delayed by the alMcni-e of the 
which followeil there was little res])ilc in the war King in the crusades, in Prussia and Germany 
and the constHpient iNilitical turmoil, and the un- and fnmi other causes. Fully real i zing the im- 
divided nttcnti<m which the succcmfnl nmturing of iN»rtunce of the project which had U^en lell him 
the scheme demanded could not lie Invtowcd u|Mtn as a |)olitical l<>gncy and trust, the Chancellor in 
it by thortc in authority. Fiunlly came a Hcrious the spring of lOUA, while sojourning at the IIngu« 
blow alike to the country and the pnis|iects of the and Amstcnlnm, made the ac(]uaintance of Sam- 
oom|inny in the death of the bmve and high- uel Blonimai rt, the commercially and»iti(»us Ilol- 
mimled King, who fell in the Imttle of Lutzen, lander, whose land investments on the IX>laware 
Novendier 6, 163'Z. Alm<«t his last act in civil 

tm, . tiL !.• A i>«t. I. ,. M. • 4 r««liNX. anprvantat wnl Into Fnar* to imlnr* tkst gitwrnmnrt to 

affairs had been his extemuon «»f the charter to in- „„p^ ,„ „,; b.„„4, ^^,u i-.Mi.|.iiy. u ium k. .urwft'*! •« r,«i. 

dude Germany in the privilege of the comiMiiiy •ii«iikiir»toiwt*iiSwHtoii, Kni«f»«iid Bii«taiMi,«««i*c»in«y«ip»««^ 

• t • »v • »• • tT l*!l- « « 1 • .L « SimJii, »nd In U«*» k« fml«i»«ir««l to Inirrra Ik* lUnw T««im tn Ikr 

and his authoniation to Uawlinx to travel in that 2L i..ii k. «m .*«.T*-.rui ii. .n ii.*« «k^i,«. i. km k. 

«■« aiipitldtrtl KviHllak ■grnt In ll<»lkiiMl.— .^.^fiiA J. MirkUf*§ Acnmml 

I piM-umHrta KvlAlinc totk* riikwtal ntoltiry of N<hv Ytirk. Vul. •/ Imttuu mid MtmmU. 

XIL (Mitnl lif II. FrrMfWl,!!. 13; alu Mkklrjr'a |«iw|ilitol. ifwnnl'a •«*. T. IKlknrr : "Kuhmlra Nva Hv»riicn OrSmltuRKlnc IIOT-lftlt 

tUttrnt-i, awl VliMVMl'a IIMiiry ^ lvto»an>, fmtt' lltf. ||M. Wliilniali. Mjr My* I ^ l1i7-«» (MtM>kk«ilm, InTtt). TliU mmk 

* IUrl»'« UU- >if l.nMaTiHi A4i>l|iktMk InuMlntMl ky l*Mf. (i. ii Ki<rM, fwr th« IVmdiv''''**^! ilt^<uu» •/ Hm4arf 

• lUHx wwit* lk«l "« imk> S«MUak MiiMlniii" acOMlly wlM •«< |liiiir.if*y aiiiKaiiiHiMliT Ik* tilto "TIm* fwiimliiiKiir NrwHvknkHi," 
Sir AMwrl.-*, I>«f tk«l " llir HiMiitonto r««itriTi-4, •iPsti'nNtiily riioaKk, to in VM. III. |i|».»A--iM ■ii«l.'l!«a-4tl. rivT. lMkiirr*«r«iiitrllMlk««lkruw« 
wmk* tlN-MMvltra MiiMrivuf tl.** A riiMlUr alalrturnl to Muwto by t\um' ■»« llnkt Hpiw IIm pxpr«llllt>M toiko Hrhwan* ami rNaUr* ma to c««mrt 
^■iMNt «^ aikto ikat iIm aklf* kad kwn rt«iii*F4 liy tk# M|aintoi«to la tka nrun iato wkk-k nunI wrltfn kava rallm fhim (ilkf»lac *«• rkarly 
•nli>r to akl tk« IN4m awl Um KM|«4ur vt lirmmmj, ami fiinker ratr* tka wrltlnvi U CkmiMiiliu aitd Amlins »lw «i>r« riik^r not in |wa- 
raiM tkat Amrrtra -nw vtoOnl ami aallM by th- Cwnkv In Um n-lRn uf •mmUtU *A Ww mmiitm «if iHrummliwn kww r«>vt«M, yr TalMlna lkf«i luo 
liwilai— Itot iliv anlktiritlw aj|r*v. In Ow nmrluwhin, Ikat m» ■rllla- UKktljr, ii*il Ikmi rnrvhwriy. Tk» funMor to uolorhMal/ NTuoamM and 

uiiill lli# r«4li>«tiiK ivlKn, ami Ikal If aay HwailM vara Uiv lallvr, IktMiRk arrnnla aa Air aa k* giMa, 4M mit namln* lki> nt- 

la Am»rini nl •« Mirltor |irrkal, tltrj nnikl oaly kara kcvn a faw i«dl> onto In Swaik-n aa elMily aa ka <llil tlaaa vT llir Swailtoh ekarckaa In 
vMaato vk« adTanlatvd »l(k Ika IHitek. AMvrlen. 


bareRlread/bMB referred to, WMlftfierhiidemrt- "As»Viti«*«g«i*«H,««pi,iii,iii, 

ure. kept up m eorrrqwiideDoe with bim. wbK-b a««u ..4 i««.t« («.it7r!Ti.« 1**04^*.,^^^ ». mmJTti^i:^ 

bad tbe effect of giving a new iiupetui to 8wedi«h- "*««'<«u •«*• 1. **>• ■•••W|f«J«iiK i*r« af^iimm »• «cm^ mjt '^^^^X 

American affiiirk One of tbe firit of Blommaert'i iiw uLihc Jrull^Tly *i7 1 A»,nt!!L IrmH i»'mm^ZkmK in^i. u 

letters niado inquiry aa to tlie imwiicct* of a V" *'•* ••'•^ ' •••*•• i-^i"-^ »•• *'^' h-«rti.« m awk- • «»y«g» i* 

HwiMluh ex|ieditlon to Guinea, to wiiicb oouiKry »HihM..«iii..M.,»iiii. ■.--••-HiiMis-tihirk ■imhimumiw^ju^ 

and Draiil tho attention of Uie Dutvhiiiaii niH'nM '**"^^" 

tben to have been priuclpnlly devototi, and ■ul»> He i>ii)(v<i'tcd (hnl tlic Hwcdinb <}ov«*rnni<nt 
•equent lc*ttcm dealt Inr^vly with a deHcriptioM of niiglit Kraut a elmricr to wcurc< the Inidf fmiu 
the coniroeretnl and maritime enterf»riiK!v of llol- Terra Nuva (Newfuuiidlaiitl) to Fhyrida, and abm 
land. In tbe following year Ozenvticnia received i;mni ]N»wer to enpiure K|Mini»b and iVirtuguevc 
a visit in Winmer from another Dutehnian who viwelt, and tliNl the gtnnU of the eomimny »h«Hild 
waa, however, engaged in the Swedish Mcrvioe and he uiado tree from iliity, both in and out, for a 
ftood high in the CKlecni of the government. Thin peritMl of ten yitin. lie tlioii)*ht that the com- 
was i*oter 8piring, who wan now aeni to llollnnd |>niiy ouglit to ** try to get there theMNiuer the bet- 
on a eommittiion to gain sulntidifs liir Swe<len from (er, lUid proeuix* Iriemily teniM with t lie wild in- 
tho Ktaleii General and alwi ** to olim*rvu whether hnlntiuiln, mi ai* to indiiiti tlieiu to eolUvt lN*aver» 
it might not be |NMiihle In this eonjuneturt* to »kini« during the h inter; tinde «iih them for four 
ol»tain iNMito M*rvi(v in allhirN of eommeree or to live thouiMind ^kiim. Thuit, with n auiall U^gin* 
manufniiuren." He wnile tho Clinncellor, in May i*i"gt inereiim} the enpitnl, no an to lake nM»re in 
lli3(), that he had held several eotiverHntiomi with hand afterwitnU." Siieh an exiN-ilitiiin as Miuuii 
Uhiuimaert eoui'emiiig the trade wilh Guinea, eontemplated n-tpiiretl a i>hip of Inuii Hxty to one 
and ImuI wiught to interest in it him and f>ther hundretl liutUm,' with a eurgo worth ten thou- 
Dutch men of husincas. He also heard fn>ni *»Dd to twelve thouNind giildini,* and a c«>mpanj 
Ulommacrt of the fienon best quali6e<l to im|iiirt of twenty or twenty five men, nith provi«iou« for 
information on these subjecta, ri< , Peter Miiiuit, * yt^"r and a dozen soldiem lo ser\*e an a garri- 
the leader of tbe first Swedish cxjiedition to the ■"" for the colony which should In* located, Uvidcs 
iX'laware.' a siiinller vrM<*l to ri'maiii at the x'ttlement. Thb 
Minuit, whom it will he Imrno in mind, was imt|H»(itiou of MinuilM or one lnued u|ion it was 
Director of the C!ouneil, or Prmident of the Ihmnl fvad iu the SweiliKh Kiul, S'ptciiiU'r 27. t(>-'U>, and 
of the Holland Wi^st India Coin|Niny, and Gov- M^fuis lo have lie«-n liivoriiMy n*);urd<-«l by that 
cmor of Netherlands, resident on tlic Island of b«Nly as well as by OxenMit-nin, Spiring, Hhim- 
Maiibattan, from May 4, 1G26 to llhTi, was a niuert and other iuten^sted individuals, 
native of Wesel, in the war-torn CIcvcs in the 1" lh<^ foU uf ll»->i*, Spiring was again sent to 
Khine provinces of Germany. He was prtdiably Holland, but this time at .Swtilish resilient and 
oompi*lle«l to ix>linquish his position, in ]4i.S2, by ** Coiinm^llor of the Finanms, ennobled under the 
the intrigue of a |>owerful faction of the c«mi|mny, nnmv of Silfveremn till Nor>halm (with whieh he 
and thereafter s^H^ms t4> have led a n>tin'<l lite, in eoujiliil hii< o«n name, iiMi.-illy writing it I'eter 
Holland, until IG20, when he was bnmglit into SpiiTingk Hilvfrernn of Nortihiilm). He ininH'«l- 
nolii'o by .Spiring.* It was proiMweil that Minuit ialely n-suiiNil Ufgolinliomt niih Minuit, and 
should journey to Sweden in the siininu'r of 14{."»I{ llliHiininfrt, (the lulier ot whom was now maile 
'* to aid the authorities with his counsel and sufN'r- Swiilish (^mlmil>^ury' at AniMenlani), tbe final 
lor information," but he was unable to do so. and riMiit of wliirli wns that theexiKMliiion to Guim'S 
sent a written communication (dated June l.'i) in was i*\vvn n|i, U'eiiUM.* regiinU-d as ultimntely in- 
which he said : volving (<n» ^n-ut ex|ienM« nnd llic coterie nxdvtti 

to I'orni a Sui'ilii<li-Uiiteh Conijianv, for the |Hir- 

«1 K!i.'rJ!**ilrm*'r!^'.'^'^^^^ I"*^* "** »■»»•■'■> '"B »" <"M«^' «'l»» «»"l 

■ i^MirrntinK Miiitiirawrvk-M A<r ibr ihiMi mmI iih> •<rf>pniiirr tiT hta cidituivs u|Mtii tlitiso |K)rtions of iIk> Anierieau e««:*t 

MlalUm Willi ll»r Wn4 lM•UMl^llll|«MJr, Mkklri^ III hb lllth>nM>ii*«ni|i|i ,„., ..|_,„,.|,. .^ ;...| |.», ,|.« Ik..*. I. ....I LV. I: I 

Mi.iwiii.«»n4 Mimiii.;.: -iiV ^iii.^,! li .4N.. .»iii luiA* 1.1* »*"^ Mlreiul) occupiwl iiy tiic Huteh nnd hM;;li>b. 

k .llPiml.) anpir h-lw.-rii lli» W.^ Iiwlta r.4M|«Mjr mmI IIm- iMlnmiM, Iu It WIIH iVlilliatlll tllUt llie eoi*t of tllC first eXlNili- 

vrhlrli MihhII waa MiM«>r|ml «if in In* la favur iif Ihr |«ll«>r. In I'lUi*.* .• iii i ... .«• .1 ii. ■ 

.,H.«r...rfwtii,hiM..hUrn^«,.,i.i5*«.ita«.Ji T...-.:J-.,X li"U would Ik« alMMit iHi-nlyfour llHHixmid Dutch 

ekmr. MlimU l«ft .OSrw AmalrrJMu In HippMi." l>>Mlnrlil" <is.mii4«I) ttiiHus,* h»lf of wlllch HllS to 1k» contrihlllcil l»V 

In IIm mum. Vi-wr, lUiM, villi ■ i-nrip' ••f Nvo ilitrtmiMl l»«tfr iIiIim. in .%f* •. i.i* <•• 1 1 .' 

An»*i«n.,un,i,.wn..i.^.hn.i,«ui.ii..j,i,...Hi«r«... l»l"»»ui«iert. Miiiuit auil their friinds aiHl the 

lijrrumuMiMlorilwKuKlUliKwfrrnnM-iil, uiMirr im-lrnrf iImI lli«r..wu. remtlilUilg half tO lie SUllSiTlllCtl iu SwdlcU 
Irjr mhn* hm InnM In WlunRrtl In KukImii^. lie mmti, lumrvrr. «•■•■ 

•Acr rvkwnl, nnd tuatiy uirlvnl mh In .%nv4frtkim, willi lite «Mlihil4« 

MrRu, In May, I«t3i. SCu imltlir rtrtmla kat* aayrt k<pn (mual. rttlw^' 

In Nrw VuHi ur llulUn.*, iflaliwR tw Ikal iwrlial uT tiuM In wlikli * N«« far fmni »*«wiaf4i««ln «uM. 

MIunU »B«i .llivrlur ml NfW Am*<i'r<lnm.i>xrf|i«tn|( a .kwd ur warmnl tar ' Ki|Ni%«lrn« iur«n«Ml <M-f«rnil. 

land lo G«l,va A IlkMMni M-rt, wlihli Un4 la*tlunlni on llir nurt il.l« vf tW • T«w an-l a hair Ihtl'-h Riirtu* n««« tiinnl to aUmt mt SwvdMt rik» 

• Pnmi T3i> ti* iJiPt kma. 

Hvlawai* inow l^|» Majr). Thto b dniH Mankatinn, Julj 13, icao; 4nlrr auJ ilHiaUtvr mm «Mr.|Mnl Im nin* ikaiiMinil ds knndntl nk;»- 
ttgm^ Vf P. MInnll nnd «<krn." ikilrn ur wvru ikownnd iw« knudrHMIara gwM. 


Spiring was dwirou* of Uking Into their oonfi* Memlemblik, to ropnlr damaget and proouropro- 

den«a other buiinea men, hiit their com|ianion0 vuiont. The thrifty Dutch partucn were lorelj 

proletleil againit it and urged lecrecj as the worried hy all of thne vezatioun hindranoes and 

only iafeguard against the frustration of their r«miic<|uctit ex|)enilitiires, for already the ezpenaca 

srheme by the Dutch West India Company, of the expedition had lieen calculated at thirty- 

This aflords a smiiewhat caustic coiiiiuentary six thnufand florins, or half again as much as 

upon the methods by which the fint Swcilish the sum which had at the outset been deemed 

colonies were plante«l upon the Delaware and Miflicient and they were fearful that they would 

explains why so litlle was known of the early realize no pn»(it from their venture. Minuitpro- 

nuivements towards that object by c«item|N)mry niiMHl, however, U|)on his retuni, to induce the 

historians. Bl<»mmat>rt was a meiulicr of the Kwedinh government to ansume the extra ux|N*n- 

Dutoh €om)inuy, but no lesii simiIous for the diiurt* luid finnlly tlioir mimls were, in a motumre, 

weiran* of the KwiHlinh ent(*r|»riM> t»n that mnire, tHimrortiMl by \\w d«>|Hirtun» of the " Key of KhI* 

ami ImltHHl he had Un'U ongii^iHl In i^mteiition with mnr ** and " (Irillin "JuKt as tin' yiNir, l(bl7, drew to 

the (»m|iany, which, «IouIuUim had its etU*ct In a close.* 

making him a |mrty to the new pn»joct, but it Of that old-time venturesome voyage across the 

is, ncvcrthelera, a notable fact that he was ncit ocean which resulted in placing the 6nt penna- 

taken into the confidence of his associatca. nent settlement on the shores of the Delaware 

Minuit, when these preliminaries had been Uiver, within the boundaries of the State named 

arrangi-d, in February, 16:i7, wt* nt to Sweden ibr it, nothing definite is known. The passage was 

and began preparations for the expedition of doubtless by the circuitous southern route, along 

which it was agreed he was to be commander, the coast of Portugal and by the way of the 

Tlie money require<l from Sweden was C(»ntribu- Azores and Canaries to the West India Islands 

ted by Axel Oxenstlema and two of his rekitives, and thence northward, along the American shore* 

Peter Spiring and Clas Fleming, who was prac- to the entrance of the Delaware Bay. What may 

tically the chief of the Swedish Admiralty and have been the thought of the few fienons on the 

secretary of the Swedish company. It was he two vessels, thus breasting the waves, day aAer 

who obtained the commii>sion to fit out the shi|is, day, in their progress towards a practically un- 

and he carried out tlie details of e(|uipment with kuowu land, may be {mrtly conjectured. What 

Minuit and Blommaert. Tlie latter procured the vague hopes and vaguer fears filled some of those 

crews of experienced men, in Holland, and aLw breasts may be imagined. They had heard misty 

bought there the articles for the cargoes for trad- and fabulous stories of the wealth, and salubrity, 

ittg purposes. Both nH*n and gotMls were sent ovtr and luxuriance of the country to which the winds 

to G«)ttenburg, whence the fX|NMlition was to sail tif heaven were bearing them aud they heard, too, 

in the* spring, but owing tti Minuit's iK'iiig serious- tales of the cniclly aud blo<Nl-thinitim'ss of the 

ly sick, a long delay enitufd. On the Uih of strange mw who dwelt there Home of them 

AupiKt, the Admiralty ImhiiiI |)iiM4)M»rts for the uiiist have had knowletlgo of outrages committHi 

sbi|ii> **Kalmnr Nyckel" (Key of Kalniar) and in the e«»untry, and tliom* who knew the actual 

**Vogel CSriiien**' (the Grilfin, or Hinl ttriHin), diittiiiation of the »hiiw were not, impmbably, 

tlie former a large manof-war, the latter a «l«iop, aware, alno, of the awful fate of the Zwiuinendael 

to sail from ^-tockholm, and they did not Ifave citloniots Some of the sailors had, \cry likely, 

GoitcidHirg until late in the fall. Kven uf\cr vittited these shores Iwfore, in the Dutch service, 

sailing fn>m this port, the vesscli* were ilelayeil by and they and the commander Minuit knew s<mie- 

wlvenH* winds aiMl st<irmy weather, and as late as thing of the condition of the country, but the rest 

Deceiiilier had to jwt into the I>uti*h harlMir of were in almost alisolute ignorance (»f the situation 

and circumstances that awaite«l tliem. The mind 

• «;.«. K#ra,taa IN4* la iii«tniHiaii.««ir<MiiM>r.(iv««<yini«Mjr«f. of Miouit was, doubtliw, filled with dreams of 

"*** '/ ^'^:^'*' V*l ^ *U'..!!*.\"/'"* rr .*"."•".' "T .*• personal renown and of the future glory and en- 

li^imem i,m$.iK mmi * v.«-i (iri|i* (imi.K hr t\>>rftnn'\ •vMtoMitdMi ru'hment of the company he represented. A few 

r:::r.::^ii:.:rj;^iair^"'~j';r^ ..«y. pcri«.ps>ve iK^n ,.i.«.«iy pn.)i.,g .mi 

foMwM ■•MMfftu i*imy«Im^ iim> Hi.k« uf iit-niMrii, f<«r4.>N aiNi phiuniiig for tlic Christian enlightenment of the 

savageit, (Imt this is diMibtful, for the first clergy* 

jt wmr *4 <i«ii« tfw-i n^m^xy, tim •Orimu' i..r ' iwi>i cnfflN'i Muui was vct to comc to the Delowan*),^ and it is 

r.i;frLr^':::^4'-:^.r«%t;.Jl.-**i.'Jr^"';D >..* | ti«i then, «o«, .,«.,,• «ii«HHi-i, 

iMMrh Mri-rrii»ra i« pnHyi4v. Tho Mtiy t>-mii, w for m hiMvii, whu iueliite«l |N!nions auioiig the emigrants, cach and 

lHtw4rm urn lWt:r1|<rM' anil r»MMlM<il wllk iIm niluH> 

W90 rtm m^tmm u4rr mm^4rr, •■ Mt<M' *t AuRta nmm.* • ■■•Ktu iuumf4 * Ulummwrt antt w«t *d tlir il«'|airtuf»> lo tha (lianrrllur la • Mt«r 

AwMums, • lw««M timn lllw Mr«t *m lh« l^lawarv). vhu mtthI Owt* dalnl Jnnmrjr N, \KUL 

•nw« rriirti ■> TIumcwm in l«4l (• maklMK Umf fur lb* rMll* •■d ■ |(n«m TwrkilliM, lU Sn< Hwnlhh rk-nVMaa mi iIm ilwbi»»ra, was 
•rrHW|Ma)lii«llN>Ow«mMrliiliWHt«Mir^]rBrlii'), aadva* ■Oil N« ton nol wUk tkh vi|aH|||kHi aa kaa liifM alalwl by rartlM, VliwvM mmi 
te ItHrt." wlbvn, but rMM* In lk« hvwimI rk|N^tlhMi, In luau. 



i, iti tluU aimill but roixvcl imieniblttg*, 
\uaA in mm UMuyhU of the half niiyMl<»rioiM 
aMmtrf Co wbieb tla>y wera buund aoil iiiingKtl 
«rkb tMM mlity niUMingi w«re the divtiiiet, aliiiunt 
|jAftuC«l(»filii«illy vivid, tiH*ni(iri«9i of the Faiher- 
buMl« UmuMiuib uf iiiilv« away. 

Wbaiever tb« inctUeut* of the vuya;^ the ad- 
vi'ttUinrri went bk« with a Mfv, and, for the 
tinMgi, a iiiuedy |iiiaMi}{c. The wiiidit that filled 
tlt4f MiiLt vf tlie utiittfly ** Key uf KMlniur" and the 
little iil«ii»|» *' Gritfiii '* wv ru mure iinipitimw than 
Ukmu .which Wiif\fd the «*tirly vuyti>;('iv. lor it 
U ivrtHln that thi>y ntiiio arriaw ijii* Athiiiiic 
ill a tN'rkid iii*t )(ivntly fxiittllii^f thni* nioiilhp', 
ainl live iiioiitiM wiw ii«it nil uinininil time r«>r 
a voyage tu Aiiivrii*n in thu nhiiN* uf tltiit din* 
taut day.' Tlie actual tailing of the cxfictlition 
bad occurred alnait the cIum; of December, l(i37, 
ur tbc beginning of January, following, and the 
•bipt jvcrc Ufion the Ik^hiware by the cluee of 
Marcb, 1638.' 

» Wk»tt Nm4mmn aiMl* !i«MMi wlMiwiiartf^ mttm arirt lu 
Ikl* AMialry MMtlrr fb« kuilN«1i> unA hf onb-r wT iIuu-Im XI^ *4 
Umtttrtt, In UM, Ibftr AI|i«m HhM ««vka mwI ■!& ihiya wu hrr |mimic» 
IvwM HImVIiUm to l4i»k4i simI tm mrc-ka uh bvr mmy Ibf m-v tu tlw 
ii«M (if Vtrfflnki. It U al** Mhl, Ibal. «hr» KaMhrl. Ihr MwnlUh Mb* 
•iwiMrjr, WM kiiiidiiivO Iw oiwe wrrr ami takp «-bMrK« of the rhun-h at 
Wimu, " llr irh iiw««k« -m tb« .'M uf Aii(iM, 17mI, kikI aH.T auM* 
rf^lvNlbut, (n RufbiNil, aiwl lb« wmmI InllMiM |«Mme« w rMw |Im< AlUntk*. 
arrfvnl (■ th« IM«»«iv, on llw Isth *•€ Manh rwlLiwIiiK/'wr In iwvaly 
liIlM vivha. In Iba very lutrfvalinit mtuuhI tff bta ri>)«|t«> trwu Manlr* 
Im tba |irla*Mr«>, bj iIm rblt-r ram|iaiiiN^ «• an> luruniMtl that hv 
wlUal fiMib MiH-khwlM, AaKn>t **': l*''^ ••••> arrliml al Hirlrflaua, 
raliruarjr lA, !••». Iv «i|>biualkrtt vt bU |«MMfr, l'aiu|«uiiu glVM 
tba r<4ktwlac Marralhr uf bU vuyaicf : 

" |ii4i, .taifwif liilh.— SaiM fntMi iMurklwIm. 

" A-^mtl I7ib.— .\rrivnl at Itahk'baai. 
^ ' ^1* Mtir 3(1 — l^n tba hiim*. 

-Htylr^a^ Mb.— ArilTni al I'lifaiiihaNi'il. 

**ttplrmlmr aib.— Irfiiidml al lirNiiitiT. 

-Hri^mtl^ I'ilh.—I^tnta lu litill»Mbiiri|. 

•*.V.i4rwllrr la(.— I.fft <n4loNlmnc I'lHilla. 

" .VMrMiUrlitb. — in lhi'»i|irtni»b Nm, (miW"*" ■! wD I'm tvnaluf V|«Imi. 

" S"nmih^ Vial.— I<alllii|| abrtig Iba naial mT INir1il««l. 

••JWralWJ•^b.-Orl lit* ItarUrjr natal. 

" H-rtmi'** xmb.— K'Ulh uT lbi> Canary lalaiala. 

*• ftm-wkr »ilh.->Arrttc>l at AdIIkiw. 

*• im.1, JlHaaMrjrM.— .<4alb->l b) !M ilirlatufifctT'a Bial utbar HHall tataiiil*. 

"^«M«M(ir 24lb.— fvAHNiUnii ull lbi> naiat iif AMrHi-a. 

"■fnaaarir XMb.— I<a« lan<l nrar ll«« i'mfim %d Itrlawai*. 

■* Jmmmtrg 'JMh.— Off l^niMuan. 

•• rthrmnrg l.'iib.— Arrivftl al (lirtillaML Vmmmga Jual Ata MuMba wr 
IMI 4aya. 

■ Tbat ilM rftl|N arrlvfa In >iaivb. h^. mlhvr tban AimII, aa rtai«<«i 
by VInrvnt, awl lm|ilbtl by larbMa aiilafM, !■ •rtaUialnti by lb«> ilU- 
CMVrry In HwmIi h (ilnn* (MbinT anilr, la KV) i^ a diKNMieut ablcb 
Blmwatital Mlnull |Min.-baMH| bmU h|wn Iba Wtawara fnim an Imlian 
rblrf. tt|aia Man-h Xtf. It hv niailv Ibia imivbaaa (Hfrlunbloilly al llir 
■Mfuf Kurt I'brMlana) n|Mn lb« aUla Kl«ru, ba maal hat* faMafU Iba 
ca|n-« Ibiva »» fuur «Uya |iivtluui4y. Tlial Iba arrital iif Iba t««arla 
U|wn Iba liflawan-, iwi'urrMl lu A|<ril, baa l»fu ipMKTally BU|i|uard 
Uwm a Irlirr fmm Janmaown, vritl«<n by JtTtNiia llaalry, »«nri'lary w( 
Hn* VlritinU t-ubaiy, In i»i>rfUry Winib4«Mh, •■( IIn< I^mhIwm l'uiii|«iiy, 
HMlpr ifaila uT Maya. Ii^ia. in aliMi ba a«ya, thai, ■!»«• MaMi t»Mb 
larbrn b* Iiw4 »n*ln "a Ihiii-b alili* wilh a cuNiuilailtia fnan lb* yuVMK 
llwvu uf HarJfii" bail anl*«*l lh«*r^ aial rrUMiihtl aUjul Ipn rfaya. It 
Imm iMNatly |HH<n Inbrritnl laiHl by ^iiHPnl Urk|ilu-llly aiali^l) Ibal lbi« 
•bly ttaa Iba " K<<y nf Kalniar " a Kb Mtuall am laa«r>t a|*>a Ur tng *i 
Mr itrlairurv, tail talbiH'f alicwa (by nnmtia i^f »im> uC IMuaHMarrt'a b<llri«) 
Ibat II waalba abaiiOrlllln. arbi<-b. <i//rr bar arrival ••!! Ibi> IN-Iawan*, 
hi^ ciauMamhrr hwl ik<nl lu Viriclnla a lib Iba bb« uf lair1frii*K brr 
t-arMiH-a |4vl*«i not raaltn-4. Tlia b^liT frMU lla«l»y, aliwbvl Iw, la •• 

** j4iiR»Tw«li, in ViDiinu, Mm§ S, IrtM. 

**ir<fAI ffan.— l>ia Iba 'Jitb iiT Marrb bwi I touk Iba biiMonalu 
pruMM yw« allb my ktirnit wbm-ln I navi* only a imtrb >it lht< laial- 
■■• uf iNir AMawUy, rafvning yuwr .hwnur iw tba Kaiivtal |»ti«n Uiaa 

Tbe tfeaton waa aa cariy one, the TegiMtiiia 
well advancetl, anil to tlie ayes of the iiavi|;atoffy 
acvutftonwd, for tlireu moiitlw, to re»t u|mn ooihin;^ 
but a billowy wajiiu of water, aiwl having lart »ceD 
laud^Swcden and ilollautl — iu tlie dead of win- 
ter, the sight tif tlie ulionai of Delaware, aln*ady 
green, luimt have been a refreiibing one and filled 
their lieartu with hafipy antict|iatiuUM. Watli^d by 
Iwilniy breezi'M that liore the firvt ii|>ring udun of 
tho unlocked and wttrtning cttrtb — of the bun»tiiig 
butlrt of vnut foniitii end the grmw and Him em of 
natunil uk'hiIowm, nil d»nlily gntteliil to the |M-<i|tlv 
hing*n»ii(iiiiil In crowdid nhiiM, |ier\ndid by a 
coiii|Mnii(o niciu'h, the |>ioiKfiii MiiUil U|i the Imy 
Hiid gave cxiihwion to the exulN'rnnce of dt'li;:ht 
by unniing the lir»l plnce at which they Iniidvil for 
oWrvation and refrohnicnt, ** I'amduH.* Point * 
(Purudia Ud<len). To their faniii>hed eyes, tlie 
vcnlurc>clad iihore at thitf place (which was lonie- 
wlH're lietwcvn the Murdcrkill and MU|iillion 
Creek, ui the neighborhood of Lewes, in Kent 
County) was, indeetl, a fe:i.^t of beauty — an- earth- 
ly |«radise, — nil unniiiidtul that the deflate «ite 
of Zwattnendael wa» only a few miles away. 

The place which they wore to make their home 
was not yet reached, and so after a brief enjoy iiieni 
of liberty on Khorv, the |icople returned to tin* 
vedisels and weighing anvlior railed up the 
bay and river, the latter of which they naiu«.d 
Nya SwerigeV Mlf (New 8weden*s Kivcr). Fin- 
ally they arrived at the mouth of a atream of 
goodly size, the Miii<|uas Kil,' of which Mtuuit 
probably luid noiiic kiuiwleil;;^ through the explor- 
ations of Cnptiiin lleiiilrickK'n,* and diHibtk-ss 
with the tixetl intention of liM'Uliii;? u|M>n its 
bniikis the viwm'Ih Nieered into iu* clmniiel and 
nlowly liitide their way Ih'voimI the mouth of the 
liraiidywliic to the H|iol known it!«**Tlie lC<M*kji,*'^ 
an excellent natural wharf, almut one luilc and 
threeM|uarten«, following the couriH.*of the ptrvam. 
from the Delaware. L'lion these rocks tlie {«»• 

*rbl by Mr. Krw|t frtau Iba K->irriair ami I'»nim-II. Hacpablab tiaa 
bata arrlvnl a iNiUb abi|i. villi a i.-«'n*Nti*tuii furiM Ihr riamg i/wi-vii i4 
Hanlcn, awl MKiiol by rubl wf Ibr tltM-f lufla «<C >«««ba. Ihr i>^>y 
• lirrm<f I wtMiM Im«i> ink>-a Iw wuil Iw ywur twHKir, l>«(t liic raia^ua 
wiNtbl iMJl |<rinill BU- lu lalu* a <'<i>y lb«-r»-«if. r\i-«|4 Itr itilizbt liavv frrv 
traih* r«ir Ivrairy bt ri«i^>a, abifb U-uit; «->i«ln(ry b* bi^ MMj<-4«'a in- 
•inM-tbai>. Ibr pitiTMwr fkcuanl biuiarlf llirrkof. TIm- -bift ri'BuuanI 
bi-rv aliMil Im 'la)*, lu rTfrv*b ailb ••■^l awl aal*-r tbiiln.: altfb 
limr Ibr nia*lrr uf niI*! kbi|i amtk- kwiaw Ibai Uab bini*« If an*! aw-ibvr 
*lii|i uf Ilia <'«NM|<iiiy wi IV luuwl fur lMa«.tf«' lUy, «>li*> li la ibr o>nBim 
uf Vircl'iia awl Ni*» Kii|{|jiwl, aii«l ilii-rv llM-y |>rii«-ii>l i.>nuk>- « i^an- 
liilbai, awl to |4anl l>4»ii'«'w, wbi* li lln* l*ul> b •!•• •«• alr-«-l> in llwkuM'a 
Ktvar, «blib la Ibr ti-ry rUt-r WMlbaaiil fnan Is-Um.iit IUv. Alt 
«bkb U<lu« bU iiMJi-vly'a trnM>irha, I htiiMi'ly ••aM* i«r ib^l il may W 
>k*M«> by bla hMJ<'«lv'a «til>jnUtif lb*-<v |<ui !■, iitukitijc N^ unl« u( »aN« 
Kn^lMi abl|M Ibal niaal bilbrr f>ir lra«bp yrarly, awl !■■ nw tbaij;* 
al all n|a>ii bia ttt.tjrMy.— tiriJk'Mif* t*»^-m /•■<•'•■■•• ■!«, Vi4. I., y^ 
.•I, .*. 
< Tba iHiU-b " Kii " alcnlSia • n<ik. 

* IV-p III* imH'ftliiiK rba|4i'r lur an wMaial uf llrwIrtt-kMm'a vwyacv 
n|i III** li«-lawni» awl «iail lu lli«> nf^nlb >>! Iba iliriallaMa. 

* *'Tbr Rurka" |inil<al4y awbaiiiml alw-a iba lawlin« ul Minalt. (n 
{•kilt, arc n|M>n Iba nunlwrn ur WtlmlnHliin abb- <if tlir il«rr, nuc bii 
friiiM llw «ibl SatobV cbun-b, nl Iba fuul uf M&lh M., awl ailblfe uar 
yarU «if iba MvCulluuch Iran CwwiMuy'a Wwrka. 


MMjieis of tlw ** Key of Kalnwr " mhI *• Oriffln " 
— the pbioeen of Dolawart^iteiiilMirk«d mmI 
the airgoct of the two vcmoW were uoloeiled. 
IVefNiretiuiM wvie imiiMNlhitely bceuD ti» luvct the 
waiiU of the |wo|)le Mut to make the plnce habi- 
tatble. UpoB the i^uimI, ininicdiatelj hack of 
the enwk (which Minuit lirat called the Kibe, but 
•uoB eliaii;; to Chritftiaiia Klf, aAer the young 
C^iMeu) waa ImiiU Fort ClirUtiaiia ( '*ChrLitina 
Kkauta**) a eiiiall tiicluMiru having tlio p'ucrul 
liinu of a tiiuan*, aii«l within the iiin»iiKluihl wi*re 
eiv(*t«*fl two hifc hiMiM-v for tlio abmlc of tluim' who 
alioultl form the leurriMHi ami a^ a |>laru fur tliv 
•iiiraiscuf |>iovi«itiitji ft>r tlu'iu, a» well a^ a (lv|M«i- 
lury for tlie goiNb broui^lit to barter with tlie In- 
cliaiHL Inime«liHtely back of thin fort, u|M»n the 
ritfing ground, wa« atU*r«'artl« laid out and built a 
•mall town called Chritftiuidiaui or Clirttftiiia Har- 
bor, the 6nt town within tlic bouudarica of Dela- 

The fort cxtetiiU'd nliu<Nit to the CliriiMiaua and 
fivnt«tt u|iun it, whilo u|ion it^ eaaterii nide wna 
ahHi wafer— a lille eove or banln, (now lilKil up) 
whirh wan vn\M lliv llarlmr— lar){i* euou){h to atl- 
HUt ieveral viMiehi, U|miii the other iiid«ii ueru 
k»w mihI bank* and iiiamlHM exeefit in the rear 
where the rii*ing gixiuud, alruaily «|N»keu of, {jrad- 
iialty wi«1enc;l ami exten«led back to tlw ml ling 
hilLi on which Wilmington now i»iau«li. At that 
time tiKTD waa much mure water tluin at pniHiit 
alatut thia |»laeo, and, iudved, it i« |irobalile that 
twico in every twvnty*f(»ur h.inm, when the tide 
wan at it« height, the oeetiiKUitK of the fort couM 
look frtim it« ranifiarta or from ** the Ruekn " over 
A ahevt of water ext«*iiding to tlio New Jernvy 
alioit% and unbroken nave by **i'herry Inland. " 
The t|Mit where the ftirt pUnnl waa called by the 
Mint|uaa (or Miugia*) Indiaiai whom Minuit 
lound in the it'giiHi llo|iokaliiieking. Fn>m one 
of theae Indiana, a chief named Meta«iiiient or 
Mattahoon, the commander iMiught, on March 
29th, this aite and iinilaibly coai«ii«lerablc aurround- 
iog land, aa much, tlie Indiana afterward laiid, aa 
"lay within aix treea," meaning certain tnn.'s, 
which had been dcaignated by * blazing " or mark- 
ing with an nxe,' and a little later he iHirchamtl 
a tract aKmg tlie weat »hure <»f the iK'lawaro* 
•everal ilaya' jouriK'y in extent, the Itargain lieing 
ratilictl by five Sacbema, and a written ctMitnict 
drawn up. After Minuit ha«l thua aetpiircd {mni- 
•cMkNi of the country, by oecu|Nttion and pur- 
chaae from the nativea, he oaiiMHl the ariiM of the 
t^ueen to be erected and name<l the colony, which 
he had planted, "Xkw Swbi>bk." 

The Dutch at Fort Nawau (Glouocatcr, N. J.) 
eillier by their own watchfulncM through infor- 

t Acf*IH» mmnm th»» •« tlito IIhw Mlmit kuwRliI aU t4 lli» land tnm 

maUon rooeived from the Indbmi, or poMlbly by 
muKMi of Minult*8 apfwaranee near their fort ( for It 
ia alfeged he or aome of hia wen aioended the river 
aa far aa Timber Creek) had early knowledge of 
the invaaion of what tliey regarded aa their do- 
main. William Kicft, who waa now the Ooveroor 
of New Netlierlandt. had received intelligence of 
it at Manhattan laland by April 28ili, about a 
month from the time of MinuitV arrival, receiving 
woni IVom the commiMary at Fort NaNWU, for 
U|M»n that date he wnito the dircctoia of the Weat 
India Gom|iany that Minuit had landetl on the 
Delaware and had lK*giin to coiiatnict a atnmghold 
and bad trie<l to ptiMli on up the river lieyoiid Fort 
Nniwiu, but had been prevented fn>ni doing io. 
The ( lovemor at firMt onlen'd thu cimimiMarv of 

Fort NaMiau to pmteat agiiiuMt Miuuit'a a«*tiou, 
ami that oHieinl duly M.>nt Peter Mey down to the 
Cliriittitina to tee the commander's licenae and 
colli III iN^ioiiH, which he refuaed to allow. Thu 
Guvemor then, on May fith, old style, or ITtlt, 
new style (the Hwcdea using the former and the 
Dutch the latter) sent the foUowiug solemn pro- 
test, in which he laid claim in lichalf of the Dutch 
WcMt India Company to the Zuydt River : 

"I WIIIUm Kl*ft, IHnrl<«--OMiM«l of TIrw N«4h«H««4i, Mtillagaa 
f hr I^UimI it MMNhalbiM, l« Xi** AMalrnlMii, HH-Ur III* mnn^fnij •! 
Ihfir lllfch MiKhUOMM iIm- Mai* «;rMrnil i>f Hit* I'Mltml Ni4livrlaii4» 
mm! iIm |>rUtln(Ml Wwl ImIU rMii|«My'« ilriwrtMrirf al AawlvnUiH, 
niakp knAwn in ih* llua. HHfY MIi>mU. «Im> rwila Mwa'ir t-mmwla 
•hMt^ tM III* irnkv wl li«r ivyal m^lMly wt Swadaa. OmI IIm «h«to 


^ !IrJriSri;2!ir5jV?ii^^ •'»«"^<* never ice again. He had lent the sloop 

- '«tth«irUuN<«kic«iiMiM|i|iPMi««Mi4«HNfljrMr4iiJ:riiMi •'Griffin" b advaiioe to the Wett Indioi tu ex- 

•»k.»ti*«i.MM«^>-4ii«-*<itu7^^iJll^jriJ!HTi,^^ chau}^ the cargo brought out from Gotteubun?. 
ihM • fcri. to ow 9f^w4km mi dwiwMM*. wbrt w ttuAt M««-r aoil he sailoi] upt>o tlio " KcT of Kalmar " to the 

•Mian wr IuIm»I», mi4 wkicli «• mn mitwnmlmt ll iHi««r Iim Ucm mm i . «« • - . . . . _ 

u,i^k^ »0«iy «r8»«J«i. I. I..IM ZhnLTI^. ***>*« P'»<^ He arrived safely at the Island of 

2!!:!]! "*^*i^*"'.*?r^T'"''*"*"''''^''~^ •**•*" SL ChrUtophfir, suc€c<^leil in dispusioe of his 

IwtMiM tif Sm1% aad nilitraliM Ih* iMMk, sad rnainx la ftiim. ur Ml l* • • i .\ J ^. . 

iPNii-r«iiiM«iaaafihinRtM.«rt«H»urr.i»itMiM>iiM*it.irKiM. Miip s cargt), and was aliout to sail fur Sweden, 

*iii««r<««i>4 k«M. «"d *iii ■»! •» •a..«*i4-f.* aa, a.M»i«. -ffadu.. whcu an cvcnt occurrcil by which he lust his life. 

Allan-, wluir «w ar* n>ftilt*il iw •Irrfa.l liar rIcliU IH all mrh aiatMirr »• "^ WCHC Willi bM cnptttlU tu VMt a Dutch ship 

wa^ijr" ''***• "•*' **• ^"•'*v* '^''« ti« cm «r Majr. nniiicd •• Ili-t fli<^^rc,i,|e hert " (The Flying I)wr) 

lying near, and while they wcru on Uianl one of 

Miuuit paid no attvntion whatever to the Gov- ******^ terrible htirrii-ntini, tu which the West Iiidioi 

enior V protest This eluiiii rested u|ion tlio prior "'^ siilijirt aniHo, mid when it wbj* over and 

discovery and occii|Nttion of the ouiiiitry, but tliev ■<"*'"""** "^ ''•*; fliiuwter could lie giilhenHl. it was 

had wholly abaiidouuil the west side i»f the river, anil ^""'"' ^1'^*' t'"^ imrticulnr nhip wiui among the 

either liecausc they rvgnrded their cluini us uuteii- '^^'<^>^1 ^\**^ '^11 <'f the shijv in the nKuUtituI Imd 

able for this reason, or for the reason tliat the char '*^'^'" 'Ici^'*-*" l<* ^ni mid all had suffered some 

ter of the West Indian Comiiauy prohibited the ^^'^'I'^^l^'^^* *>ut it so hup|Kiied tlint .Minuil's own.tlie 

diflunititm of war without the o»iiMent of the ^*^y ^^ Kniiiiar, wiw uot only among tlKim; which 

StatM Geiiend, tlie Dutch subiuitlod quietly to ^**"l'<^*. 'j'Jt "••^* "ftlniee which diiMaiuwl the least 

what they rt^gnrdtnl as gniss iMur|Nitiou of the "y*J»'y'' '^hat Miuuit u;is a Uild, (>iiti'rpriHtig, 

HwiHliw. Then ttMi Kiell, liccmiic aware that I"***'*'"' "»"". "•»»»'»l In? gaiiiNiid, nml it «in» 

Miuuit*s(«»Uuiy iNire theiHiuiuiisHioH of the QiKvii *^""*' ^'l"^ Iw c«»uld not have Uvn fiermitUil to 

of Swi*«len. mid he knew how disttwtvful U> the *»«^« *"J'».vcm* '^»"«« "I" ih^' i^-^'dts of liij« lulM»r ami 

Holluiid Ciovernmciit it wouhl be, shouUI he cm *^ *'*"^ *** *"*^'^* "'**!'* •" '•••* »"tive land or by tlie 

bntil the country with a great, powerful and war- "*""* where he fonude«l the firsit colony of New 

like nation, with which they had imido comiiHJii *^***'*J^*"- 

cause in many inoinentims mattcre, and too there '^^^ "Key of Kalmar'* ultimately reached a 

wa4 a strong b<m<l of sympathy U^tween the *"I"'.*' l*"*"' **"' *"'^ without inivtiiig with other 

8we<les ami Dutch thn>ugh their religion, lioth »»''";*«|rtune» than the Kim of her c<»mmatidor. The 

iMiunlrieslHMiigProtcsUint, The twonatioiialilicK, ^ '•'(*'" "l^^'r cnii.*iiig alMHit for a liiiic-in Wivt 

however, were di-sliiitil Ut clash seventeen years '"**'.** ^"Uth,^ retiirmsl t<i the little fort on the 

later and ultimately b(»th to sueeumb to the Kiig- ^'*»"'«t"'»' Furs had Uvn liought there in con- 

litfli. sidenilde i|muitity from the Iiiditiiiitunil wt-lMoflen 

Miniiit aOer he had made such geiiend provin- ^''^'* **"'*"• the nl.Kip Haihil forSwe«len where she 

ioiiH as he deemetl |iro|ier for the little band who •'"J'veil m-nr the close of May, IO:{*J. 

were to garrison the fort, preimred to rctuni to 'P«t'«| »"«* ^'Hme alxiut ipiite a change in the 

Sweden. *' lie left a iMirtion of the car«i he had «""«™t'«»" whcme, so far as Swetleu was coiii-emed. 

■ t. . •• ^!.. . . . ** . . Ti...i :- :• I .: I ?- L 

mcutiofied as taking part in the first cxjicdititiu/ 

niiriiLMMK-u IIS uiKiiij; |iuri. ill iiio nm CX|ieUlllOU, > . ' -' — ^-"^ ......«.•« |x>iii.iwi 

and Ilcnrik Huygheii, who seems to have been ri'lations, wouhl assume. Clas. Fleming U^canie 

Miiiuit's brother-'in law or cousin. It was enjoined t|»c ''l»**<^"*Mcnder of the *ork in Swe^len. a p.e»i- 

up»»n these leaders (of whom the former ap|iear« to "*"* ***** ^**'*^** **® '*'"■'* ^'^^^ *»"*^^ ^^^ *>y *»» eim- 

* live been eutnistiHl with the miliUry, the latter »!'-'<^*'"» ^'»t*> ^'»e wmipany and by mison of the 

ith the civil or eetuiomical direction) to defend '"^ ''*"^ **® ^^*^ lHH.'<mic pn^ident of the college 

4*__A^ ____1 ^ J*ft • . ■ _ a ■ m.» ahW m%»%9\%am^Amtm^9^% BAsIa A.Ala W^h^laa &. «.a* ....^^. . ^ I- > .^.. _ I 



been csUblishevI fmm the start »*.#. r ».,... i . . 

., u II • T I L . mr- • « «. 'Tlit-f«rtof MliiulnA'aih liulta i.»aB»ral«».»i|.-*"ril-^l. to .,i,« .^ 

It was proDably in July that Minuit made his ••*<'niiiirwi>isNii;iit»utitjo>iiiii.r, hk^ sa.-.ii.h •rii«r(nuiRsciit.iiT 

dejiarture from these shora, which it was fated he ZS.TTi'^''^*'^' ^'"'""" TT^,"} .'"*' !' T"".'""* '" ''• * 

,_.... . ^ tiana,*' aitJ I'lay, Kt-rrl^ ViiM-rnt mikI rmuv Mi^t* l«*»f a-truraMr 

• GulwaUl aHlWairaUoa the lirlawara Rlvar (JlTri* York UklaHt^ ratmich i^ittMlhr nmir. a>ia« rvpaaawrllaxrlrruMiManiiallvbia iNiitol 

AcwT'b, VmI, Kll. H. Farawar) |«. !». U ||,« ••«« im,Am' lliimh "' grxMuA. 

« It to pruUUii, bww«««r. tliat lliMa ww« • «»* otkOT Swadn la Um « OMmtr'a Mm S». rfca fVaaay/r^aM M<t*iimt ^ WiHoff, Vg|. IIL pc 



Vm VlkC, who had been fiir Mvwml ymn how* to the little coloiij tbmw, of which noro romt be 

erer in the 8«edieh eenrioe. Having Mourad him eaid anon. 

se the eooioieiider of the propueed ezpeditioii they At the time preperatiuiif were begun for thii 
look atepe towanle ftnding a number of eoloniite, aeoofld expedition, in 1030, Peter Hollender* was 
whieh wae by no meene as eaay a thing to aocomp* amigiied to the olHeo of Oofenior at Chrietina, 
li«h aa it would be at this day. There being no and ho Haileil upon the ** Key of Kalmnr," when 
applicinU for IVoe euilgmtiuu the goveniitient alio finally waa |iorniitled tt) leave. The paaCor, 
onlfml that certain of ttn otHvem in the pruvrucvi liciinw Torkilluiii nlmi uudouUtitlly vamo over at 
of KirnUirg and Viinnlnnd should take by foreo thia tiim>; iTrtaliily not with Miiiult, a« Mwonil 
•ovh inarrivil Moklicni ri had dtiieiiod or commit* writeni have tUiixuX. Ifo waa tlio tlr«t ivllgio«w 
ted ulher ofiviMve ami traui«|)ort tliem with tlioir tvnelivr in Now Sweden ; Imt lilllc ia known of hit* 
wivee and children ttt New Sweden, at the aanie hiatory, and he i»1c«!|m in an unknown grave, pro. 
time giving prumiM that tlicy ihould be brought Imlily in the burial ground uf the Old fiwetkn 
home within iwo yean. It waa ordered however church at Wiluiingtoii.' Ai! to tlie utlier iniiiii- 
that this should be dune ** justly and discnsetly" granta by thin scouud vuyagvof the " Key of Knl* 
that no serious embroilment miglit ensue, mar," there is no exaut date ; but a dticuiiicut,' 
Thus dilficult waa it to obtain "eiuigranla fur anioug the Ruyid Archives of Stockholm gives 
America" two huudrod and fifty yean ago! Pro- the names of a nuiiilicr who must have come either 
curing funils for tlie ex|icditH)n was another not by this or the first i!X|)editioii, and who were 
emiy task, |tarticularly as lilonunaert and the therefore tlie lint rcKi<lcnl« at CMiristinu. Tlicee 
Dutch |Mrtncn Imd become impressed with the were Atidcn SvcnoHon Hondu, Pvr AiidcnstHi, 
fart that the wluilo cutcrprisu Imd been nmuugcd Andon l^inMin DiuiIIhi, Svcn lainMiu, Peter 
NMirc in the intercsUi of the Kwedish ciown than GunnarMou UumlMi, Svcn OuuntirMMiu, Lmn 
their own, and they were all, lUommaert cK|ieciiil- Svciimsoh Kiickiu, Muus Andcrmou, ihicn ThriMaon, 
ly, exnH|)emted by the very imtural reproaches of and Murlen GottcrMmn, — ti'U in all. It is inicrcst- 
tlaMither nMMiibvn of the Dutch AVest Iiidm com- ing to note a few facts inmimiiiig tliu ntVer life of 
|iany l<ir placing the Hwetkit in their American tlHiM* first ilwdlcro in Dclawiire. For instance : — 
imsAiwiiinK. Hius Sweilish colonixalion aflain Ikmde, the firHi-uK'iitiiHutl in thv Iljit, who was 
were i^miplicatcil; embarraMinl and dclnyi><l. At lioni in Sweden in 1U20, M'ttknl in 1(1-14 at Thii- 
lant, however, and ngnin with menus supplitnl by eunii later riMnovnl to wliiil iNHiinn* Plriliulnlphin 
Ihitchmen^lUommaert and Spiring, the pn»jt>e- (Viunty, and in \WA wuk nMH^nHtl nn the wenithi<i*t 
Ion of iIh* MHiMid exiHilition went able to move, inhnblisnt of that' (Hiunty west of the Schuylkill. 
OiKv more tlie ** Key of Kniniar" was v«|uip|iiHl He dieil iMween 1U'.M ami lOtNl, leaving u widow 
for a voyage to Amerii-n. The viwel was fitted (Anm'ka) who died in 171^1, and mx souk and four 
out ami supplieil with a crew in ll«>lhind ami sail- daiigliten, who |)er|ietuated the fitiiiily uiuler the 
nl for Gottenburg, wlierc th« emigrants were to angliciseil form of the iiniiie, Bimhi or Ihnid. 
be taken on iMwrd Great difficulty was exjteri- Daalbo also moved up tiie river, and was the pn»- 
enced in procuring them as had been apprehemled, geiiitorof a family which reached well «h>wn to the 
but finally a sufficient numlier were got together, presi>nt Ibimbo was anotlier of thusu who came over 
and after the vessel had taken aboard cattle, in the ** Key of Kuliiiar," of whose |ie«»ple the line 
horses, swine, implements for farming and a tuffi- may lie tnice<1. Many of Iuh tles4-eiidunls lN>c*ame 
cieiit <piaiitity of provisions she lel\ Gtittenburg; pnmiinent in Peiinsylvnnin, New dersey and iVIa- 
early in tlie (all of KiUt). Hut she had pruceede<l ware. And, again, 8ven Gtiiinnn«Min led |ioi<ter- 
no further than tho German Ocean, wlK>n she ity, who, by the eiiittt»inary Swi^tlish changes in 
sprang a li*ak,and had U> |nit into |iort for re|iain. names, i*ame t«i be known as BvensMin (that is 
Two other attempts to sail were frustrated by Hveii, siai of 8ven) which waa sism iiiiglieixed into 
wimi and bod seas and the incom|ietency of the Swanson, the eogiioiiien of a now very extensive 
captain, and finally the crew dcclaretl that they fauiily. Of several othen named nothing it 
would not sail under such a commander aa Van known lieyond tho fint few yean of tliei* rvsi- 
Vliet. He waa aci'used both of carelcMmcss and dence here, but enough has been said to show that 
dishonesty in victualing the ship, and the charges 

lieing substantiated ho was removed and the com* ■ UviiMMirr vm la mmm> •mj Miiviiy <im mmr, arturiiac lo rmr. a. 

niami given to Pouwel Jansen, "prolaibly also a ^ '"«'. «'^«««*- •«-^««* 

I>ut4*hman, and a new crew was likewise provided, ^m ahni b- mm., i.. H^m nm^u. lu imrn^t .i i hrMta.. ^m Ji 

and after sulfering several delays tho ••Key of »air«»a.i.iiH'rini.i,.ii.iihHn.c..iv,«-Kmu«i>.."iS'ihi.|«. 

aliinir' at last made her de|Nirturo from the <.uin-i iwHrmi-rT.irtu.aiHi m h- ut-Mw* .(.ii M.n«ary .14 urib. 

Texel on llw 7th of Kebniary. I(14«. Making nn ■•"•• /•*'. fci-Sru««i •r»i.-«i.H%rMii« »»m. mjr um. quick voya^, she reaclaHl Christiana 01. jHr«lS.i:;r^::::"n^^^^^^^^^ 

the 1 4 th of April and Iter immigrants were addml ^immu ji«ir.u<M •/ iii-iury, vwi. 11 1. ^ 4ui. 


tlM WBtd of tlM " Kej ot Kalmmr" jpknten did moniaUioB «mi Aon, He wtonrtd m 

Boi poiih ffoai tlM csith. other tkea eererml ibote ftied efter tlM aloop •« it 

Bevertiiig to tiie elbin of the now leinforeed peaed down the river, 

eolon J, it mey be remarfcetl that bat Kttle ii known Gorenor HoIIender*i marioii np the rifer vne 

c o neerning it dnring tlie time between Minuit's d^ the purrhate of Indian title and it was pmbahir at 

parture and Hollendcr's arrival The only ducu- thii time that the land waa Imught no the ve^t 

ment of kiral nature which ban been prtiirrvcil (in aiile of the river ait far np aa Tiwititn, fiir he »et op 

tlic Riiyal Arrliiv«« of Hwcdt*n) k an-ae«iiunt lNN»k three Kwc^tlinh pillnm for a lnNimlary aluHit fitfht or 

krfit by llcnrik IIur|{hcn fnmi the year ]G:t8, aim* 8wcfltiih (thirty>two to thtrtr-Mx Kn;;lii>h) 

whirh yiel«lii no niMvifir infttmialifin TIm* colony niil<« almve Clirtiitiana, ami MilMtiiinitly errrtnl 

ia shown from oilier wninTa to have maintaiiieil one lirtow the fort. There is mi armunt of further 

the aame henlthful eomiitifin in which Hollomler occurrences in the colony at this time ami imieed 

fiaiml it. Tliey Imd lieen so active in the fur very little pertaining to any portion of Ilolleeiier's 

trade that they hml damaii^l the Dutch trmle, |ieri«Ml of j^vemmcnt which expiretl early in 

acr«inrui«; to dovcmor Kiea himself, fully thirty 1643. In May, 1040 the ** Key of Kalniar^ 

thonwnd florins. The guvemiir also reported that starteil on her homewani voyape and arrived 

the eohmiirtt had liecome so distresMMl that tliey at Ctoitenbor*; a few weeks latter. Mami Kling, 

were about to leave, ami bati made prepamti<»ns the lieutenant who had ^hml commami of Fort 

to do so, upon the very day that tlie Swcfliiih vee* Chrnitina accompanteil her umler onion* to re«*ruit 

sel came t<i llicir Miccor,' iHit the wish was very ininii^rnints in certain repons of Swed<-n for 

likely father t<i the tlHHi;rht. The I hitch had Itcen strrn^^llimiu); the cohmy. 

irrilateil by the premiice of the Hwedis*h fort upon In the mcnn time prt'|mmtions wen- makinj; f*ir 

tlH*ir own Zuydt river, ami hml iwrn-d several planting an imlepcmlent Dutch cohmy in New 

onleni intcnidt'd to emliarraM, or intiroi<late them Kwetleii, under the patronage of the Swe<li^h 

ami to firevent further imiq«i(ions of their donmin, West India Gom|iany. This came ahiMit thn»u;:h 

among them being a |>rohihiti4in of sailing on the certain jenlouMics and ill feeling in Holland 

Zuydt river willHMit li«vnKe. towards the Dutch Went India C^impany. The 

tNivcnmr Peter Ilolh-mler does not apfienr to 8wediiih Ciovernment had beotme anxitiiis to 

have enU*rtaine«l a high o|rtnion of iIm* (iiloiiy, or have its colonimtion M'liemes cnrritil (»n iml*- 

to have lnvn nlik* to mlniiiiiiitcr its atrfiim without |M*i)dently of the very I hitch rlciiN'nl ahidi it had 

friwiiin. 'Hie imiiiigmiitK mvui to have lici>» loo liecn ghnl enough to iMtcrcsl at Drvt. ami through 

few ami mit of the right elaiN* They may tuive wIkm* aid the first and secomi eiiNilliions acre 

serveil very well to garrison little Fort (*hrif*t!nn ma<lc sunvMful. Sti'|M had alniidy licen taken U* 

ami to have sup|Ntrti'«l it pni|N'rly as a trailing buy out the Holland imrtners " since they arc a 

station, but they knew little of agriculture, Ufsin himlrauce to us,'* although that rrsidt was m4 

which the cnhmy must largely rely to become self- actually nncheil until February, IfUl, when the 

sustaining. The g»»vernor 8a)*s in one of his let- sum of eighteen tliousand gidden was {taid for 

tern' Co Chancellor t >Xiiistiema, " no nwrc stupid, the pur|siic (Mit of the |Mil>lic fumls. The Sweiles 

indiflercnt |ieitplc are to be fbiiml in all Sweilcn however hail no objection to the settlement of 

than iImisc tluit are now here." They ftiund too, Dutch people in New Sweden provi«ied they were 

that tliey bad brought an insufficient supply of subject to Swedish rule. Thus the a-ay wa.* made 

•loniestie aniinuls. eoity for a private ci>miisiiiy furmetl of ciTtain di;^ 

llolh'ndi-r was in fiivor of the m«Nit pacific atti- affcctctl |H>nion8 in the Dutch \Vci*i India Ctm* 

twiu touMnhi tlic Dutch op at Fort Nniwau, and pany, living princi|mlly in the Pmvimvof Utn*eht 

htr had, in fact, lieen instnicteil to foUow such a to form an inde|ieiuleni settlenH'nt. (hie Herr 

policy, lait Kling mmI Huyghen up<in wlumi the van der Ilomt was the first to enter into n<^«tia- 

direction of affnirs hail resteil during the period tion with the Swedish Government, lait the grant 

between M*nuit> 4k*pnrturu ami the governor's waa sulis*i]ucntly transferred to Henrik Hisig- 

arrival, were in favor of employing force in the kamcr, or as it is more commonly sfwlled Henry 

event of I3titch obstre|icrousiiesB, and of ignoring Hock hammer and his associattai, they as the 

the art! of diphimacy- Hollendcr made a little charter states ** having the intention of cstabli^th- 

voyage up tlie Delaware in a shiop, on the 21st ing a colony in New Sa-eden.** This charter calleil 

of April, IG40, an«l, when op|NMitc Fort Nassau, ** Oriroij vnd l*nvilrffium'" in imitation of the 

was finil U|Min thnt* tinier, but ho ignonil the coiiccwious ciuiiinon with the Dutch Wrat In«lin 

pniciHMliiig and calmly cnnliiiucil his way, and on Coni|inny(<nllc<l " |intnMUiNhi|is," proviilctl that the 

his niurn ho nnclHtrevI and s(>iit au amicable ounw grauU'cs might take up lumls on the north (i»r 

west) siih*of the Delnwan* Kiver, at l<ii«t four or 

l'I:!!!f^"*"""i* *Tl!!'\'1; "' ,,.... ^ .« . . five (Icrmnn inil« fi«m Chri-tinna. tii hold the 

UAUm^tuhtm-t) lame under the protection of tlic crown ofSwcfien 


m karediUrf propaftj und •xerdM over the Mine many of whom had been impritoDod by the pro- 
Ugli wmI low Jttriailieiion wmI briog it into vineial govemon. Thua they Mcured many indi- 
actual enltiration in ton ytmn* They were viduals of the lawlea clasiei, th<iUKli the body of 
to recognlaa the iuieraiuty of the crown of inimiKranta was not to oonttiiiited aa a whole. 
Sweden and pay as tribute thieo imperial gulden Out of thirty-two ponnns aecuriNl for the 
fi»r etcry family settled. In religion they were to cxpcilition through the persimal efforts 
prefer the Augsburg ConfcMion of Faith but be- of Klhig, four were eriminnls, *' l>ut the re- 
sides were to be allowed the privilege of the "so mainder went either as servants in the employ 
ealksd Reformed Religion,'* hut in such a manner of the com|i«ny, or to better tlieir condition." 
as to avoid all dinputo. The palrooiis of the The vessels of the expcditi<»n this time were the 
colony were bo«ind to sup|iort ** as many niiuisters '* Key of Kalioar " and the *' Charitas/' the lat- 
and school-nubtteri as the number of the iulmbi- ter iimdc rrady at HtDckhuliii. They sailed from 
tants shall seem ti» require, cluNisingso far as 8wcde» sometime in KM 1, and arrive<l duly on the 
powible for these offices, men who would lie will- Delaware, but the lairtieulars of the voyage are 
ing and capable in the cunvcniim uf the savages, wanting. A |ia|iur anH»tig tlie archives of the 
They were to be allowed to oiigtige in ewry in- Peumiylvania Ilbtorical Society gives the names 
duiitry, trade ami c<Hnmvn*e with friendly iiowcrs of sumo forty *n\t\ of the immiirranlii (nmny of 
but wen* limited to the nue of vcmh'Is built them with fumiliiw) who ttiiiic over at this 
«ialy in 8w(Hli*nnnd w««ft« t4> iiM> tStittonburg iw the time.' Wii an* told that Limitcmint Kling 
plaiv for liomling all giMNls vent to Kun»iiu. Tliey bnuight with him his wife, i*hiM and a mnid. 
wvre exeniptt*<l fnim all taxes for a jK*ri(Ml of ten Tlion* apiiean to have Unii alM> a prifnt— llcrr 
years. ChriHtoflcr-(no surname is givon in the origitiul) 

A iHUsport for the ship ** Frcdcnburg** was with this ex|w<liti<m, but he could not have re- 
granted simultaneously with this charter and niainttl long iu the country, for no further men- 
also a conmiiMion f(»r Jost van Dogunll as 8we- tion of him is found. It is slated that he came 
dish agent in New Swe<lon, probably to live in the out for ex|N«ricnce, stiiwlating for nothing but 
Dutch cohtny tt» bo foundc«l under tho charttT-^at nminlrnamv, although he nnfivcd a pn'scnt (»f 
least he is aftcrwanln found in thai iMwiiion— nnd ono hundntl dnlcri'«>p|H>r mimcy rnmi the /iVil'Aimf- 
as cMimniander, with a milury of livo liundn'd m/(i»r udiiiinil) U|Nin wIkmh* nHtminimdalion he 
lloriiM |ii«r annum. Tho " Fn*«h'nliurg*' duly cmlsirkcil. (.luKtat* Sinihl, a young nobleman, 
MiilotI under nmniiand oflJ^iptain •ln«*ob I'owelKon mitleil ali«o u|M)n tho nH*omiwendation of the adnd- 
but with lioganlt as comiimmler of the ex|M><li- ml. Michael Janmon, the burgimiaMler*s stm, 
ti<m, ami arrival on the iX'laware NovemU'r 2^1, fnmi QcHe, was another adventurer. The remain- 
1G40, the immigrants being scttlinl, aceonling to der of the arrivals apfiear to have licen actual 
the bust information now obtainable, about three or iiettlers, and the brief notes which wo are able to 
fimr (Swedish) miles 1>el<»w Christiana,' which give concerning them affiird in many coses inter- 
wtHild place it in or near what ii* noa- HL (Jcorge's esting suggestions in regord to the oonditiotis which 
Hundred of New Castle County. governeil tlie cohmixation scheme, the chnrmttcr of 

Tliis enterpriiie muxt not be confounded with the peraons thcmm^lves, and tlie conduct of affiiirs 

the thini Swcfliuli exiKMltiion It will Iw nMiiem- during the early ycnn of New Hwedeirs hisii»ry : 
lN«nMl that Lieutenant Miins Kling luid in May, 

1640, a«HTom|smU'«l the •• Key of Kalmur to p,^«,„„ •«,,•« .i iih. w«i n*. nk-ui,*. i-i lirT^ «« ...t.^ H. 

Sw'cden, with authority to c«tllect imniignuits for •■••n'.ini|«mwi i.f hto »ifr, iwinfamhiiii^ bhI* i»«i»»*,«iia»M 

stniigtiicning the c«>lony. He pnii*eeuttM this ,ii..f ivr^Mnmii...* ivum^h, »•**, «•.•« hirt*. b.»i.««i, 

work icahMisly* having as a co lalN>n'r one Lieu- • "•iM«ri»iti, t»mm la mwt^ t« •icrir«iiiu«: i^m m iim ^n any 

... iTi_ it'.^i I 1 rfiirr, iln^iMK nw aiMllluiMl »aR«i li«M Im W mM ttr «iImI*««^ «»rk 

tenant- Colonel Johan rriuts, the same wlio sulisc- ih. ,i.««>.rcAHi|«*ird i.y hii »ir- «i.i i»» ciiiMi«a. iiu iJUn u 

qnentiv became irovemor of New Sweden, and of ••i*i»»'» »» i'--'' »■ •*Hn»i«i «• ui-irtroiu'B m»f^ !■ ic* aMi Mb- 

',',,, ^, .. ^ ,. •p«|iN'iiilf Im wm 4IM* wT iIm iiiii|(1»lnitrfi no llw lirliitkara. n« »■« 

whom we shall lherer(»re have more to say later, ami u^i^ la im4. mh .im ki.# in taeci, b«viMir a »«. j»iia miik 

Tliey were particularly onlerwl to rwruit in the i«*« i» ifi^s ii» w»7<'* -^ • ••'"•ki«»« "•"••WH«ta rawii,. 

, Z %• i \ m 1. •< ^*'" Imiw"*. •■' •■■•••«••, t» *tir%* mm ipinMvr Ih iI»« r<i(t, mm at lua 

nming uistnets, also fn»in among the niatiiiiig mmw iimm> t» »!•«■«» la awr«.HitMt» w ih« ,Niii«ati.4« .^ \%a» 

Finns," who " were wont to live fnxj of charge in '«-»i*"W ^ •••■ •'»•• »• ««• • •"•'^ •• ►-»« "irt-iiN-. u i*^* • 

the hmi#€S of the inhabitants of the KwiHli«ll for- Amkn nauMm. ar Jaii«Mi. ih* |tna«*r^ kmtkvr. vmormI by Rlla« 

eats,- and among tha •• fonnt-ilestroying Finns," •• • *"•"» -'.Jlr r***-"' "• ",iii*ai*i.j-ms «•• ^*•^l»• ■• r^riy 

I la i»tl«M !.• ihU wA\vf lM.«#.*w llH>m Uw Im^h mm» .|..nMs na* *»'» ^"K •»"•"» ■«••'»"•»'• »■ M«i>Uad la iMl. ImiI piuhaUy 

,« t«« » rlirn r«r« rlalmlan Ihal iW n4..Ny «a> k*-a(Ml •»« MV IU«.>r, r»<w'«'J «» •»» lV.Uware. ^w lU aaaM. a|i|»«i« aa<uN« IImn uT |Mr 

Xar>Ua.|. U la rrrtala (In Ow »««il ^* *^\^v»^\ »«t.»i«) il,.i tba •"•• "»'■« »• l1ill»W|*l« Cninly la liaci 

lucikUt) «a«i*riNilli» |irla«»r*Bn«l|fa«M-flMl II wm UCmt OirMUiia, **" hil»«, wMw. •Hb lw»aly Sairr a« lb« ilafl. 
bal0iH«afvni4 malinRlliiaB- abuamnN Oial tli»|ilNr« wb<i-tr«l aaa 

■!•« «r anr thi* «li» uT Nr« <Vlb>, aial Ihal II ana lb» |ir<viini uT lA eopjror a Ikl fivai Ika lluyal ArrhUaa la Swa4Mi. Tba aaaiw 

■rttlvl^ iImw alnwly whldi «i«« tbal bralily lb* MlvaMair* uT Fwrt fh«i IbU an* Klvr«. lulprtlter wllb brtff a«il««. by PmT. 0. a Kaaa, la 

Oirfaiir la after yaan. Iba JVaaiplnnite JbgwMf ^ "M^. V«l. Ill^ y^ 4M-4ta-4S4. 



Ml i« lia A 

Janli Mlnitt, MM*. 

Pkl JGfHMMM, ar J B bi am , MW, ta IMS • mMWr. 

Kmp«i lllarfrtrwia, • riaa, mm t !■ iflW rtlll • 
ft«M I'iiImmI la IC4, k« wtiM aftamrii al OraM l|t«k (Mww IIm 
CkrUhaa) and bwHiw caf^ala iif tb* aHapanr (Imi*. THte lM4lvt4ml 
a piilki|«al la tli* Inwnvrthia of tha •• Uag riaa," fcr *liM 
Iw was lavd ihwa liaadrad gaiUtca. 

I<an Markaiaiia, laUnvr. 

Ifla>lf1«ii MataMa, a M, la ivralfa Imi rIkuUir ai yaaitj wafi^ 
vllh tea <falfr ru|i|i»r anavjr al lh« Hart; la laM a aiUhr. 

Jwltaa AailrTMua, mma. 

ok.f KH.'WM. auiM : la 1041 a klmnr, apiwlam to anka h^ fcr 
tlw callK aail to a»aaai|iaay tha Ouvaraur «a Ika IIUU facbt ; atlU a 
Uhiri* la IA4II. 

I^il .iaiMil, a M 

lla UraaMi a ttwnmu la 
a fivaaMN la |A4it. 

Ma aahllaraa4 Ht aat ftaai CbrfallM fcr 
llvioira iMi tba " nuiM," Jaaa ;»t, I«i44. 

«^rl JanMiMi, In amMu|aiay tha *>i|wll(l>ja fcr raabkaiaat. Ha 
»aa a lkMkkiv|«rr la KUxlialw la rinUu4, aaJ Im4 cwaiaaUtMl Maia 
atialiFamiaHr mkkk hm waa lf«nH»«1«l. lib Ivhavluar la N#v 
ll»r>|i*a vaa KKrvlkHil, an>l lii*tcrH«« I'riati wli«s la lAI-'l, pliMW>l lilai 
la rlMiK* ut tli» atiimkwBMi, aa4 a|ifiiilMli<il him to aaillt Ilia rNMaiM. 
■ iiy'a afiMlhljr amMiitl. with a aKNiihljr Mlary *4 taa rikmttti*, la FpIp 
rwary, IMT, Nric»l h|«hi Iha Wnai IntlU f-wm|«ay Ihal km \m ivraill- 
to»l !•• n-luia to hW aatlm rvHiuiry, 

Mala IImmmmi wan a ■•rraul, ilrawlnf an wagi^ ** iHiljr to Iw aanilM 
ailli a«>«NirHl a|i|Mii4, li^-aiiaa li^ ItatI niainilMi*! aa wII^im^ bm«I aiaal 
aiiHaM|«iN>' |lii> i>«|«4iniai ftir |NinUhair«i." la Im4n a hvi-aiaa. 

IVirr l.«r«iai Km-k, Uira In Irtll, aaa to mprtm a« |NiMMMNr«l t'* 
an-«<mr> fiv-l and i-I»|Im^: Iu HHm a frvMiMa, Mi> Ih-M aptvfwl atlli'va 
aaikf III* KoTrrnaM>Hl mI llwi ruluaj. and ilM al Kl|4ia, la tlilMrl. 
|tliU l'«Hnt>. !•) Mar li. lilM-iCi. IU liati al Irai* dx mttm aaM m aaiaj 
tlaiialiN-r*, aa«l k-n aawM-naM thwntlaala. 

Miii l«pMai, a •hwrivr tr^tm tliv anajr, aaal bjr tba war uflk« a« 
INiuMiawnt : la h'A* a lalMfar. 

iImntmi JiliuMaaia, a n<urlrr aa«l «iaa ef tba "Amal lbal^•yla|( 
fiaas" ••! tli« |«rMi wT l<unil. la V«railaa< aallilail tut |aiaMiaN-ni 
la ihr aiiMbMy aa>l ivrmlitnl \f a Uieal guivraor to raiiciata |la 
l*<-aaii> a fivrmaH bjr IiUh. 

Kriiil IfurMiia aaaMi. 

Ilirfrl ^^iklUai, dia iif llir farawr, 


liana MaH««>n, a l^l•l|■>r, aiaM^ Ha h 

lilH'Irttii MitilMMi, a Klaa, mnia. 

I«n« lUrtiiwiu, a laUm*r. 

lutfii, IT Kirrl UviTiMai laiaa aa a ftaiaiaa ua lb* "(liarltaa " aatl 
aaaptlll la tlio ttMiiilry ia lilln. 

Nana .loraw>»>n, a Klaa, arul aat oa tin •* Kay wf Kalawr" aail aal- 
■niMrttlljr iMNiiHN' a fn^^Mna. 

MaI* 4H..rm*a, oiaiv <mi ib« ** Kay ••T KalaMr " aa a nilar : la WW, « 

<1nm (laraaia. a ItolHi rarpanlar. wbAraair oa lb* 'MluirilM;*' la 
IRU, rMkliac »n iIk- MaH<l al fbrMlaa ((lierry IhUmiII. 

l«nn*iM AailrtoaaNi i'H.*|rr, a laitrbaiaa. «lii» raaw ua Ilia Thatl- 
iaa;" In IM4, iiMklnK tMlnaii^ rmk*. He. al (AirWIaa. 

lAtnm IVn«ia, «lh> raaM* aa a maH}ur urn tha "l-faaritMi;" la lAM. 
Mteaicnl. liku rny|M<r : la lUIM. a a«lh«^ ua ibn Pkaifi In Krw Mwaibv. 

Lam TlHau|i*>M. tnmt Vr«Mli«ic. rania aa a aalW urn Iba •I«n|i "(liari- 
la« ;" In liilH, a mtikir wa tha akaifi. 

Aa^hTi riiri*llan«*>a fn-fvr. In l«ll, a nillWr a« t^hrhllaa. 

Knnt Maili-nmrfi \a«i, i-anif aaaaalkir; la IrtH.rnllUallac Itibami 
for IIm* riimiwajr al ilirkMlwa : In U'An, a frvrauiH. 

tik<r Tli>ia«M«. In Irtll, Muca^xil Ilka VaM ; la tM«. allll a hUavr. 

Un Aiwlvrviu rir ; In lni4, rumiiMl llhn VaM^ In Irtln. a naA nfaai 

|Ih> akaili. 

Ili4irib^l llfniainMia, alinraaia *a a M^aari an tlia ** CbarllMs" la 
l«iU, aial In IMil, an aiaialanl wf tba naaaili^ry. 

During the year 1642 die colonization schomcM 
ufSwcilcn wore broRilenctI in 8ro|)e, and fierfocUNl 
in orgiuiixation ; prciNirntioiw wcro ninilo for the 
foiirtli ami f;rviiUwi ox|ie(lilion. nnd n inoro clnlior- 
atc nn«l t^ilurtive iiyittoiii of government for New 
Rwetlen wim dcvimtl ami l>roii};lit into n|ionilton. 
Tlio Diitcliiiiiin Hpiring iitill nMnniiuMl m ono of 
tlio chief ailviaom niul fortnnoHt proniotera tif tho 
eiiter|iriito. nml it wiw hirgely throii;*h hin itifliieiieo 
that n new ctuiipany wan formeil of tlioao iiiterciitetl, 
called the WuMt Iiiilia tir Anicrieau com|iany, and 
also " Com/t»ffnir tie Nuva Sueeia" with a capital 
of thirtyoix thousand riksdaler, aAerwards cousid- 

«nblj iDcraaied. One-half of thb capiul wm 
iubM*ribed by ih« old Southern Ship Cboipany, 
one-sixth, or six thousand riksdaler, by the Crown, 
onetwelAh each by the great Chaoccllor, "the 
heirs of the great chancellor of juaticc,** and 
Spiring, one-twenty fourth each hy Clacs Fleming 
and the treasurer and— when ,the total was 
enlarged -the sum of two thousand rtMaUrhy 
Henrick Hiiyghen. the commimary at Christina 
and twelve thousand riksdaler through the 
Southern Ship Company. Tlius the new organi- 
zation had at its didiMitial at least fifly thoui«nd 
rtiW«/#T, iNwides which it rec-eived a grant of 
the tobiicco nH>nn|Mily formerly bcvlowed upm the 
Southern Ship C-ompnny. 

Clianirllor Oxenntierna determined now, ahai, 
to ap|M»int a governor niul other oHicittln fur New 
Sweilen tiiitl lo|iiiy ihiMr mlarieti out of the (!niwn 
fuiidii. Lieiiicnntit (^ilonel .If than IVintx, the 
Niiino wlmm we have ae«ii cngagitl in galhering 
recmiin for cinignttinn, waa coiiUiiii«tione«l pivenior 
on the ir>th of August, 1042, ami on the :^)th 
a •• budget for the Ciovemment of New Swe- 
den " was adopted, nienti<ming a gtivemor with 
a wiliiry of eight hundred riXx/n/ri*, a lieu- 
tenuni, a M«rgtMUit, a cor|N>nil, a gunner, a 
tniiii|H'ter ami a drummer, with tHenty-nmr pri* 
vale laildient. In the civil lim\ pMviainn Haa aWt 
niiule for a clerk, a iMirlMT (aurg«<«»ii ), a prnviail 
and a hnngnnni! The exficniieM of ihia ptvern- 
liient, alititit three (piartcn« of wliirli wi-ce to lie 
n>llectetl from the cxcimw laid on toltatn^, it was 
found, would fiM)l up the reufHt'tahle Mini of thn'e 
thooxand an«l twenty rH-yxtufrr jter year, the 
anM»iint« lievides that to lie paid the govcrmtr, 
lieing ai* follows: One lieutenant governor, sixteen 
rix ilollani per nxmth; one M^r;;eant- major, ten 
rixdollam; one cor|Minil, six rixdolhirs; one gun- 
ner, eight rix (hillant ; one truni|H*ter, six rix tlo|. 
lanw; tiiie drumiiier, five rix ihilliint; twenty-four 
Holilierx, at four rix dollan* ; one |myiiui«ter. ten 
rix (lolhirn ; one wrrt^lnry, eight rix ihiliiira ; one 
hnrliiT, ten rix thilliim; i»ne proviwit, aix rix tlol* 
lan«, aiitl tuic — — — four rix dollnrs; mnkiiigoiie 
huiidntl anil eighty-five rix dollnrs {ler month. 
S|)e<-ial agents for the ctimfmny were ap|w>inte«l in 
Gottcnhiirg and Amrtenlnm, and C*las Fleming 
was placed in general charge of tlie wlude home 
biiiiiiicss of the ctimpnny. 

The nitist elalNinitt; tlinvtions were given to the 
governor, coiitaiiiutl in (mrt in hiit comminHion, hut 
more fully in ** IiiatriH>tioiir<," iiameil for his guid- 
ance. Ills commiiMion dntisl, StiK'kholin, Au^iiat 
]r», 1(142, to go into efKrt .Innuary 1, t(>4.'l. wiia as 
follows : 

•Mhir fallhral aaljarta liaviait r«anai*arr<l vWtlac Iba W«ai lB4iM^ 
and hat Inn |Min hanol In fiirai. aa«l aln^ly tirrniilml a rii«>f>lr-r«l>b- fmtt 
vt that AHiatnr. which Oh-jt ha«r iHkaM«l X«-w Harilm. in f^m^-^iu^-P 
— aa tlH^r Uialahla i*>»irrt, iha navlifalkja whirb tbry bava ai 
lakaa, awl tba callivatkai which thay an d^fvmd to 



Ml Italy IMM «m ■ > >>>»■# iImIt «lMlga, mmI takaa tk« oMniry mmt iu 
i4m- aar ivigral pMlwIfaa, bat aflila to favwr mmi •Hvagtiifa 
i wMrk iWy ha** — aiawa i »< «• haia ftrsa to lh« raaatry umi 
■r Ml[fM-«i. a Outfraiir, and laifw aaaMd aa «• «to hafvy ly 
« to««r ••! hia UtUt ratoal, aar vt«j faltklM aal^Ml, tk* alnf* MaaliauuH 
«r i\tmtry,Mkm MMi rtfr«Kiv«raMr af Naw Mvadaa. Ila ragailM toani- 
ariaVtrr mm* Ruwfa mU maaliy aaJ lu iakaUtaala acd«4 all »lrtli-a<a 
a>i >*>!<■ aWa r tiawal.aa<l«»f w a>rraakM<r» all.tiiat fnaatry la aUb aa4 
faiiMal h wait^ Ila maM iirwr r a aatlly, (iMd ariithburlMMil aa«l nima. 
^«iili*ar<p a Mb fljt«4fBrf«i,*1lk Itwaa wIm •lr|a>iMl va kU fpMtrrMawNl awl 
Mto- aatf vaiMf Iba caaaHy: ivaifcvjaallrw wilkuat tliialMrtltMi, an Ikal Ibrto 
AaN bv Ikiaiy to aw a«M. If aajr |irr«a krbav« klaMrir KhM^x, ka 
aMM fwahb ktai la ■ ruavralMH aMHaav; aiwl aa rviranU lli* ralllta- 
ttoa af tkti fwiany, ba Ntaal In a illvnil mawaiY mculaia aa<f niailaNM 
M. ** thai lb* labalataala aiay ilati*^ frtaa It lk«4r b<iam »a|i|ajrt, and 
a«va IbM tvatawira aiaf rvrvtri* ftvaa il n *-a<4l4i> inrmM>. A* to 
MaMrtf. bti alll n<adnrt bia i^tr x nai m l. a* to ba willinic and alila 
(■ilbfWIIx toaaaaiv ft^r it larlwiv llwl, bi-fim mm, aa*! ortty lamtv Hwv<li«, 
ntraWla« ktaawtf hy lb* l»4niiik»Ma (li.>a to btai.** 

Tlie ** Iiwtnictionn/' containing tweiity-eif^bt 
mrticlcM, after rci'itiug the advantagu antic*i|iatAil 
to follow the nicaiium already taken ami thoito for 
which pre|Ninitioii wa* ticing iiiimIc, net forth a 
multiplicity uf iletni)e«l directions coneerniiig the 
duties of tlie Governor. U|M>n hii! arrival in New 
Swe«Ien he was to nee that — 

itnietioiii " waa devoted to the propoaad timtment 
of thoie people by Prints : 

** Baraally aaS la Iba jwar bHi pMl, via , l«4l, i 
hm, fKltmUf aaaiaaUac to altty iwnaaa la all, baw apttM aad I 
|a ralllmto tba Iaa4 tUwvbaiv. aaaialy a|H>a Iba km aMa of Iba abava- 
aa-altoaMl Mwulb iU««r, oa a liilla alnaia aaimi •• rWriMa'a Kll,"* m» 
bava alaa Ibaabaw-aaaiHl aamwtoar liar MaMy aad raf^Mpaala la Ihia 
e-aa|Hnjr, |wi w ba<ai | tor ibaam^i vv^ wT Iba wlM takaliMaatoaf Iba roaalty, 
lki> wlwila <tC Ikta fl«au>ni ahla uT Iba rirar, Itam Iba atnalk af Iba aftMN 
wM irtvat rivar. at i^i|m Majr. ap toai«rMM aaawi NanUhw'a Kil,* 
arkirk aslra4« aluial lwi4rt> Ornaaa ailbsi^ larladiaR alaa iba aaM 
Krfkaa'a Kll, «ilk ika lalaaltoa wT drawlaR to Ikai^-lTw Ik* Xafflhh 
aAiiviaU<l. Tliia purrbaMH ilia (toviimur aball aiaay^ wilk all bla |n»ar* 
kw|i Inlarl, aail Ibaa briaii lk*aa fiiMilba aialar Iba Jartolb-ltoa aa4 
■■•«cruaM>nt mT brr Kujral Majt^jr aa«i wf Iba H«Mliali rnnra, w|iacially 
a* «# an* laf«4iM«^ Ikal ikry iki'a w liaa ar» (a41«|Havi| ibaia|<^ nad 
4iwHkl ikajr l« lialMrcd, aa a trr* |a-«f4^, vulahtariljr to aulanH tkaai. 
wlvi« to a ipivarwaiani «kk-li raa aialnlala aatl |in4arl IIhvi, M la 
l*4b-Tait ihal tiMij rnlKkl atotrlljr aMMiaal la Mnia bnialml PtmaK. Rat, 
h«tar«t>r llial aaiy to, ibr itor^riMir k toarvk lo lirlMff IIimv KiHilbAi 
aailtif IIm< Ri>«i*niHicnt of Ika Sw>^li«li cmwH aa partnwfa la Ibb aaibr« 
lakiuc, aail lk«-y iiilRkl aUs «lik Kual rwaaiia, \m «lri«i>a ual and away 
tmm a«M plar* ; ikrrvtora h^ mum Nuyal M^lmiy will, aafll n ia Hnwaly, 
l*««a II lu Ike tlU-n'ikta *4 liwtfnnir l*riMlB to niMMrr aad act la tba 
lavailara aa raa ba diiaa wilb |mi|iri<4y aad aacv 

• ft aallaia af Iba rwaalry rstoad flnaa Ibr buok'ta uf tba ara to 
I^4mp llraki|iaa, la rHaraiaic P>alkw»«l litwaph (Malyn'a llay, aail 
Ito-aa-* towarth lb*- Oival Kitor, a-* far** Mli»i|im« kill, wkrn* i« ma* 
•Uartol Pufi (ArlMtaa,aMl fnaNlliaarv aula Iwwania IkMitk llivar, aial 
thr atoda to a |darr «hk k Ito* Hi%aRr«<allc| itiakMian,! wblib U al Ika 
wmtmf llaw tba fdacv wb^rr arv Ibr liaiil* uf >V« }*wi«Wa. Tbki iMidrlrt 
«r r\lr«i ul naialry aaiy la* la k>Mictk aUmt iklrty iti^rwian aiil»a ; aa i«i 
abbk la Iba lalrriiir. II baa lava aitiiuUlMl la lb» f«i«inM'l« lltal Ibraalf 
yrf *4 li«« wm^fMif aad maiinay aiay toka w aiark uf ikr niaalry a* 
Ibay a tab." 

With the Dutch he was to cultivate a fricn<lly 
interroane, but positively to deny their pretended 
right to any part of the land on the west side of 
the river, purchasetl by the Swedes from the In- 
ilians and lie was autltorizeil. in the failure of all 
friendly negotiation, to re|iel force by force, hut 
Mvs the document : 


'*Ttoaw llidlaadrfavhn bavf naifralrd In K«>« ffwrdra aa<l iMIIpiI 
IbrM* aadar tba iNulprfkia of bar Ibnat MiO*«(y **»A Ika Mwi^iak 
lV>«a. trtrrr wtoaa J«a« rtai dna HiiyaN>lb* baa matiaaiid. Iki> Ikivfriair 
ftball lr»<al atvkw^UaK In Ika ruatoaia »4 lk«* rkarlrr aad |irit IkiP* rum- 
tftfmA ky bt^ Ruyal M^|ralT, of Ika |irtiiH|d«a wiivtwif |Im> Mfu\mtfUt 
baa tova adtU^; lail la wito-r n«|an-|ii Itn »ball ohuw lltrai all ipaal 
• III aad klailanai, yH an Ikal lia 4mII biikl Ito-ia m\n» In Iki* aaaM-, ikai 
IkrT abk\ a^M Ibrlr aida, r>Na|4y a ilk Iba iM|ai«Ukiaa *4 lltrlr i bartor, 
abk-b Itoiy bara na-H»rd. Aml^immmmm k «• B>4i>« kaa M/m«J^ to«r« 
f ifu Itow f/kif thrp ktrr M4llr4 lum mf^r §n h\tTl I "krialta*!, aaW a* if>»mrm nrt 
Mai la to Imitl M Ut* M t l t U M* a/ a/aKW f Ar» r taiira /n^a Ifail |d««v, Ibry 
■toiaU laara Ibal |dara aail iMaka Ibrai^lvM !•» a <aNN«'wlMl tgmi-t 
fruai Ibal tort.** 

Tlie Englinh, too, were somewhat to lie feareil, 
for they had made a settlement on the east side of 
tlie lX*lnware Day/ and one article of the *' In* 

I Tr»al<4i ralla, alaHy Mlk« alaiva tba aMwlh af Itolawam llay, 
« Ikta la Ibo aiwlllail nf Ai^n'llNa. Tba |iM|a>r |ii'a>k*riii« nf |Ih> Naaia 
laAMiilsrMa II-^mI, 

• TV* ka«lk«« »4 lllli aalllaaiaWl «aa tHI mk>M rii<rh, N. J , bHIf iba 

iwia w al liiaa id ikataaw* aaaia, W liHltar lli««v KwalMi aaro Naa Kmk> 
laad iiT Marykiial ad*palar«>ta «« ika id^Hivvra «ir Mr K>liniiiid l*ktWfk'a la 
dH"****!. l**!* *li*y ■*** **" Ir^Mlda tn ika Hwnlaa, akw w<^< !•) ka%a all 
Ibry r^wM altoad to la r^akalac Iba Itolfb rjalwa. Tba |««d«il4lily |i 
HmM Ibry aafa flnaa <\maarllral. Tk«*y wria lr«l ky tm* |jiaiia*rttia. 
Tba arM jwit (IMi| Ibry bad Ikr aadarlly to at-tlia at Ilia lutatlb uT 
Ilia Srbaylklll. **Tblawaa ton aiarfa ftirllM |a*|ia'ry Itotrb Ikivarawr 
KlrA aad awa bto laa aidtabla cwaarlL Jaaa Jaiava II|a4Nlaai, cuat- 
alaaiy at Wt«l% Xaaaa, waa dlryn«*l toi-Bpal iba lalrmk^, wlilHi ba 
4ld wHtoial aay raiaaaaiy. aplilaN Ito-lr ^laalt and Imriilnic lliair inaU 
Aftar Ibia tba Itolrb Ml apaa tba tfatom (raffcaa'i Kll) 
; aW aad kn<ba lhal api 

In rcganl to trmtinent to the Indians he waa 
counseled to " humanity and niildncM/* and to see 
that *' neither violence nor injustice was done 
them/* hut he "iiiusil Inbi>r to instruct them in the 
Chrintinn religion and the Divine Service, and 
civilixe thorn.*' To disc'ngngit tliem fVi>m tlie 
Dutch ntid Rtiglinh, he was din>(*ted in sell at 
lower prices ihaii they. 

The ( lovernor was by every means in his |iower 
to eiu*ounige the fur tratle, and agriculture, to 
promote manufacturrs niMl t(» search for metals 
and minerals; to ascertain whether whale fisheries 
could not be made pmfitable, and to investigate 
the condition of the country with rclercncc to the 
pro|ingation of silk worms. He had aluo to 
disiHiiisc justice. With all these divers and diverne 
dutiva, and muny more, it will nnulily lx*seen that 
the Governor's ofliop was one by no means easy to 
fill. Printx was, limidcs. lo build, if nocifwiry, a 
fort which Hboiiid **sbut up the South river,*' or at 
ItMUit iHimmnnd it, but if ho found Port Cliristina 
adcfpintc be was to turn his ntt(*nti(m more ]mrtiG- 
ubirly to iigriculture, es|iccially the cultivation of 
tobacco and to mine if9ii\Q and sheep, the brcecls 
uf which he was to impnive by obtaining the best 
animals from the English and Dutch. He was 
anowc<l to chiMNie his residence where most coiive* 
iiient, if a bication at Fort Cliristina <li<l not meet 
his nppnival.* 

The ei|ie<lilion of which Printx was made tho 
coniiiiniidcr »iiisUti*il of the sbi|M " Kama** 
('• raiiie " or •* Ufimwii *) uiid " Sviini'it " 
("Stork'*). They left HtiM>kliolm August Ml, 
1(142, and Gottt«nburg NovemlN*r Ist, arriving at 
('bristina February lA, HUH, the time fn>m the 
first nameil place just five months, or one hundreil 
and fifty dnyq, though tho voyage proper from 

« Nu«Maairi*«k. 

* ilMTiaia ITlvrk. 

• Aen>llias "inatiiry of Naa Swwlaii." (iVawylvaala IIMarlcal Sa. 
cMy laiUlcatbia), pfi. »Mu. 


Gottcnburf occupied but three months uid m half. 
The Rev* John OimiMmiui, who aoconiiMinicd the 
ezpeditioo, has given an account of it in tlie wtiric 
edited by hb graudaon. Thoy took tJio UMial cir* 
cuitoui ioutlieni courac, aailiug by tlie cuaula of 
Portugal and Barbary. and the Canary Islands, 
■topping during the Christniae holiilHys at Antigua, 
wlicre tliey were entertained by tlie Governor and 
muniing their voyage by way of St. Chrirttipher, 
8t. Martin's and other West India Inlands, aud 
thence ca^twanl along the American ciNWt. They 
were inside tlie Di'Iaware Day, olftlie Hoom kill 
on the 2<ith of January, and on the following day 
encountered a severe storm, aivuMi|Ninicd by a 
blinding snow, in which the *' Fame" was rouglily 
handled, losing three auchon, a main iiiaitt, and 
spritsail, suilcring other dnmagi>, and linully nin- 
niiig agniund, aud Iwing nin oH' with great diHi* 
culty.' Prints ami his fellow voyagers discni* 
iMrked at Christina, but be did not long remain 
there, and it is pn>biible that but few of hU men 
did. The Governor ntntlc his home, and built a 
fort — at Tinicuni, above Chester — higher up the 
river, as will Ins shown hereuller, and it ht proba- 
ble that he liN>k with him most of the fieople he 
bail bn>ught over. 

Of these coloniias who came to the Delaware 
with Prints in the fourth 8we<lisli exfiulilion there 
exists no it»mplcte list, but sumo of their mimes 
have been preserved.' The most pn»iiiiiienl cliar> 
acter uf all, not even excepting the Governor, was 
the clergyman John Camimnius, made famous by 
the journals which he kept, |iertainiiig to New 
Swetlen, from which his gnindson Hn»te the cele- 
hntted ** iX-seription of the Province of New 8we> 
den," a highly interesting, but in some rii«|Ni'ts 
untrustworthy work, and notable, too, us the riiuvt 
translator of Ijuther's cateehism into the Indian 
language. His uaino ol\en ap|H*ars ns John 
Camisinius Jiolm, the Inst wonl being addeil to 
designate Stockholm, the place of his nativity.'' 

The Otivenior bnnight with him his wife and 
daughter Armgott, and Lieutenant Mfliis Kling 
returned to the settlement. 

Among those who were dratincd to become prom- 
inent among this last |Nirty, were Joran Kyn 

< U. II. KivM liM rtlniiinl mhm uI th" iMHWa (Vtuu N»i«llali |M|ii-f«, 
(TIm K<iMM«llNtf iiC N«<w SwmIiin, tKhu IS MMfiltiiitM M»i»*>m* »1 UtM^-rpt 
VmI. Ill, |i. 4iW. 

> Tli« IIkv. Jtiliii iSiiN|«HlM MM ImuhnI WialiMni, ttn ih- I i«li ut 
AwMHal, Miiil, llM f^tbrr »m Jttiaa IVl«*r, i Iff li iif lltt* n>nMii-a«ll<iM iiT 
94, ONr*. Ii« wi'itl iliniNKli hU »lM>li<« wtlh mH'aI ^■|l«|t|*llllH, mimI «m 
Uif m liHiH liHti* |itT4-r|4ur In IIm* <N|4mm'« Iltrti«<, nI mmklMilMi. oii Hi* 
.111 iif KflmMry, ISI'A N« »m r«IM Uy lliv iptwrMawMt lu iM^>i«M|««y 
llotrriKir I'Hiili Iw AHrr1<-«, wliriv hr rmmliM^I ■ix y*mt* |«al<ir »t IIm 
r»iiiKrviniliirti Ihrr*. On hh nrlNrn Ii<iiim>, Ii4i »m hmhIw lltal |imta-hrr of 
Um A'liuiralljr, aiMl aavmanb «m |«Mur uT Knal Hulls uwl ilen-nwy* 
r|il»iMlt, wlwra Im inuwUlnl l.n(lMV'B ntfclibni, «r||h otlifr Utilise 
into IIm* Amt-rkan Vlrxlnb (liHli«n) lM»Kn«|Cii, a w^rk «Uk-h Im hwl 
U||«u la Aawrtea, aiMl vhlcli k« hwm pvrTcrl*^. Ilr illnl «• iii« nth uf 
I^HoNilMr, IftM, al Ik* an* of vlghiy-lwu ••am, aad »a« burlni In iIm 
cliMtvh uf Pn«( IInKs, mlmw a haniUcmw monnmant mm vivctad tw 
liliBMnMrjr.<-''CaBii«nliM/' (cwMk-imd bjr Vlucvnl). p. im. 

8n<»bvit and Eliat Gyllengrcii. The Ibrmer, f aaol- 
dier, in 1644) became tlie chief cotonist at Uphinil * 
and the latter, also a soldier, heoime n4ebrated fur 
brave ex|>loits. In May, t(i54, ho held the |H«t 
of lieutenant and took (sirt in the cafitun* of Fort 
Casimir, by Governor Rising. " He forced hb way 
into the fort by the order of Commander Sven 
Schute, took {Mssetwiim of the guns, and striking 
down the Dutch Hag, raisetl the Swedish in its 

Nearly all of those wliose names have been pre- 
served, came out as soldienk TImmc nut yet men- 
tioiietl, were : 

Amlrm AiMlrnMtM li«i4iMn, Uirn lit hn«4Hi, In |i»rrMlrr. I*<9\ wa»« 
■tUili.r In lli*0«»titifir'« k<*«i<I, al TiNknni, In IMI simI I<4». II* li«nl 
at i'ark«>MM liwiA, ||n It.** anS al TrMM|a-tfrB t'nvk la !•/«?. Il» 

Irll M>trffal i*ltlblt»-lt. 

Malta l.iiMil.tiii:rr, a MililttTln lliw lMt«rni«f'a k««i«I al Tinkaai, In 
IMI aixl •nil « ^ibhi-r In It^a. 

I Jim Aiiilfr«ik<n, lainw. 

NiU Ainlvnwiin, Minw. 

iSrv^^riiM \«N |i>i-li, alirriS, i««*lit«. In IMI,al KtytxMtk ""S h>M, 
inic liiatilbiv Miiiil |M<I. 

Mklwl NilMfii, Miilili Ik l<.ll. al I'llai^l. 

i*«ru AMil<*ni*>ii, •IrMmati-r In ICII, al KIMairg. 

ia4.ii> i<«i-iiMiHi, III l«.4l. a auUiar at IJMwfg, in |i.4^, a santa^ at 
Kurt I krMiiia, In !•«>, rnalicn. 

.Nh kUH- Ibak. it Ihift k, ill lt;ll atal IMm, akiMlar al HUMfc 

Julian ••iu>4aiaB<n, In |t4 1 aial Ma, a tkli t f al KtUtrnttu. 

iVivr M<-)rr, Hiiiw. 

iMik tail K>afn, kNlMP, 

I'taMlaullMia liri.Nrlat^k.aHna. 
l*rl«-r J>« liiHi«»n. »»utm, 

Jia-M .\||«».U hklM-«klrr», MIIMr. 

Jttkan <■(«««, |H>.«>>4 aillirUliaa. In tt4t. In l«l« a wifclhr. 

Ijtra Jar<4jM<M, a ^•(•iHf al rkiMina, In IMI aial Kla. 

TlHaiHM JwrauvMMi Tiaikarnian, rarfa^tcr la Kll, «n ika 

MiuIrM Martrtiwin l»Uiw rr. la IMI,inHI%aling tufcawwfcctkai 
ynnj wtt Ikv |4«n«MiiwM, al I liriMiiia ; In I Ma a fn ■nf. 

With the arrival of the fourth ex |ieiliti«»n and 
the millemeiit of its |ieuple, the Swedish cttloniei 
ill Amerieii may Im* miisideretl as fairly established, 
and the sehemes lirxt ailvoeate<l bv CflUi*tavus 
Adolplius, were at lust siiHieieiitly advaiieeil t«» 
allonl a tangible pnmiiiH; oft he rirli fmilion abieh 
that monnreh, logt-liier with William Crm-linx, 
Miiiuit ami t>tlicrs. luid t'ondly lio|ii>d. Prints 
wrote* *' It is a remarkably line land, with nil 
rxcelleiit (|uu1ilifs a muu can {Natitibly iK>ire on 
earth," and yet the outiMUie Has far from Iteiiig 
what this au-pieious beginning wmtld augur. Tin.* 
gniwth of the settlement, as a mutter of fact, was 
ftvble and tunly, a coiulitioii of thiiigi* which is to 
In* accounleil for priiicipully by ilie litct that the 
HwciliNli govcriimiiit did iii»t iippncinie the itii|ii>rt* 
aiiiHi III' the coluiii/iilinii project niid hum rciiii*a in 
exliiiiiliig liiiiiiicliil luid nllM'f aid, hIhii ihit 
sirii^^liiig colony liliNNl in mrv m-ed 

During the firi>l year of (luvcniMr PrintxV 
admini>tration maiiv ol the M'lllers died, which 
Prints stated in his re|iort/ was tliie to hard work 

« Sr* tWmmt^lrtmm M-ftiimt-f llbt»fy. ViJ. if., p. 32S. 

• Llntklfuni's anuunl. 

• i<rtl«ri Iw llianrTllwr oiauailarna, April M. l«tl. 

t Tka U«v«na>r'a Mvpuil. |v«M^ciMa M-^itm »/ U-torp, Virf. VI 1.- 


and tiM Mudty of inoper food. IminignuiU oon* of Delawmre, to tho iBlmnd of Tioicum (now miso 

tiniNd to arrive, and Umj appear to have been the township of Tinicum, Delaware County, PeoD- 

eoMtitated of tbeiame claMeiae in the beginning. lylvania) about two milei from tho eastern limits 

CWmpanius says: of the city of Chester, then called by tlie Indians 

-tii» MMtaiuy af ih« p iir iiii vmm m 9tf mm am tnm ^*''*^"K» Tcuicko or Tutsttnung, *• the con- 

s««4m to AMMrias vm of t«« kiMk. hw ri!»!Si*^ tiwm7L*^u^ vcnient situation of which siigj^tod its selection.'* ' 

i!i!.^!T!'ii!!ir^ Ti* ■!!1'"'!T* ^. *!". *" '"l^ Here he built a fort or bloek-house, of which An- 

iHivrtMr fuftnaM: lUy •^9*4 wwnii rrt«tiiwM: liMy «cf» •! ufcas Huddc aAcrwnrds said,— ** It is a pretty 

!::::L:s:r:tr«::,'5rr.;'::/S'-ssiv^j::i f "^e .«•". «»n»t™«ed by uymg very hcyy 

SSSr.C*^ TbT^.M'Il^t.i; ^JS":;:;?!:.^^^ • »""«»*'» '*«•'*»••» Jw'Wi'nw-;" very ImiuliMiiiie "- 

fwrttftniik«H. TV tiUHn im>i toll iHi^mmrw «iih iiHHM, iNii • i«rtkii- Bud a i'huH'h, which pn*ii(*li«r <*niii|iMtiiUM mn- 

»U«WI»«liHilM<4lta«fu.« rrt*l«'.BilMlNlalr»ll.«. l»M*raiii»» Ktmuil Wl J/IVIHO «HC Oil [IM5 Hill UI rH'pU'UIIN r, 

rwi imtai»r ••! iih— rriMiMK «ii» wiw MM trtiT fbnu Hwi'dpn. HMK.* Aroiiud tlio nvidouco, which was aillfd 

gi«^ ii»*»j ••r iImw iwtWNNi ua iiir *«>•«•>. II «M Aiirr ihb A«i4ibkM. oul, iiiul thc gFouud Wiis otlicrwiM! lictiiil ificil. The 

i««i4i> that ««• u» iwni: ti «M wM Ihal iiitm *m Miir«n-a>ur (toUiborg "), had a *' cunifidvniblti nrmiiiitciit." 

p^ unl IwaMl |«w|4v IM ivltl* thai ckNiMry ; Ini( mitIi • cnwl MiUMlwr m /i.. «l ; : 1^. I i> /« n ^i i 

U Ibr. U4 «.-r!wflN^ («. M.(»N«^ iL^MnaH myJ!ith»t uu hb /^>" "'" »»«»". »«>^ CmIIIIMHIIIIM, " tllO pnilCipill 

4ii<iniif» IK4N iinira. MM«w Hmmb iiHMimi faiMiiini<.rr"-iMwiiM<«irat iulmbitnnU liad their dwclliiigH uiid plHiitntiiHis/' 

Mv«, •Hit lli^ir •!*•« aiwlrlitMiwH. »rrv •■I>Mki'«I Im itmmIm ii«liiH*L ■« i •* • • i a <.i < •. i .i i i>. « 

UM-At^iMNiuArii M M.i.7»ai.«niw*iwo«M h.4.i..i.JrKihr« »»d it IS cvidciit tliat It licfttiuc tlic Iiiciihlyof 

kMNTi* t^i4- hmi mM all iMr KufiYtr. aad «-w«r»fUii it lab. Hw«i»jr. fhicf itii|M>rUiiico iu, ttiid pnicticully. tlic ni|»itiil of 

'*** ' ** ** New SwciU'ii. A not licr Airl wits cntiiHl tho Willie 

Tills statement of Cani|mnius (like many othcn veiir (HU^i) on the ciist side uf tliu I)elttwiin% tit 

of his) M not to be relinl upon an a whole. l'riiitx*H Varkin'M Kill, tiflcrwardii cailiil by the KiiKltKh 

rr|iurt (Hi47) shows that criminals were received Siilcni Cri'ck or Mill Cnvk. This wiw ri^lit nlon;^ 

up to that time, and yet, they must have fi>riiicd Nido of the ftettlfiueiit of the New Ilnvvii |ivo|ilo, 

but a small portion of the cuniiiiunity, for tho on the opimsite or Houth iNiiik of thc crotk. nt its 

whole nuiiilicr of culoiiiittH, in 1047, wnM only one confluence with the Dclawurc It wmm imiiK«d 

huiidrcfl and eighty-three nouls (and many of them *'Ki&lM»rg" or ** Wootwemuitg," and liit4*r wiis 

have already bccu shown to have been "freemen," called £lsinborg or KIsinglionHigh. * It hud eight 

or otherwise imlicntol as people of res|icctubl4s iron and brnsn guns, and one "PotKhoof," ami 

cimracter). The re|iort alludeil to says, that of according to lludde, wits usually gnrriMUieil by 

thc total nuuilH*r, ** twenty HM;;lit «>f thc freemen twelve men, commitnded by a licutciiiiiit. This 

ha«l made itcttUMncnts,** and tliiit a |mrt of tlicm f«>rt which was ready for o4i'U|Hui«'y in ()clolM>r, 

wcni phividiil ** with oxen ami t•oWl^"' 1ti4''i, iHimmniidcd the chniincl of the IMiiwan*. 

PrintsV ideas of tact and diplomacy nvemlilctl ** lis principal obji>ct," says AcnOiiis, ** was to 

an elephant duncing. He wits a bluff, ciNirae wnrch the llollniMl shi|w which came iH'fore it, 

stddicr, well descrilietl by the shrewd, oliHcrvniit, n"d (wlii<'h stuck very hanl in their mnw) to make 

cauxttc Pictcrncn I)e Vries, as *'(*aptiiin Priiitx, them lower their flag." Proud and stunly I>iiv id 

who weighed four hiindml pounds, and t4Mik three Pietersen Do Vries, thc founder of thc first si'ttle- 

drinks at every meal." He lacked not in energy mcnt on the I>claware (the unfortunate eohmy of 

or decision of character. His alertness and iig- /waanendacl at the Uoornkill), when he attemptcil 

grewivcness made him a UM*rul man in his time to |iass up the river in October, 1(>4:t, was com- 

ami place, and prolwbly his administnition wiw |H'lle<l to halt, duck his flag and give nil iiccouiit 

natre valuable, to the colony at large, than would of himself, and must have cxfierieiit\*d a grim 

have lictni that of a really abler man, coupling M*nsc of thc cimuge which a few years had wrought. 

with higher qualities than liiM greiiter weaknesHes. Iluddc siiys: **Uy means of this fort . 

Thc Govcnmr had not liecn long in New Sweden Printx clusetl thc entrance of the river so that all 

— and it will lie remcmbervd he landed at Cliris- vessels, either those arrived from hciico (New 

tina, February loth, ll{4.'{ — before he M>lected a Amstenlam) or other places, are com|>elled to cast 

Inmic ami the scat of government. To do tlib he their anchor, not excepting those of thc Noble 

went bcyomi the settlement already cstablinhed. Company (the Duteh West India Com{NUiy), as in 

and beyond the prct«nt botindaries of the State 


I '•<-Wai|«ala«** (rf»- 73, TA.) mj^ "l^U «m rvtalH lo mm aMMBol «t^tM|«iiltM. 

Mhrf lklM#i,iiy •• uhl tnwlwwrlliy laao, nanml Nlla Malwa Vttn, * rvnia' wrlRtMl •Hllriwal* iw IIm UrUwan, |ai|via. 

■h<S aA*r liU ivlam k«ai». arrvrd lil« Ma^mjr'a life Kiianfa." •Thto kali bKmI iNtim lha« wm hanalrpil and aiil/ ftmn, aiMl «m 

• Ri^id tiT ilnvrfMwr rrluta lur IMT. TraiwIaM rn»w iha SaadMi iNiriarf duwa liy afwMvM ■inni Um miiMHvlirMurMl nf llw imwiM 

I9 rn«fcaa«^0. B. Kwa.— IV««4|rlraa<a JfayajiN**/ ffia«W|r, ViS. VII., rPMtirj.— riKKI*. 


ciridMil trom mtwbI yaehti coming from the onlen, purdiiMd from thm Indians some lamb on 

ManbatUna» which, wishing U> pumtie thoir voyage the wo)(t uliore of tlie river (where aftenranl* was 

towanb tlia place of their deetinntion without Imilt Philadelphia), and set up there the amw of 

fCtfppiMf often, were injured by cannon ImiUh, and Holland, Priiitx i<cnt ConimiM<ary Henrik lluy> 

were in Imminent danger of losing some of their glieus, of Fort Chrirtina, to throw the iniiignia 

rrvw ; 10 timt tliey must proceed with small craft, down. Tliorcu|Nm Hutlde arreKted liurghenis 

«|»wards of six miles, towards the aforesaid Priiitz, threw hiiu into tlR> gtmrd-house, and nent word to 

tf» ol»taln fii$ eontentt that they nii;;ht mil higher Prints of what Ito had done, hfonic corrtv|M>nd('nce 

yp the river, no matter wlictlier tliey arc Kn;:iiMh- cnitning, tlio inite ((ovenior nmtcniptuouyly tixwil 

mefi or Netherlnndors, wttliout fwying iiny regard aHJtlo llnddt''ii coniinuiiictititin. n*gnnliiii; the rigliti> 

ti* tli«*ir etMiiiuliMions." ' of liii« nuiipnny. and M'uing a muitl<i*t thn'ntriMil 

Prfiitx wiui as arltitmry and violent towanli* the to HluNit the tiHiiwupT. iVititx whs certainly 

Kiigli«h as to the Duteh. T\w hitter {M'ople, it irrltiitingly iiimilent toward;* th<KM« wlmni he re- 

will 1n) rtMueniU'ri'd, had cx|iclled the New Haven ganleil as intniders u|Nin SwfMltsh wiil. Iludde 

settlcnt fntni Varkin's Kill, and tlicy now n*tunii><l savM that when vinting him at his own house, at 

only to cx|H.>rience the iieeuliar tender nicrtMex of table and in the prv^ntv of his own wife, in reply 

the Hwe4lisli (lovernor. They were led by the to hi^i reiiuirk that the Dutch were the fin>t settlers 

same LnndH*rton who had licfore lieen their nuwt on the Delawiire, Printx sniil that '* tlic Devil was 

pniniinent man, and it was doubtless his puqHiKc the olilest |MMie:iF>or of hell, but that he mnietinics 

to replant the settlement. While I^inilHTton s admitted a young(>r one," which wai* certainly not 

sloop, the " Cock,'* was lying at anchor wmiewherc diplomatic hingunge, or calculated to create or 

in the river between Fort Kl&lK>rg and Christina, vemeiit friend.'«hip. 

I'rintx lnduce<l him and two of his men t4» eonie to The Govenior had completely elosiil the 

Fort Gotti>nburg where he placed them in irmis Schuylkill* to the Dutch by the erection of a 

and threw them into prison. He put the irons fortification at its mouth callol " Manayunk," one 

U|N)n I^mlicrton with his' own hands, and he and at Kin;rH?Shing and another at PasMiyunk, called 

his wife made the inferiors all drunk, and by ** Kon^holm," and had lH>:<idcs, put a fort almost 

promises of rich reward and other mcinii*, en- cuntiguouH to the Duteh Fort lievcrK^le, lietwcen 

doavorc<l to induce them to swear that I..amlierton it nml the water, rendering it entirely u<!cle:«. 

wiw inciting an Indian insurrection.' Tbey n- AUmt niiil way Ih*! ween Christina and New (tot- 

mained true, however, and Printz had after a few tenburg, a cuhtny wilh foundetl conipri:iing houses 

days to release his prisonen without aectmipiiMhing and a fort,' ealKxl I'pliuid. North of thU. aUi, 

his puriMWC. Lanilwrton, before n*gnining his seveml MUttennl s<>ttlenients were gnulually es- 

lilH>rty, had to {siy a " weight of iM'aver,'* and tablii^lieil. Prints built the fir!>t water-mill on 

n>eeiv« a vigorous curbing from the burly and Hoiitli Kivcr, at a phuv ealleil Kanikun;;, other- 

inuH'ible governor.' Printx eX|K'lled nil of the wt.*<c Water- .Mill Stream ( Auiestlainl or Cnrkin'n's 

Kngliith who would not take the oath (ifaUegiance II<Ntk), on what in now Cobb^ Creek, near tin* 

to liie crown of Sweden, and the proceeding led brid;n* tm the Darby road, at the ohi Hlue Dell 

t4» a lung series of negotiations U^tween the New tavern, near Pliiiadelpbiu. Thii* wa«* put up instead 

Knglanil authorities, and the Swetiish and Dutch of the ohl wimi-mill, which, Printz says, never 

governors. would work and wuh **gfKNl for nothing.** This 

Printz was swollen with the ** insolence of ottice,*' mill ground lK>th meal and Hour, and found con- 
ami in Ut4iif when the Dutch plaec<l Amln^as ctant work. 

lludde in the |)osition of cummir^ary at Fort Printz's zi>al was ri'wanleil by his govenmient 

NttSMiu, he founil that he had a more vigonais with the grant of New (tottenburg. as a |M.*r|ietual 

ottieial to deal with than the de|MiHeil Jan JauHi'n (NvK-i^iion for hinnH-lf and hid heirs f iri'vcr. It 

Van ll|H*ndam. lludde was iptick to protest pa:'si-<l to his daughter, nmrrie<lt<» Johan Pa|ic;ri»ja, 

against everything that the Swe<ies did which and often unerwurd.t ii« ffMiken of us her prufierty. 
might 1)0 construiHl a^ adverse to Dutch intere'ts, Thn>u;rh their <tiivenior's energetic action the 

and Printz either iwid no attention whatever, to Swe<Ies etiectualiy be<'ume nm.<ters of the river 

such protest.**, or u[)on their nn-eption committed and the greater part of the iieighl»oring territon*. 

acts even more outragiMius than thtir<o which had He was pnident enough to ke4*p on a piod footing 

called them forth. When lludde, ujion KietVs with the Indians and cut the Dutch otf from their 

I H.HIA.-. rrp,.rt (K..T«..i*r. im:.>. -Mviunui s.^u.««.i- «. ii.. ^""**'-. '1*'«« ^•^•^^'^ eujovwl wilh the native* by 

litUwmrv'' {Stw Vyrk Hitturh-mi Ur.^-r'h.\u\.\u.,n.Vvt»umufs»-£t. tlic Swedcs wss, iudeetl, 1*0 great that when, in 

■Th«i riMiit UmI ttinX l.M*ilM-rtu« aMrMililiil ••■> Jiiljr in, 1i43, ■! Furt * Tlil* Ptn-am «■« Mhml t>jr lltr IbiMi Urmll hill «« li«>l<trii rmk. ttsm 

llirtaluft, bihI «Mr«i«u|ii«ml ut iIm fulktvlnic |N-rai.iM : **rii|4Mln Hiri^ Ibr fwi iImI |u mwiilli «m m lvlM■*«l•^l tlial IIm-j •! SM tkUr^ Uj 

Uan IWijr, Cn|iI»Iii Mwim. KIlHKh, Ih-tnli ilk niifRlii>ii, •'wMtiwlawrjr Jam willMUt ii»ll>inic ll. 

JaiM'n. CiintnilMkry H<til|ii«-r Wr»..| Ktrrtwn, |irlil|<|<rr !<MiMt«-r U^rH* »TImw !..«■ «irn- nimiiwiily nirtv Um li-liw««wa, inivwM nt^rWI* 

•»«, Oluff Sllllr, Kvvit SUtvrs i'mrl JaiiwM, flat id iNii kWo.** fur |»r4«t liuii afaliiM lli<- ItulUiM. 




tlM ipfinir of 1644, loBM of Ui« Minqna nation the name of "Wsm,** mhI wveml "freemen" 

were miiMered by the Mvegce, ncheim preeentcd settled there. A quarter of a mile beyond, in the 

themeelrei before Prints to offiir oompcnmtion and Hune " pnth of the Bf inquM,** was constnicted n 

eiM for pence. He doeed the Schujlliil] to the nmilar house where otlier peasants also settled. 

Dutchmen, adopted a policy of non-intercourse Thin spot waa called "Molndal/** because, says 

and sold the Imliana arms and ammunition, thus Printa, *' I had a water-mill erected there, running 

sccurini; mtt only their good will but inniring without intermission, to the great advantage of 

larp»r retumn of ftirs. He aim persecuted or the country." It was, as heretofore stated, the first 

ex|irllcd every Dutchman in Kew Sweden who within the limits of Pennsylvania. Further im- 

wiMild not take the oath of allegiance to his provcnienta were also made at the old places, 

sovereign. (Iiriittina, ElfiilM>rg and Koraliolm. On the 25th 

The 8wedii«h coloniitts, however, had great difR- of Novemlwr, 1045, Fort New Gottenburg was 
cuhies to contend with, not being able to produce set fire to by a gunner and it was dentroyed in an 
their daily bread, with which they were provided hour. The Governor ami people vuflTered great 
partly at the cost of the company. The novelty Iom ; the company's goods consumed by the fire 
of the climate and the various privations suffered were valued at four thousand riksdalcr. Notwith- 
caused the death of many permns (during 1643 standing this great calamity to the infant colony, 
not IcM than twenty-five), according to the Dutch on the 4th of fieptember, 1046, CanifHtnius con- 
account reducing the nunilier of male inhabitants secratcd the first Swedish church on the Hiiot, and 
in II145 to eighty or ninety. The situation of the Prints atlcrwards built his dwelling there, 
survivors, however, rapidly improvc<l ; ttibacco The colony wait largt^ly n*inforccd on the 1st of 
was diligently cuUivatc«l, and the raising of com 0<>tul)er. 1046, by the arrival of the nhip '*Gyllene 
and breeding of cattle were duly promoted by the Hajcn *' (** Golden Shark '") with the tiixth Swedish 
Governor. ex|icdition. The voyage had occupied four months. 

In the spring of 1044 the ship ** Fama ** arrived the vewcl losing near all her saik* and the entire 

from Sweden, having been equipped at the ex- crew being liick. The cargo consisted of Holland 

penw of the Crown and setting sail tlie previous goods intendc<l for leaner with the Indians for 

year, bringing, it is pr»ume<l. both emigrantH* fum. On February 20, 1647, the ship '* Gyllene 

aiul merchandise, although we have not found Hajcn " sailed with a return cni^, consisting of 

any «lefinite information concerning this, the fifth twenty-fi>ur thousand one hundred and iteventy- 

Swctlish ex|ic«lition to the Delaware. Tlic vtmA seven ]Miunds of tobacco, only six thoumnd nine 

wan di*ii|iatclK«il Imck to Swctlcn, June 20, 1044, hundred and twenty iNiunds of which was rai^ 

carr^'ing a cargo of two ihoiiKaml one hundn*d by the c<»lony, the renndnder having been pur* 

and thirtyitix beaver skins and twenty thouMind chiuicd in Virginia. 

f«iur hundred ami sixty-seven |N)unds of tobacco Ileing in a condition to revive his languinhing 
fur the company, besides seven thousand two beaver trade, Prints now sent Huyglien and Van 
humlred |iounds sent over by the Governor to be Dyck, with eight soldiers fifty miles into the in- 
sold for his own account. tcrior among the Minquas, with presents of all 

The ascension of Queen Chrii*tina upon the kinds, to induce them to trade with the Swedes, 

throne of Sweden, in 1644, and changes in the sys- The jcalouKy which had existed between the Swedes 

teni of government largely contributed tu the decay and Dutch from the beginning of the settlement, 

and final ruin of New Swe<len on the Delaware, having broken out in ofwn rupture in 1046, the 

Fn>m June, 1(544, until OctobiT, 1640, ctmununi- following extract from Governor Prints*s tc\wH 

cation was stuqHMuled with the mother country. *'tothe Mmi Honorable Wtmt India Coni|Mny,'* 

(lovemor Prints wa«s however, scaloui«ly endcuvor- gives a fair idea of the relations which then ex- 

ing ti> promote his enterprii*e. We have already iHtc<l lictwecn tlie rival colonists on the Delaware: 

seen how, by the action of Nya Kowholm. he M„hani»,«f«aii«fc..rii,fur«ioJr«wiiM.ihndiih».th.rtm. 

secured the mouth of the Schuylkill ; he ahto con- far they anwm m «m •wiy •«* (M tii#» •wtnij wn tna» •twr- 

sidered it necessary to guard the route of traltic p^^ki, ir»jiH( «itii i>.««noIm ui. «urt a .11 n.rbitan.. (3) Tb.y 

with the Minquas still farther to the interior. To i««r »p «» ■»««!• •••in^ «■, wh«, iwi tur our rnwimr*. ««mm •iiwiy 

.•• . , « u^ J * v^ u :i« « j:^4 b«Tt fon* too far. (4) Hm* lir|{ta to Im* ImihI ffum iIm MtagM wlthla 

this intent he caused to be built some distance ^iS!mM^whM!m. iLa^trM ^f^y^i^ht yJli u:^BMd 

inland a strong block-house, ** capable of defence h"*« •>» i»i»««»»«c« in tfnnx h«tc m tnei tb* wmm or tiw w«* 

against the savages by four or five men, well su|»- s««ir. ib. >«« rf s^ Xrtb«ia*i. a«4 .lar* i<. i«iid 'm. 

plied with powder and shot." The place received «•»•". -«" »» imrnrd tnm iim i>uich oo^tn^'B wiiw. hanaanaa«< 

* * aad hy my anawrr tw It ; la aliutl, they a|ipn«|irlata tw llMinaalTM aluna 

( ShUm Jwkaa PMptvOa, oaly At* ar» iHeatktiied la a IM *4 prnuM vvwy iIkIiI. hoM blgli ihHr own flairs »•* ««miM mn-ly mA pay iIm 

U«l«« la Saw S««4ra Marth I, IMH. vU.: Tba Uriirr, llaaa Jaarlia, Iraal allaatlon to liar M^Mly*a flam and fana,«afktlwy nwl rvmlwM 

tivm KAnlgri»nb «ho "wIlM la S^m »mr^n la Ilia aprrlro of Iba by cannoa ahul. TWy miial bo drlvra fK*Bi tho ri»«, fllbar by mnloal 

<1v«a, Maivb 31, IMIi** Jan MallMa, gnnaar al rort Klbbomi a nu aiwiat or ulhw awaaa ; uUiprwIai Ibay wlH dhlwrb oar wbd* walk. 

AttkWn JovnMua, auMlar, anpgH by rk|>*>gi4a l>M-aaibar I, 

WolU Lab^ aiAllar, ditto ; Svra STvnHaa, a lad.- AMaiflrMiM Mufm' •Cklkd by tba ladlana Kabarikoali. It waa aaar Om pntMl OuUi't 

(a«,ri«tO.BwKa*a^liaa«lalar, VoL VlL.|ac*41t. ONah, • btaMb aff Daibj Ci«ai(. 



' toMMnplUi iMr laNtfaa, msn af tlM RiiI|m4m« kmn 
mMMIj ^tod Om Chriitlui^ MMtlaff to Um MId^vm^ bctavlM vitk 

IMMMitlaMi thM tlM M«N|M till— ilfH. I b«V* WfftlMi 

l« tkair Q«i««nMir aliMil M the* IniproprMlf^ ud •In 
■nM to b* m 4Mra, b«l U dM Mt tmk» My diflrmr* { 
Iter tm «N7 writ Mm! «• >»*• • ««»k ■i w l— ■■•; mmI, with bo 

Notwithttanding time difficulties the colony 
iiceiiicd to proeper, for it was successfully cngngvd 
in agriculture and trsde, and numbered one Iiun- 
dred and eighty-three souls. It was greatly in 
need, however, of slcilled mechanics antl solJiew, 
** and, above all, unmarried women as wives for the 
unmarried freemen and the rwL** In con.«ie<]uenoe 
of PrinU's report, on the 25th of Beptember, K547. 
the seventh expedition set sail from Gotteiiburg, 
on the ship " Svancn," Captain Bteflen Willenisen, 
carrying emigrants and a valuable cargo. Among 
the former were two Lutheran clergymen, l^re 
Carlsson Loock (Laurentius Ix>ckcnius) and Israel 
Fluvinnder, Printx's sister's son, with Jolmn Pajie- 


gojm who had returned to Sweden. On the 16th 
of May, 1648, the ship " Svanen " sailed from New 
Sweden with a return cargo, and after a re- 
markably short voyage of thirty days, arrived at 
HelsingOr, and on the «3d of July, at Stockholm. 

In 1647 the Dutch Director-General Kiefl was 
succecdeil by Peter Stuyvesant, wlio began his ad- 
ministration on May 27th. Prints found him a 
very different man from Kieft. When the two 
governors finally met on May 25th, 1651, the 
Dutch director-general, while quite an soldierly, 
lilufT, and iniMcible as Prints, nhowed himself to be 
head and shoulders above the latter in diplomac}'. 

During all these disputes and high-handed dealings 
In the period of Printx's administration, the Dutch 
had sedulously pursued the policy of acquiring, 
by public and private purchajw. Indian titles to all 
the lands on both sides the Delaware from Salem 
and ChriKtinaham up. The 8wc<lcs had latterly 
adopted the same policy, but with less succei*. 
Stuyvesant came to the South River in person in 
1651, *'to prcivrve and protect the coni|Mny*s 
rights and jurisdiction.*' lie sent proofs to Printi 
of the c«)nii)any*s rights in tlie premises, and 
demanded in return that the Sweclish governor 
should [miduce proof of what lands he had pur> 
chased and his authority to hold them. Printx 
coukl merely define the limits of his territory, and 
say that his pajiers were on file in the chancellory 
of Sweden. Then Stuvvesunt is said to have 


detected Prints in an attem[>t to secretly buy title 
from an Indian raohem called Waspang Zewan, 
whereupon the Dutch govem<ir forthwith dealt 
with the Indians hinMrlf, an<l was by them pre- 
sented with a title to l)oth sides of the Dfluware 
from Christiana Creek to ISomlmy Hook, they at 
the some time denying that they hud ever sold 
any lands to the Swe<lea. Finally, Stuyve<nnt 
determined that he would build another fort. Fort 
Nassau being too much out of the way, and in spite 
of Printz's protests he built Fort C&<imir on the 
Delaware side of the river, about one Dutch mile 
from Fort Christina and near the present city of 
New Ctistlc, where he stationed a gnrris4»n, with 
ciintion ond two shiiis. The central |Miint of the 
Dutch power on the Delaware, was now trans- 
fernxl to Fort Cosimir, and soon af\cr F«»rt Nas- 
sau wa<« abtiniloned. Prints and Stuyvesant had 
several interviews with each other, and the final 
result was that " they mutually promised to cause 
no difficulties or hostility to each other, but to keep 
neighborly friendship ond corresjiondence together, 
and act as friends and allien.** 

It will be observe<l that all through these con- 
troversies, while there were many hi^h words and 
some kicks ami euHs, the Dutch and Swedes never 
come to actiml htMtilities, and always maintained 
modus vivemli with one another. This was not 
because they hated each other lew, hut liecause 
they dreaded a third rival more. Both Dutch 
and Swedes were terribly apprehensive of Knglish 
designs u|)on the Delaware. As was laid down in 
the instructions to Governor KL«ingh, who suc- 
ceeded Prints in New Sweden, spetiking of the 
new (Vrt (-asimir, if Kisingh could not induce 
the Dutch to almiidon the [)ost by aipiment and 
remonstrance and without resorting to ho«»tilities, 
"it is better that our subjinis avoid resorting to 
h<wtilities, confining themselves solely to pr^itesta- 
tions, and sufier tlie Dutch to occupy the said 
fortress, than that it should fall into the ham la of 
the English, urAo are the ni*t9t pwcer/ui and of count 


Ac mmC d^m^eftmt in tktd muHitf,** In tho Mine live hj tlie traffic with the natiYei, which thef 

wajr, ■ftcr Htuyvttiant had net tho Kn^liiih at thonwolvn have dcatroyed.** During the following 

llaitftml, Conn., treated with thcni, ami nettled voiir the situation was not improved. Btuyvoant 

a mutunl iMnindary line, mi that all wm apimr* hiwl now iim*nihlt<d hia furt'o at Fort IXiBluiir, 

ently \vntv awl fVi(*ndiihi|i 1ietwm*n the Ihilrh and whore aln*ndy in the lieirlnntng of KLVi no kw 

the New Knitlnmh^nt, the New llavrn IViniimMy than twentyiiix Duteh fhmllles had m*ltle<l, nml 

thiHiKht they wmiM Ite |H*r»iilti'«l without dli*|mto nutrentill wen»ex|H*ctvd. NoverthelvMS he did not 

to rvnunii* tiieiKVUimneyof their iiuri'liiiMHl ln«littn venturo yet to nieke any attvni|it npiintft the 

landii on tlH* New Jonwy aide of tlie Delawun* Ihiy 8we<liis ehiefly for fear of the Knglith, but felt 

at Hiiloni, whence they had been twice ex|ielled. obligeii to conform to tho admonition of hit 

Aeeonlingly, Ja^iier Ciraine, William Tuthill, and DiixH'ton, to endeavor as &r oh posiable to avoid 

other inhabitants of New Haven and 8otocket, di^Mcnslons with them ; *' not to increase tho num- 

to tlie number of about fifty, hired a vessel anil ber of the Company's enemies during that critical 

saileil for that destination. ()n the way they con- |)eriod." Not a word was heard from Sweden to 

siderately put into Manhattan to notify Stuy vesant relieve the anxiety of Printx, although he urgently . 

of their ermnd, and consult with him as to the applied for aid in bin letters to his superiors. IIo 

Uvt way of ncei»mplii>hing it. Stuyvcsant took insisted on his dismissal, and many other iohnbi- 

their commission away fit»m them, clap]ied tho tants of the colony, partictUarly perstMis in tho 

mai>tt*r of the vessel and four othen* into prison, si*rvitx; of the coni|iany, dcsirctl to return to their 

and refuMHl to release them until **they pledjretl nntive country, while some rcmovc«l to MAr)'lnnd, 

themselves under their hands ** not to go tu Dela- and others lM»ought Stuyvcsant to allow them to 

ware, informing them likewise that if any of them settle among the Dutch, a privilego ho dared not 

shouhl ailerwanls be found there he would eon> grant. In oonsequcnco of a war between two 

tiscate their goiids and send them prisoners to ncighl>oring Indian tribes no fur trade could be 

Holland. At the same time he wn>tc to tlie gover- ctirried on, and the non-arrival of any succor 

nor of New Haven that the Dutch rights on the gradually caused the colonists (hitherto in tho 

Delaa*aro were alM>hite, nnd that he meant to enj<iyment of the great consiilcration accorded to 

piwent any KngliKli settlement there ** with furce tlieSw(>dish nation) to be regarded "ns nimmloiicd 

of arms and martial opiNwit ion, even unto bhNHl* wamlenTS, without a sovereign.** * TogivefurtlKT 

ulutl.** Tho Swi<tlt« wen* so much impn*MHtl- with weight to his complaints, in July, UVUl, the Uover- 

thiit linn attitude nnd with their own unprotiTtisI nor M>nt homo his son, Gustavus Printx, who had 

comlition (this was pmlmbly during the inter- Imm^u a lieutenant in the colony of Now Swe«len 

regnuni betwci*n l*rintx*s dejmrture nnd the arrival since 1648. Ciovenior Printx himself now feared 

of Ktsingh, when Pa[ieg<ija, Printx's son-in-law, that the colimy had been abandoned to its fate, as 

was acting governor, nnd there was no news fn>m he had not received any liittcni or orders from tho 

the motherH'ountr)*) that they aske«l Stuyverant mother country for six years. His commands 

to take them under his protection. The <lirector- were no hinger obeyed nnd he resolved to go 

general declined to do so without in8tnicti«in from iMinie, after having prumised tho settlers, for their 

liome, and the dintiors of the company when he fidelity to the Crown of Sweden, to come back in 

eoiisultml them left the nmtter t«) his own discre- ten or twelve months from Septcmlter, WiH, or, 

tion, simply suggi*i4ing that while }Mipulation and at leitst, to procure tho sending of a ship if only 

settlement shiHiKI lie encouragetl by all means as to infonn them as to the condition of their enter* 

the bulwark of the State, it would be advisable prise.- He apfwinted Johan Papegoja Provincial 

that all settlers shouhl yield alh^ance to the Vice-Governor, and in oom[NUiy with his wife and 

parent State, and be willing to oliey its laa*s and eliildn'O, Henrik Huyghen and a portion of the 

statutes in onler to obtain pmtectiou. ctdonists, he snikKl early in November, and, cruos- 

Tlie diflU^lties l»etween Printx and Stuyvcsant ing the ocean in a Dutch vessel, December 1st, 

came before the Uoyal CViuncil of Sweden in reached liochelle, from whence ho wrote to the 

March, l(>r»2. and |M'nding its negotiations (tover- Cliuncellor. ICarly in 16.'>4 he went to Hollnml, 

nor Printx fell inti» still greater straits. On and in April arrived once more in Sweden. After 

August IM, l(»r»2, he wrote to tho (*han<H.'llor of his return he was ap|K>inU.H| colonel in the Swedish 

the Kingihmi: **The Puritans thnniten us with army, and in WhiH governor of the proviniX) of 

vi«ilen(v, nnd the Dutch an* pressing u|Kin us on «Ionkoping. He died in IGtKl. 

all sides; they have nune«l the fur trade; tho In the nicantinio Printx's repremMitations at 

savages are troubling us, having bniught cargtics home, put fn'sh life into uieusurcs ft»r the relief of 

of Htrangera; tho |ieople are Iwginning to dcsi^rt the itdony. Her Majesty renewed her nmndate to 
the c«dony in despair; forty Dutch families have 

settled east of the river, who have alwolutely no Mita«iyuro«t-.jMoy«f ^••s«rA.D.byti.HK.S|*«.ciMir«.i»i». 

pIVVISIODS, and do not sow or plough, dCSmng to HmtnsiMHf ilmty^mmd IMefr^Mr. ▼•(• Vlll., pagaSV. 



the Admiralty conoerning the 
6(|uipmeat of a ship ibr Now Swe- 
«len, " that the entcrprlao DilKht 
not alto|{othcr como to nniijrht." 
Tho ycoiM^ml iimnnict'iitoiti of Kwtw 
(Ibh nlllilni oil tho IK*liiwiin« hii«l 
now |NWftMl t4> tho elinrfco of tlvt 
"Uoneml Collep*of Coninii*itv/* 
of Htockhohn, of which Krik Ox- 
enttjcnm wob prraident Ho is- 
sued the neccMHary ini<tnictions 
nnd tlie ship ** Omen " (the " Ea- 
gle **)Jolin Bockhom, command- 
er, wa:i asrti^cd to take out enii- 
grnnU and supplies. Svcn Schute 
was comnmndcK] to enlist fifty sol- 
dicn for the reinforcement of the 
colony, and to proceed to Vumi- 
land and I)h1, and culloct ftimi- 
lies and single persons living in 
the foreiits, to the mrmlicr of two 
hundred and fifty houIs, "the 
majority to be ginxl men, with 
some women." In accordnnco 
with Printz's request to quit the 
colony, Johan Klaosson Rising, 
the mjcrftiiry of the odiegc, was 
ctMnniiiwionitl ns liin asfiistant on 
DccemlicT 12, ]Vt!t:\, at an annu- 
al Hitlnry of uno thtHmintl two 
hundml dater nii/vcr. The ninth' 
Swedish ex|H!dition left Stock- 
holm, on the 8th of Octolier, on 
the ship ** Omen," hut was de- 
layed at Gottcnbui^, taking on 
cai^, etc., until the 2d of Fol>- 
ruary, 1(^14, when she milcd. 
The settlen* were accomi»iinic«l 
by Peter Liudsirom, a military 
engineer of some distinction, who 
had been ap|Niintcd to serve in 
a [)rofi'Hi*ional ca|mcity in the 
colony. He afterwards, in 1(554 
-TiO, made a very interesting map 
of " Nya Swerige," to accompa- 
ny Cnm|Ninius* history. A jao- 
timile of it apficnri in the text, 
with the Indian or Swetlish 
names f<ir ail the sites on South 
river. AsHoeiated with him were 
two prenchcrM, I'ctrus Hjort nnd 
MatthinK Nertunius, who had 
miidu an attempt to reach the 
c(»luny in 1U41), with the unfor- 
tunate expetlition which sailed in 
the •* Kattan.'* After great suf- 
fering and danger the emigrants 

>n« •Ifhlh vipnlttkHi vhk-h mIM fmm l!u«l«MlmrK •••! ihr :U 
qT July, IMI, In Om " Kalten" (tlM'M:Mt"Kiin«lrr (liii omdmimJ uf 
U|Mb U— •Aawi ii lt w , «M irmkfd mS H«w<«(«d •< l^^« tUsu, 

■• - V,4. VIII., !««• TK 



nrrlTNl in iKe Mtwiira Buy oo the I8th of 
Mar, tnU two iUiy« ■fternmlt arrived Nt Fort 
KlMitiiy. whicli WM now tUwrtml nml In mint. 
On tlir *il0t of May, lieliig Trinity Kumlay, 
tlH***Omon*' ctiHt ancht»r oir Fort t.Wmir»and «lw- 
rhaivml a Swcdbli mlutc. 

Ruing** inntructions under date of December 
lo. 105:), and siipied hy Krik OxenMljema and 
Kuniter Bonde, »how that the Swedes intended to 
re-i«tabli*h power in the colony. He and the 
Governor were to administer juHtice, and promote 
tmde and the prufeMioiu — fi«hing, hiii«lmndry, at- 
tract tng nH'mben* of neigh borinx nations, who 
might lie able to give them aid. EHpoeiuIly were 
they niiuirfd to seek *' to rid the plac'o of tlie 
Dutrh, who had enacted a fort then*, exereiitiiig, 
however, all iHwible prudence,** and ulnive all, 
taking care that the Knglinh did not obtain a foot- 
hold. They were alstt to endeavor to enlargi* the 
limits of the wttlement, and try to get all trade on 
the river out of the hands of foreigners by build- 
ing, if need lie, another fort at the mouth of the 

Immediately U|Min Ki.'<ing*i« arrival off* Fort 
CaKiiuir, he sent Sven Schute, with twenty soldiers, 
to the Khon*, to demand the surrender (»f the gurri- 
Mm, ami not nxviving an answer lo his nignnl, 
ftnil at the fort fnim two of the heaviest guns on 
his Hhi|i. Taken by surprise Cierrit Bikkcr, the 
Dutch cimmmnder dis|iatche«l four men with a 
rci|tiei»t for three ilays* respite, which was refused, 
and when the latter inquired the terms of the 
Swedes, they were told that tliey should l>e in- 
formed of these the following day at Fort diristinn. 
Meanwhile, Lieutenant Gyllengren, under orders 
of ^H.*hute, prei«ing in with some men through a 
gate, overpowered the sentinels, disarmi^d the gar- 
rimm, and triumphantly dii*play(Hi the Swedish tliig 
alM»vc the fort. The force which held it consisted 
of lian*ly a doxen Hihlicrs, although not Iras than 
twenty-two houses, inhabited by Dutch settlers, 
lav round nliout. After a bodv of Swedes, under 
the command of Schute, had entered Fort Trinity 
(named after Trinity Sumlay, l>ecausH! it was iiip- 
tured on that day), the Dutch soldiers received 
liermisf'ion to stay or go, as they pleased. * 

t UaJatfMM't JwriMl m»A Mirrs utA Riainff'c Jimrmil. Tli* DHlrk 
IBiw a •llfl*««>iil aMmlitv mT the rmpturv uf I'url ('Mliulr. 

Uifiit Sikkrr, rtmiiiMihlaiil uf Furt rwlmir. In • Irttrr to iMtTrmor 
MH«tn«iiil. Hf Mil J«iw, KM, nriMiMihlnilraMfiilkiws: "On IIm ImI 
•la/ *4 May, »r pm<i-l%rt| a rmW ; nul kn«>«lnv «Ih> alM* waa, tir wImiiw 
frwM, A«lrlarM Van TlvulMMrtPtt, aa-i-«.|n|aitotMl l>jr mmif tt** Yifm«m, 
•ffv «pmI iMwattW hrt Iw lMV*«ll«Bti*, •!••«, ■« Ihv nrti thgr, oMlnirf lu 
bi44NK awl iriwilntf, iHwrnml lirr«- in XV* nwlaaUiiii Iwu iMOini l«>f»ir* 
lli« arrital •< thr Uili^ arltli IHp fulkmlnc nrm* : llial II «a« a H»r«IWi 
»bi|^riill iif |aHipli>, «itk a iirw ^wrnut, anU thai llwy wauir<i tu hava 
|«mm4u« *d Ibia |<lar«i awl iba furt, at lliejr wM It waa IvIhk uti IIm 
#w«>4i*h Ktiwrnmraf** land. AlwnC an Iwur after ivrrlvlHR llib M-wa, 
iW S«t^iali ip>*rranM>M'a c«|4ala, S»vn*k«s wlih abunl *JU anl<Uvrs 
CMwe ••■ alM** villi the rlil|i'« Uait. W« l«Ja llian wrlmwv a« rricml^ 
JtMlfln^ tliat In cwv ibry liHf nJvd tw altf nipl anj IblnR, IIm-j vihiM 
•I |mi« icl«a na nulir* j bnt cooiraiy to thk. ba niada bi« paa|tl«> llk^ 
mbv t-Mwa In, and Ibvn •Irinanikii, al Ibf- |«i<lil uf lk« aaunl, Ibr mir- 
t»*l»T *4 Ik* t\%*r, a« nrll aa Ibr U'tX. Tkia traiMu-lkm wa» ■» knrrknl 
■a bnnMy to aSu(«i alrlajr anangk fur Iwu mnin»la<un na to priwcd on 

On the day ibllowing the capture of Fort GmI- 
mlr the **Amen *' sailed up to Christina, where the 
three hundre«l emlgranta were lamled— the largeat 
Ixaly tliat had over reached Now Sweden at one 

On the following day all the people at Christina 

[FlwH GWMiMlnB* *• Nav Swadaa.*'] 

assembleil to take the oath of allegiance to Sweden 
and the West India Coni|iany, an<l i*a|)egoJa re- 
sigiic«l his oHice as Govenior into the hamls of 
Rising, nittwithstanding the latter had not yet 
lx«n duly appointed to that charge. ]*a|)egqja 
and Schute continued to be the ( lovemor's prin- 
cipal assistants in the direction of the cohmy. On 
the .'(d of June a similar meeting was held at 
Printxhi>f on Tennakimg, and the Dutch com- 
mandant at Fort Ciisimir and the majority of his 
garrisim swore fealty to Sweden. Afterwnnls the 
Governor, in coni|siiiy with engineer Limlstnmi, 
nmde a j<»urney anmnd the rest of the Swedish 
settlement lo l>ec«»me aciiuaintetl with the region ; 
and finally he called the neighlmring Indians to- 
gether with a view to make them his allies. The 
joint eiMincil was held at Tinnecum, (then called 
Printzhof) on June 17th, at which ten Indian 

buarS. to tWmawl af tba RuTrnHir bla nannitaikin awl aonia llttia tlma 
for omaullatkin ; bnl krfwfv lh» i-umntkakinan had kiS ua bunrd. tlirrr 
wrrv iwn yiiM Arad vmrr tba f«ir1 rbariftd nitb ball, aa • aliiaal, aftrr 
nbkli uur im*\A9 war* iniMUillalrly di-Klvvd *4 Ibalr altkr-anna, and 
llkf«|aa alHi tabm uM llw-ni, rraily In flrh, bpraiaw ihfy tlhl wi( di'llVKr 
n|i (lu-lr niii^ifia, wbirb wcra Immnllalply analiliMl fnim ibrm, awl 
llkawhi' Mrn «rr* ImMirtllalcljf atallwnnl al lb* |4M-va vt iinlMaMrw al 
Ihp |«itnla Th>«a wk» bati li<>rn *•»! vff r«*lMnml, awl liftrtiRliI IM 
Inftimiallun I hat lbvn> «aa no d*^ra to glta una btmr dfhy, ihal bb 
ruiHUilaakin waa un U«rd Ilia ipmtI, awl Iknl «a wtmhl ImniMllaleijr 
ppnvirr Ibi* riinaii|iH*w«ti %4 II. Tbr Mikllara wrrr liHiiiiN||a|i«l> rha*^ 
tail uf tiw f>in, and llivlr Rtaab lakan In |«iwiiailuH, aa IlkrwW wjr 
|>n>|iritj, awl I rwuld banllj. by mlrvallrM, l«inK II au fkr |u lirw Ilial 1. 
« lib HIT wlir awl rblldn-n, «rra wd Itkrn b« ahul Mil almual nakad. All 
Ibaaita-b-a wbirh wrfv In Iha fiilt wai* niiiAiKalrd by llirM. t>T«« lb* 
rum. bavInK liaplly |*ft tta aa wiirb aa to Iha i«, ualnir li pfMnnnly, kx. 
Th«> Kw**'ni>ir |>rptfwla Ibat bar Majfaty baa IbYnaa from Iba Slalr*^ 
UMiaral %d Iba Ni-lbrflawK Ihal aha may |kiaRrai Ihia rUar |irtt. 
«iak<Mally."— ll«.ll. IkT.. V«4. Vlll.. |«ffra Ki, ft7, flaaar^a Amm^ 
^%f I4II-V. 




ehtoA ^ rere pmentt tnd Rfatlni; oflbred manj arnK*d |ie<ipl(* ti» (linpraw of bMverpkins, aiid the 
preMiitiil diitributofl wine and »piriU, and »|m>ad n I)titi*h r<»m|tliiiiM><l at Fort Xaiwan tlwt the Mvairrt 
grctit fraiit of siiiipoun ; tlio old trentltv were n*tul, oiitiiieiuiiirr«l ilicni eontinually. 
mutual vow* of iVIendidilp exehnii^l, luid the The **onmr* n-tuniitl tuSwi^lvnln Julr.KLVI, 
Indianrt hevanie allitt of the 8wc(U*is whom they with a enrpi of Virjfiiiin and Marylanil luliaiTn, 
■troni^ly couniicled to ipcttio at once at pHMNiyunlc. ami nirryintr an |HiMien}»eni winie of tlie ohkT 
On July :kl KiMini^Bcnt an o|icn letter to all the ct»loniitii ineludinfr Johnn PaiK^ja. Arrivin}; at 
Hwedea who had gone off to Maryland and Vir- hontc the gf»vernnient wan vnfni^vil in fittinjr 'Mit 
jrinia, inviting them to return, when, if they would at Gottenbur;^ the " Gyll^fnc llajen ** (the ** <«oIden 
not remain at the lettlenient, they should reecive Hlmrk "), for another expcdititm to the Deh&ware. 
pemiiMion and be jirovided with a pii!« to lietake On the I'ith of SeptcmU'r the ** (tylleiio IIuj<-n ** ar- 
thenuelveti wherever they wished. Fort Trinity rive«l off tiie Anierican eon»t, and ** thnKi;;h nA^- 
waa rebuilt fnmi ita foundations and arme<l with nesK, or |K'rha[Mi ninliee, of the mate/' entt'nti a 
four fourtcen-|)ounder eiinnon taken fnmi the Iwy lielirved to lie the iVlnwarc, but in fail th« 
**(^nieM." The land neimi<t to Christina was di- North Kiver, or lIudiM)n, the blunder not U'ing 
vidcd into building lota for a future town of Chrti*- iltMiiveriHl until she had rettehi-<l Mnnhattan. 
tinnhnnin ((-hri«itinntiort), from wheuec tnifiie wait It wns not to lie ex|ie<'te«l that a man of .<tiiy ve- 
to bo earned on with tho Provinces of Virginia i«niit*rt htwly temiN*rament would permit an iMit- 
aml Mnryhind, with whieli inii*nt. aliMi, Kiting rage, sueh as the capture of Ft>rt CWiuiir, to go 
plunneil the widening of the 8wc<rMh territory to unrcvenged, even if the directora of the Wtst 
the wcitt by means of a new settlement, no limit India Conipiiny had fwriHed it by. Hut they were 
ever having been set to it in that direction, ipiite as eager n.<< Stuyvef>ant himself, fur pntnipt 
Finally a map of the river and 8wedi:(h po»«ei«- and decisive aetit>n on the Delaware. Tlie time 
sions was pn>parc<l by Lindittrom, with an aeeurnte was auspicious for them. Axel Oxemttiertm, tlu; 
description of the region. In an "onlinnnra con- greiit Swcilii^h chancellor, wai* juft dead. Queen 
ceniing the |KH)plc and the land," et<*., dat4*<l July, C'hriiitimi liml ulMlienteil the thnme in favor of her 
1U''»4, lie decrveil the first anti-nlavery a<l ailopted oMiftin Charles ((uxtavus, and Knghind and ilol* 
in America: " Whoever bes|N>iiki« of the i^imipnny land had junt nignetl a tntity of |iea<r. The 
any slave over fourteen yeani in s«*rvi<v shall give, dini'torH iuxiMnl u|Ntn the Sweih*!* U'ing (>H'e<*tually 
bcsidca the puMagu money receive«l, twenty four jMininhed, and onlercd iiftuyviitant. not only lo 
riknlaler, and the slave shall nerve him six con- exert every nen'e to revenge the injury, not only 
secutivc years, obtaining his food, shoes, and so to recover the fort and restore allairs to their 
forth every year; aAer six yennt a nlave shall be fonuer situation, but to drive the Swedei* from 
alhiolutely free.*' ever}' side of the river, and all«»w no i^ttleni ex- 
Rising selected for himself a piece of land mmth c«'pt under the Dutch Hag. lie was pntmineil 
of Trinity Fort, a quarter of a mile in length, and lilx'nil aid fnmi honu', and was onlerctl to pn>K 
in a letter to Chancellor K. Oxenstjerna dateil any vesnel into his service that mi;rht !« in tin* 
Juno 11, 1054, ho solicits ** His Kxccllencv to find New Netherhimls. StuvvcKant UManwhile wan 
him a goiMl wife and send her over." He assigned not idle on his own side. Jle mizeil ami made 
Petnis 1 Ijort, one of tho ministers who came out on prize of the *' (t y lleiie I lujen " at Manhattan, and 
the "Omen," to a home in Fort Trinity, while his place<l her captain under arnut, as stM»n an In* 
companion, Matthias ICertuniiis, dwelt at Upland, hcanl the news frimi Fort Casimir. He nx'etviti 
The Dutch and Swedish population on the five armed vckm^Is fmm Amnterdam, iind ordentl 
Dc>hiwarc at this time, according to a cennus taken a geiicnil fasting and prayer, and then hantenc<l 
by Rising, was three hundred and sixty-eight to set his animments in order. Ou the •SOth uf 
persons. Tliis is probably exdunive of many August, .**tuyvenunt's f«»rcen, conni.tting of seven 
Kwedcrt who had gone into the interior and cro4.HMl sliiia* and nix hundrc<l men, eiiteriNl Delaware liay 
the ridge towards Maryland. Rut little agricul- and ciint anchor iK'fore the fi»rmer Klfi*lKfrg. On 
ture was attende<l to benidcn tobacco planting, and tho follnwing day the Dutch fleet wan off the late 
the chief industry was the trade in |iehricn, which Fort Canimir, now Fort Trinity. The fi>rt Han 
wan very profitable. In this tnule the Indians summoned to niirrendrr. The gnrriiMiii, under 
had acfpiireil as great skill lui in tnipping tho Captain Sven Sehute, which numlN're*! only forty- 
beaver and drying hb |K>lt. Thepriceof n lH.-aver- seven men, and tlu'ir ctminiaiider, siirniideretl 
skin was two fathoms of "seawant," and each them on hoimruble terms iK-forc a gun was fintl. 
fathom was taken to be three ells long. An ell Stiiyvcnant marched on tho following day to Fort 
wan measurc<l (as the yard still is in country ChriMina, where Riningh was in eommund.and in- 
places), from one corner of the mouth to tho vcntc<l it on every side. Uinin^h pn'tended gn^at 
thumb of the op|Misite arm extended. The Indians, surprise, rcHirted to ever}- little diph>nmtie ct»n- 
tall and long-limbed, always sent their longest trivanuc he could think of, ami then on the 14th 


of OrfitFinhFr, nrmxWml aho, l>efi>n the Dutch cnawil Inio Ijlwjrlud, ud i»rmknmt)y tattled 

iMltriiif nivnnl. In truth hb fuit «m > wntk in CW-II atiit Kiiit <ViunllaK, wliera Iholr flmilly 

ami ilrRiM'liiD une, jhwI b< hxl •mnvly Iwa iwnHi aiv -till iinwrvfJ ; but ihr Uuu-h jrokv uif 

n>Nn<U iif ■nimmilliiti. duiiUcilly ml wry Mufulf a|Mn HmilWi tJniuMi-n. 

la iKTonliiim with the Icmw' Bpn.'cd tu, the Thin km tlw wiil oT the riwnluh luir oii tht 

IHllrAir«iHh|nirriH>iiHiarrheduMl,''fukirit|lyiB)c." IX'Uwnre. Muyvmnt oliryiiiK iiMruclHm* fnim 

The DotrhnH-nt u|> ihr river to Ttiim'cvni, vbcra theWnt India ('■iiii|ian]', mute ■ fiimml tmiiiTiir 

thry UhI WMta all the buun* >iui jilmtatiiHu, nih-llvery uf Furt Chrittiiu to I(i>iii|ch, but limt 

killed the altls uhI jilundcrul tlic iiihnhiuuitr. bi'iu wu in tlic lulk^ rcTuied lu rrccivs it, uhI 

itTnt Ihirig in Kuvruilier, ht' vay uf Xc<r Anuler- 

dam, ■ureHrinjc at lliv Dutrli " in fmnlic mouil." 

Wlitic tliiw CTvnti wf re Inni^iJriiigllipauthiiTi- 

l(n in 8wrdeii ■uiiinth'd in HllinK nut thp Iciitli 

awl Inrt iKinNliluin ti> Sew Swiiltn. Tht Urr- 

ruritu •aili'd on tlir IBtli urOrtulvr, IfiVi, iNiriiiK 

Ibc Ua iMipg uf Mfttj Hit iIw nnrr|>iiw mi the 

ltelainin>, whirh hail almnlr nmw fi> an qnioniini- 

uua end. Slw arriml in tliv IMaware, UarHt 

It, UKM, lhi> end|traul« HrM k-amlnit Ihe ehanitci 

that had un-urrvd when thcv irvru prcvenlnl 

ftvu bmlinK. by tbu Dulrh VU«-Ci<>vcniur I'm! 

Jan|itvl, uMil the ivi-ci|it «f hrthi-r unlrrn tn^ni 

Manhattan. RayvnwMt iwMt iiintnirliiina fiirliid- 

iliHit tbrw to IniHl, ainl ilin-rliil ihal llxnr HliiHdd 

U'H-nt iDMinliaiiaH.iit layln |it<>vb4iiiH,Mi-.,r<ir 

lliHr viiyatEi- Imhin-. Tbv linlumnl* rvdisInK lit 

nliim t» riwiidi-M, lliry luili llir nwl |mi>1 l-'iirt 

Cariuilr, nihI n|i |Ih< livcr !<■ Mintace llni'k. where 

tbev Umlvd. Tlw Mtttarln* n-liininl In (iiilti'ii- 

n^s or T-t ';J;,*Y,;;.;J^/;;j:;'""> ""*"" lM.ii.«rrivii.,rllw™h.l*-i'«f"W»rihci«i.>.y.«. 

ir>™ri»ii«4»'"K" ruH.-! I'l^ii iIh' niniiunt of Sew tfwnli'n, Stuyvrwint 

i,ranniHiK a. I'^iwina ■>>•<. r.T-^a.'i'huwlhi-M. a|i)uinl<,il ('njiiain Itrrrivk Schnikll aa <uniiHiiHirr, 

^"tM^H^^ mH^mn il "^^rt"!!!!!-!' "u'rikiI^ * *"' '1""''''!' 'U"'0'>l"l ai we liave mvu, hy 

■.iwUMrfibbw^n. x.iUiM. i^iiiv. r.»«Br. .Iiilin I'nuj ilap)iKt, in llic rajincitv iiT " Vice- 

Dircnur of the Suitii Kiver," willi a'Cuuiii-il r.iii- 

A irniit many Kwolti came in ami took tlie oath' Mlinj; uf Amlrene llmlile. eicv-iliniirir, Kliiirr. 

uf alkinaiice li> tint Dutcli. hiiyai-n Klein, and Iwii wiviiinlii. FuM Cbrialiiin 

All nch wi'ri'Mni-n-d lu lemain nmlinlurlivd In bniinH! Ahuiia, Furt (.'aataiir n-wiiiml iln uld 

tbrir iwanMiiiiu, A rcw wIhi n'fiMil t» take the name, ami B new urtilcnuiil ^rvv u|> aruiiml it 

fiUh were tniupurtcd tuMaiiballiii,' nliilr uthern wliii-h wauBBiiKilNcw Auiiil4^l,l1irHn4 arlnuUiniii 

11)1101 1 he river. 
J*^ tt--rfj_j«— K i^ '<B, u\ i«, iKi lU. rv»^»^ I, ^jj^ 1^, (,aifc»,J iliat if llie tiweiltw un 1Im> 
.wi- IK-Iawnri: wen; not a hajijiy |iFii|dc it wu their 
'''^ «wii fuuit. lliit tiKy wi-ru ha]i)>y. Cunie uf a 
...jiA.1 primitive mec uut yet ii)Hiiliil by fmihiiinii, luxury, 
'* S.*7l "^iTi!!' iTt'j^"*!!^^ "'"hui'iki |l'l.u^- 1 '"'' '^'ui *'"' ''*' *'*'''' "^ '■'''''l'''*''""t ■"'I liri-ferrinit nitri- 
TiM xXaTkiiuJi m-* ••^•■'•'-'••^'•''^'•^•^^Ipi^'^w'' iiihureamllliPMw)>lnilartiiorhuiJMiMlryiul>wb>, 

' '•-* they Jimiiil lliriiKwJi'n In • m-w. la-aaiirul. nml 

R-rlllr niiiini, with (lie milihvt uf elimatn ami llie 



kinfllioit of •nllm Government, tlio prnMuro of 
liiwiu the weliplit of tnxntlon they ttmrcely know, 
And their n*hition(i wero ii1way« pletMint, friendly, 
and intlnmte with thoiio savnge tribcM the tcrrur uf 
whutc nci);hlM)rli(KKl druvc the Enj^lUh into Mid<len 
atrocitict and barbarities. Very few Swedes ever 
lust a night*8 rest beeause of the Indian's war- 
whoop. They were a ])cople of simple ways, in- 
dustrious, loyal, steadfast. In lGi)3 some of these 
Delaware Swede:* wrote home fur minii>(en, books, 
and teachen. Thii^ letter savs, " A» to what eon- 
ccrn« our situation in tnis country, we are for the 
nioH part husbnhdini>n. Wo plow and n»w and 
till the frnnind ; and as to our nimit and drink, we 
live ac<t)rilin;» to the old Swislixh cUKtom. This 
country is very rich and fruitful, and here gn»w 
all sorts of grain in great plenty, sf> that we arc 
richly Kupplied with meat and drink; anil we send 
out yearly to our neigh Ixm ou this ctmtincnt and 
the nei'^hlMtring ishuidM bn^nd, grnin, th>ur, and 
oil. We have here alito all s<»rU of beastK, fowlx, 
and fishes. Our wivm and daughters employ them- 
selves in Hpinidng wiwd ami fhix and many of them 
in weaving; ho that we have gn-ai n'aMon t<i ihank 
«jlio Almighty for his manitohl mereies and iN'iie* 
lltH, <2im1 grant that we nuiy nliH» have gi,od 
shephenU to fi'inl us with hl^ holy woni and paera- 
nients. We livenlmi in |M-aei! ami frientUliip with 
one another, and the Indians have not mole.<«teil us 
for many . yea r.<(. Further, si uix; this oountr>' has 
cc:iscd to be under the government of Sweden, wc 
arc lM)und to acknowledge and dii'Iarc for the 
sake of truth that we have liec^n well and kindly 
treated, as well by the Dutch a^* by his Majesty 
the King of Knghiud, our gracious sovereign ; on 
the other hand, we, the Swc«les, have lieen and 
still are tnie to hiui in wonis an«l in divdH. Wc 
have always had over us pmhI and gnieious mngi.4- 
trati-s; and wc live with one another in jieacc and 
ipiielude." * 

One of the missiunaric!* sent over in reiiiNm.<H* to 
the touching denmnd of which the aliove (|Uote<l 
paA«agi> is part, writing back to Swe<len aHer his 
arrival, says that his congregnti<m are rich, 
adding, **Tlie country hero is delight lul, as it ha-* 
always l»ccn desiTiUil. and overthiws with every 
blu<«i*ing, so that the iHiiple live very well without 
lieing ct»m|N*IIed to Uw much or t*io wven* lalNir. 
Tlie taxes are very light; th<! farmers, arter their 
work is over, live as they do in S\\ed«*n, but are 
clothcil as well as the n's|K'Ctablc inhabitants of 
the towns. Tbev have fn-sh meat and fi»h in 
abundance, and want nothing of what other 
countries produce ; they have plenty of gniin to 
make bread, and plenty of drink. There are no 
|Hior in this count r)*, but they all provide for 
themselves, for the himl is rich and fruitful, and 
no man who will labor can sufler want." All 

• AiisaU uT the SwrUn wD ill* brUwM*. Vjr R«v. J. V. tlijr, I>.|i. 

this reads like an hivl of Jean Paul, or fine of the 


naive, ehanning |SH*ins «if ]IUh«»p Tcgiier. It U a 
picture, some |>arts of which have Ufn delight- 
fully re|»nNlu<'ed by the fioet John G. Whittier ia 
his *' Pennsylvania Pilgrim.*' 




Bkfouk the gnint of the Pn»vince of Mar^r- 
land to Ceeilins Culvert, itcomd hm\ Dalttmorv, 
in W'VIt Sir I'lilmund Piowden, an KnglUhman of 
distinguished ancestry, with Sir John L-iwrence 
and others, ]»etitionctl Charles the Firat for a 
grant of lying Ijtland and thirty miles sqtiare, to 
be called Syon. This wai modified in an<»tlier pe- 
tititin to the king. a.<king {lermission to (Kx*upy 
"an habitable and fruitful I»lanil nametl Isle 
Pliiwden, otherwin' I/img Ule," ••near the mnli- 
neut of Virginia, nbiiui i>ixty lea^'oen northwnnN 
from Jumtn City, without the Hay of (liiDajKiike, 
and " fi»rly Iraguert 
sipnin* of the adjoining 
itiulinenl.asin the nn* 
tu re of a Count V Pain- 
tine or IkhIv |H»iitick, 
bv the name of New 
Albion, to In* held of 
yi»ur Majesty's Crown 
of Ireland, exempted 
from all ap|K'al and 
subjection to t'le Gov- 
ernor niKl Company of 
Virginiu." One month 
al\er the Pnivince of Maryland wiu given to Ce<*ili- 
us Calvert, KingCharlesonlerv«l hisHreretary. Ji»hn 
Coke, to re4|uc«t the' Lords Jik'ticcs of Ireland to 
gnint to the |s*titioncrs the Uhind "between thirty- 
nine and forty degrees of latitude,** and fi*rty 
leagues adjacent on the adjoining continent, with 
the name of New Albion. Thi-* grant, which w:is 
cnrolli'il in the citv of Dublin, where Sir Kdniund 
PloU'den chose to have it n-gistere<l, U'ing a Peer 
of Ireland,' conveye<l to him the following unccr* 
tain-liouiiiK'«l tcrrilorv : 

•Mitir •itHlh I'Miinl U >>lNivl lutrtli lk>uiiil, aii>l U.dhii'fh ■! 
A<|MHia iir III*' »iiiilii-rni-«t ur n<M >»{'» >•( |i>l.i«rirv |la> hi liiir'«- 
riiclil Bixl fofiv uiliiiii>-«, aii-l •• riiiiiK-|it l>r, tit itir-'ii^h. iir in- l<i line 
Ki'iil l*l<-, till oiKh •'liKi|a-if-W lUv t- !*•• •iid««« ; Hm hi Imj lla^- Uia 
uf l*a*l>-lii-'<-kr IO>r !•■ IIk- li'tltl ttt lf>rtli«-riiHi»l lir.«iM ti •■( that rtt«V, 
lirliig ihff«- |iMi»-lri--l riin<«<li«« wiral. ximI lli<-u<r if<riii«ar«l Im tliv br«i| 
vf llu-lKfii'a ri«<r hfij lrM|(i|i'#, ••(•! »# ilowu U'i-U^m 4 ntrr i» lb* 
Ovrmi, bIxIv l.-tk'ii-'*! MtKl, lli<*i««*a- >•{ iIm< I d-t-.tu an>i |.|.-« i^f-m^ |i>-|« 
«.irr Umv Iw (Iiv >>>uIIi I'liiai rifly |riitfui-« ; ili all M-ci-k b«i>i>lr<-l ainl 
rlgUiy mil*-*. Tlu-n Mil MihUin* riw-r. |a|r«, |.i>iir I<«1>-, vr Paanmk*. 
«i<4 ail lalt* williiu i<-ii Ira^iiM wf Of mM rrwtiuiT." J 

Shortly after New Albion was granted to Sir 

* ^aa<y/t-flNtM .V>i]fiaMr, tnl. «ll., |mc*- ;IVA. 

Hia KftMi'Mi i*t.owi»i:x. 


Edmund Plowdea, CkpUin Thomas Young, n ton 
<»f Gregory Young, of York, received n tpccial 
cummifiiion from the king, which It printed in 
Rymer'ft **Fcrdcra,'* nnd dated i^|itcmlier 23, 108.3, 
autltorizlttg him to fit out armed vcfvela for the 
voyage to Virginia and adjacent parta ; to take 
poPMivion in the king's name of all territory dis- 
covered, not yet inhahited by any C)irii»tinn 
jtciiple ; to e«tahli«h trading |Kwt8 with Mile riglit 
«*f trade, ami to make such regulations and to 
ap|K>int such officers as were nccciwnry to cslnb- 
Ii»h civil guvrnmtcnt. 

In the spring of 1(}.'U the exploring vx|)Cflition 
de]iartcd, the lieutenant of which was ItolK*rt 
Kvdyn, a m'plK'W of Young ; Kvclyn*ii father, of 
GiNUtone, Surrey, having married Susan, the cap- 
tain V sitfier. Among other oflicen was a surgeon 
name«l Scott, and the coKmogropher was Alexander 
Itakvr, of St. ]IollM)nrs rart^h, MidtlUitex, do- 
NTilH>«l hy Young iis**i>kiirtil in nancs and trying 
«if nictnln.** The gri'ut ohjoia of Captiiin Young 
was to aMTnd the iK'lawun* Itiver, which he called 
Charltv. in compliinc'nt to the king, until he found 
a great lake, which was i>aid to l>e it« niiunv, and 
then to find a Mediternutean Sea, which the 
Indians repc»rted to be four days' journey licyond 
the mountains. He entered Delaware Ihiy on the 
2'ith of July, Um, and on the 2!»th of August 
had readied the Falls of the I)i*laware Uivcr. 
On the fin>t of Septemlier JJeutenant Holwrt 
Evelyn was sent in I Ik* shallop *' up to the rocks 
iMiih to NHiml the water an he went and likewiM 
to try whether the iMtats would |hi!4i the nn'k* or 
no.** MiH'ting a trading vca'H^I there from Man- 
hattan, Young onlcrtnl Kvdyn to set* the llol- 
laufk-rs outside of I Via ware Hay and then to go 
and di«^»ver along the Atlantic coa^^t. He was 
M'Ut as far as lIu(U>n':« Uiver, and then returned 
to Young on the Delaware. Captain Young 
writeii : *' As poon as he was n>turncd I sent him 
prnvntly once more up to the fallH, to try whether 
he could paM tlaiKe ixK'Vn at a Hpring-lide, which 
U'fore he could not do at a neap- title ; hut it was 
then also im|ioMililo with any great IhwU, wlivrc- 
up«»n lie n'tunie«l liack to nu* apiym*.'*' 

Aflcr thin exjH'iliiiou Yt»ung, >l\\\ King in the 
iVlaware Itiver, where hctnidetl with the Indians 
at F«>rt Kriwoneck, ltolH*rt Kvelvn was M*nt with 
di4>|4itdies to Moghuul, where he remained until 
the fall of ICUl, when lie returned to Virginia and 
the m*xt year was one of the councillors and sur- 
veyors of that colony. At this time George, his 
brotlier, came to Kent I>land, in Maryland, as 
the agent of tho I»ndon [mrtners of William 

WIkii Kobert Kvdyn aj^in returned to England 
he was imluce<l, in 1041, to write a suuill <|uarto 

I YMVM'a bOrr ta Jim. Mm. S«M^ O-Utrlimu, Fattrtb Sf ri«s VuL 
Is.. i<ifa M. 

with the title " Direction for Adventurers, and true 
Dc8eri|}tion of the healthiest, pleasantest, richest 
plantation of New Albion, in North Viiginia, in 
a letter from i^Isiter Robert Eveline, who Hved 
there many years." The demrriplion was in the 
form of a letter ami addressed to Plowden's wife.* 

Sir £«lmund IMowden's first visit to America 
was in l(i42. Roliert Evelyn, who had also re- 
tumcil on the 2«'Vd of June of the same year, waa 
coniniii>»i«incd by the authorities of Mar)'land "to 
take chargi*, ami eonuuand, of all or any of the 
Kn}:lii*li in, or near aliout, Piscataway, and levy, 
train an<l master them." 

During the year 1(»42 Plowden appears to have 
Hniletl up the Delaware and visited *'tho fort given 
over by Captain Young and blaster Kvdyn," 
which seems to have U-en in or near the Schuylkill. 
lliN re»idenir was chiefly in Northampton County, 
Vir}£inia,' and ho brought some wrvants of his 
family from J*U));land.* 

<Mi>v. K>l««ril n. >V|||, rr<«hlrnt *4 Mamb^trr Ciillrirp, )IInm>Mb, 
whuiiaa nlvrii MwH lliii* aiMl IliwUfhl It* rurljr Amrrhan lilMwry, in 
bh vi-r.v iHlrrr»(luii |w|a'r tin Mr (ilmiiMl rkiwilrn, {ntlilMinl U llM 
iViii>*fr/rMtiM M-fti:$mrt \\A. til., |«|ir Li<s lu «|iUlt «r arv llMk-Mitt fvr 
Mt«l uf ihr farui-iHliiiinil In IliU rlia|<f»r, M.f*: "Wlwn K«rl>u «M 
In KiiBbikl In A.U Xf-^M. IVIiuuml l*l«««iltH «m lit Ink nl WaiuHt-ad by no 
turmu* ImM'Xi NUtl i-HUaluK llitw* «Im« «rrnr In anjr wnjr tIrtiriMirM u|uB 
bliii lu ff«-l ni<»l MilM-iaMr. Ill* lMr»h Iii«iih«-i«I uf ulbria, ami uii|;t>trm« 
al>l« li«Hi]<fr, ntatk* hint n i<nt In lliv MfiKltl<urh«aai. A Unit Ibla tinia, 
alM>. W Ifll llif < liun li wf KviiM>, a»l ri>iiftiinM-«l to llw (liiiith wf £nc* 
iau'l. Hia y(U*, Malx-I, lu wbuin iir bail Im-ti niarritil l«ruljr-ttf« 
iff*. Ml aivtaiul «f bU rinrlljr waa nl IrnRlh ul>llKr*i lu hink* rwni« 
|iliilnl. Till* ttrtiri Btialal Mil b<-r, aiMl llwrnbu «aa wnb-n-U lu |«y iba 
ek|a-ti«ra iif inIi ab«l |<nAl<lt> allnM<Uf. AnuOirr ruM|«laiui «aa h-lmU 
aicitinal blw •« May 3, |i'.:il>, fur ImillMic Iht* wife wT M*«. I'bltip 
lii^llltkl, ll«i-l«ir t^ IjibIuim, «h>» ••■ ah>nl lu bitiim* a Mwihi'r, |if«-au«« 
I'lMVilfb aiwl lb«' rlrntyNtan ba.| <llM|irr»i| N|a>n tli» lariw vl m ri-rlalM 
Warn, .\» bil** aa Niitfltila-r II, llhM, br nwliirii4i<il *|w«l*i|l.' 'lalAllual* 
lyhiy,' alHl |a-r>l*lf«l In (-«»Mi m|4 »4 rumt. !•) nHwalniS lu |«i)r hbi nllv'a 
■llMMinjr. Il lia<l lH-<t>inr rtiib>iil Ihat U ba tbuuM all Iwr Anirrlni, 
hi* alMlin* nmibl iinl U- th'|il»rr«l." 

Mr litlMiwntl l*|ii««l«ru naa iImp lintvl drM^^laiil wT IMninnd l*b<««lpB, 
Ibv ItNiliivU ai»l biMHiraMc |tlratlrr, «buill«<«l In l'>M, «b<aw oinMi«rklB* 
riM wtt U«r, Cblrf JiMlt* Tubv ralM " fii<|nWli* anil rUbi<cala." Alwnl 
lbi')i-ar |i>ln, i'luailrii «aa niank^ lu Mabrl, «lau|iblrr ut iMrr Mart* 
iwr, i<r WaiiMeail, nani|*birr. In lb« CalrniiNr vt Mala Wfiria •< 
|iV;il*a.'i, llirf^ Un iMiIki ut ll«i> |m««uiU mm! Miitrlirn »blllibKa uf ablfi* 
liMiiM-jr aan-Mnl u|iirti Hr Kilinliiitl** Ivnanla lu Uaini^iilra. 

>lii ibv ntanuKtrtH iti-unki uf Niirtbani|iii*n<'uubl>, VIrRlnhi, ibMw 
•r»>aiiaN> |«itii ulara in ihr Ufvt<l >ir Klinwnil l*k»«ilrH, Kn'l. U a|i«ata 
mlim In aallwl fur Anwili-a with a UU-int h« lifwufbl law iflirn wT 
InirtitiM Itun fiuin ^A llltani WvMi, uf L«inih>n, wu« aMt*»**4 lu ■* Tb^waa 
Cupivy al bia |>Uulali«n in )lai)latoil," hr brln* M Ihal lima Ibr li-w 
latnil cuwUnlKr uf Um JrMili >l lt^i>n, aial llir mbrr ««a mblrrwail Iw ilia 
bvail uf Ibf MlMiun, "Tw liU \uU<> Mrvin-i«4 Mr. Amlivw Wfalir, |«i|., 
alt MHrylaial." Ilivia ki an mmnnl aicalMM rbimlrn by lKi> ib'ili uf 
Iba Ni>rtbam|ilMn tVntI uf Ibnn bnmliml |ii4imla «<f Iii|4mi-u fur lablnn 
4r|H«lllitii«, mablniC ru|>l«-«, rli-. TIn'I* all* Mitrr bib-f m4l«-« uf bl« 
wn Iba i>iiirila »l<ii«luic bU n-ablrm-r In tlw mnniy, annniM uthrr* ■ 
vriilkl ln-lnrvB "faiil. TbuHiaa IIviUrm H*»iliff ■<••! Kdmnml l'b<«< 
•bin," tlalrd Manli ri, \i.4-2-AX—ltt>w^lnimiuit»y^ime,\tA. l., |a|:* IMl. 

* In IIm> mauMM-rl|4 n-ikribi uf Mary binil. In ibr l.«ml oOb-vai Aiina|i- 
olii^ llirra la a nulba uf Mamarvl lb ml, Iba luflinala frtrial uf Our* 
rrmiT l.rwiMinl i'bhrrt, «iMliii|C ibu lal* uf KpM, in Iba (limiifniha 
Hay, ai-tiim{<ani<Hl by Abnr, • laur mabl-aartani uf Mr Kilmnml l*ki»- 
Sen. In \*A4 Nalliau IVfir f'TtliiuUMl ilia l*nivlw-lal Ctrtiit uf MaryianS 
to hnva Ibrra nwltl eiT«anla al Kir Idlninml llumlrn drllTviH lu bim. 
•s ihal ha ruubl cunny ib«ni l» Mr Ijlmwml In Vlrflnbi. On Jniy 17, 
104:1^ W llliani Klluhbaail niaila unlh U'lur* Ilia aania cuuil Ibnl in Jnna, 
in\i, lii:<i'iii-r l^iir, LwiMlun, Jauanml KKvuur jiu-vcmMi ilM t^miiari 
with Mr t^lmiiiHl l'h>«<b-n, Kn't, lu arrta blm fur flva ymn In Xaw 
Albiun, In lirlaaaia Hay, aiiU nna lu b«ta flfly punmk ■tvrlli.K |wr 
annum, awl Ibt-y UniI ihraMrlvta rluttif*^ Un Jaiivary I A, Ii4:^ 
"llwla-rt KII>auii,laiibrr>rbirHrKii>n, ib'MMiHlpduf Mr Mmnial l*hi«ilrn. 
Km, li>» Iba. uf tul«cru, iluv by airwaiil wf cblniriii^ry ami |4i>akh Ibli 
iaa( •nmuipr fur k.llrn ami Jani- MirtriMHin, nwM'arrtanta «4 iba mM 
Mr IUIuiun4" ; ami ha allailinl Sir Kilmnini liuanlcn'a rlitbt of amka 
unlU Iba bill naa |«bl. Mr LilmunU nllvrnaiila auv4 bla inn mabl* 



John Prints, the third irovernor of New Sweden, 
arrived on the Iftth of Fchrunry, 1G43, at Fort 
Cliristina on the Delaware. He apixmrv to have 
misted the claims of Plowden. In the *'Ue- 
monstraneo of New Nctlierlands," publislied in 
1G50, is Uk) following : 

" W« raniwt Miill ttt mj IImI thotv ha* Ih«m htm, U«b In tb* (Inn of 
INnM^iir Kkpfl klit >u that vt (Iwiiml Muy vomiiI, • rrrtain Kiitflialinwii 
wbii rmllml bliuavlf Mr KlmtiiMt ItMWilfn, ■ii>l, rtjII'iK (•iMM>ir Karl 
fkkillruio uf Srm AIM«Ni, |ifv(r»k«l iImI Ibv twiiirjr mi lh<« «wl «•>•' 
wf lh« KiMlh llUrr m r«r ■• VlrxdiU, vm bU |«ni|M>rly nifbr m riant 
fruw Jamra, (duirl** 1] Kluic wf KngUitil ; !•«( b« roHMiWml Ibat lia 
w«>nM havr nu miMitKlrraiaioHiiic wtik Mi>< Ihiii-b, but •«« win b uffi-ifkil 
«ltb, aiwl l«uf« a urualcn naala*!. J>4in l*nM«, lb» l*«r<li«h lioti-riKir tu 
lltaMwirtb Hlf«*r. In iVManiUfH.-r wf n«-rivliiM •••ma alTiMnu «UI< h «[>*r» 
Iwu l<«nic IM H'CMnl, b«t whirb Ih* wimiI-I labr aa u|^|iianMiMt/ wl r%-«vMiU>K 
■ml i iiiawadag bluia»lf vt tb» li>«iih Klwr.**' 

It apjiean by the stitteiucnt of Charles V^arlo ' 
that Sir Kdinuud Pluwdeu, with his wife and two 
children, came over to New AII)ioii to enjoy his 
pn»|K>rty. Finding; that it was ocetipiifl, niid 
cliiiniifl by the SwcilfH and Dutch, li(> Umk up hii« 
nwidi'iu'u fur nix ycnn* in Nurtiiniiiptuii County, 
Virginia, and on Ki*nt Inland and otin'r imrtionii 

•■^vanU Uw ana ibiaMUnl fkiUiaU n( |»l«>-ft< f<>r f nM|ai«* f^r i|r|««riihv 
UbUafHlIx mil nf bU MTtbif In Virginia. Kllfii M>-« •*!««••» arii-r«r«r>U 
niarrlf»i William llniiilbwailc.a |»r<««iiii«*Mt ciUu-u "f Hi. Mar>'a ('••unir, 
yimrjl»»t»\. Anna Kiftrb'-r, wito )m>I f<>ulra>lr«l a ilk Mr I^IimuimI 
llwaiirnin I'nclaH-iloarnviMiawaillHic ntakl ht hU lailjaihl liaiMirblrta 
In Nvw AlbkMi, Mini him fur hrr aaitm lu KrbrnMrr, lull, an*!, tn<l 
IlklaK lh» iNNiulrjr. thwifv*! btm lu |My iIh* atii'tiiw wf bcr irMii*|>-ri.if i<>n 
bumr. tMiinc* INiis, aUiui Iba aaina lima*. ilfNiaiMk^l uf Mr II^IiiiuihI 
••a IbtNMaial |*aiMi|« %4 lulianM ** fiir |MiMai> anJ |><i>*k k bi«l vawrr f>ir 
CM* (if Anna ncli-lirr, nitbl'wnraul to tha aiH Mr l^launl." lUZ'inl, 
ami wlbrns nxla a |Mn-baw-, la 101:1, «tf a ball lul«rral In a iMfk, bjr Mr 
blinnml, nbkii naa Ibrn mm*! by biai. 

tTba f'llkiwIiiK inti«valliiK r^|airt uf Mr l^lmaml n<iar<b*n h tu Ui 
f^MUil In Ilia arv-oml n>|a>n uf J<ibii I'rIuK, (iutrnitir <•€ Nrar >wa-«k'U, to 
Iba M«r<-<ll«li W«*l Imlla r<aii|Miijr. umIinI I'brUlina, JaHi< ;M, li.ll : 

"In ni> ftmiMT r<4NniiinkallMiw (-•Mtrfruliic iba Khi:lt>b kinukt, I 
hnvv mvniiomtl bi««r laal yt^ar. In Vlrxliila. Ii«> «li«iir>l l<> will a lib lita 
|Mni|ila, •t\t*t*u In iiniiiiM-r, in a l«i<|U'-, fiwm ll<«-ki<UMli [Ai-«i>iiiai l.| tu 
Klkalbaiia (tiT Kra^tuichlan, lh«> |MV«*iil ||ani|>lfU| ; aiMl altm itff 
auaa to Iba llay ut VirKlnia, lli* ra|«lalii (ab» b<al |avtk>H»ly ■■.••i<|ilia«l 
vUh tba hulichl'a |ww|<lr Iwkill bimiillrcrlnl bbcunrM* »•! lu KiW< iloin, 
ImI bt ('a|v llriirjr, immIiic abkh, tb>*x raaio luan i«lc In ibr bi^h *«a 
cnlbnl Hmllb*a lalanl, abt-n lhi*y t<Mik n»iiua<*l In abal aar lli<-« •••••ubl 
|Mil bim luib\itli, awl fb<Mixbt l( la>»l »•! Iw alar bim aith ilwlr li.tii<la, 
bnl I***-! bim, «ltli»ul fia*!, «r cl«lba«^ ur nrw^ 'in iIh* abiit*-iMiin*^ 
UiamI, nbbb «aa lulmMtMl by no nmn ur ••Ibrr aiiliiMl mvm «i«U*w ami 
bmra : awl tbhi Ibry ill«l. Xrrrnbab-ai, |«u yuuiif ii<4»la r>-<Mluwra, ab«> 
liad liaon liTaaicbl np by Iba knkbt ami nbu km*w iwlbiuc af ibal yt^4, 

• hrh thay la^bakl Ibia aWI Airluiia nf ibi-lr l••^l, b^|<« I fium thi< biri|iia 
iHlw Iba utvau, aaam aali>if«, nial ivitmlm^t nllb Ibt-lr maaliT. Iba 
ftNirib •biy fxllualnc, an Kiitfilab abai(> aullrol by Kmllb'a lalaial, r»uiluc 
•w cbw* Itaat Ibf y»MiiK na-n acr«> abU !•• ball bar, alirn Ibr kiil«:bi aa* 
lakrii alaiwnl (lialf tb*i«d ami aa bUi k aa Ihp Knaiml) ami rwiirft^i tu 
Hm-kriiMk, nlif*n> W iiv<«»frM|. Tb«* kiiiihra ii-oi^lt*. Imaavrr, arritrti 
nllb tb«' iMriaa May H, liil.l, al our KmM hlMa^n;. ami a>k»| nHit aliliM 
lu IM'I KiiftUml. HrnmiaNi I ib>mamla«l tbfir |mim, ami lm|Mlii<«l frtaa 

• bamv lliry •Nmc ; amlaaaiauiaa I |«n-flrfil Ibat lli<-y arir ii«i| uii n 
^••firr rmml, 1 l«k«li them nilb ma ilhtHiib wllb lb*-lr ti»ii— nli to 
CbrlafliHi, lubariralu alvut n>air ami ••Ibff ]>n«ti«toii*, ami «|m-><l>»UMl 
Ibrni nnlll a mai«l-aartaiit («b<> ba<l Ipi^u tlir kniiilit'a «a«lt«^ auiiiaii) 
rwnfi«w<l tba Iriitb ami lH*lrM.vtn| ih«in. I al i»n<*e raiiwol an liiTfiMory 
•a lai lakaw uf ibrir Ktkala. In llirir ptvmnnv, «ml bt-bl |b» iii-tipla 
^Intm-n uulll lb<- *^y KnislMi almip abi«-b bml n-aiuiil Ibv knicbl 
arrivMl »ltb • b-tmr frtaa bim nriarruinc ilm nmllvr, a>Mn*iw«| m>l 
■fcaia lu ma, iHit luall KwTrrmin awl rumiiMmlanta nf iba nlml* runai 
ut Kliirkln. Tbrran|aMi I •urT«<iMl«>h-*l to bim tba fiwpJr, lairt|iia ami 
Kihala iln |ifwl«r m^vmlaiica «lib iba luranl>^ry), ami ba |atl<l mi* I'^'i 
rIkfkUlar r*>r my rtiirnapa. Tim cbb-f ttt Ibi'ar irall<jn tba knitfttl liaa 
bml rkvctilail. Ila bimvlf la allll lu ViritliilaamI ^ai br ntiiaiiiiiily |.n>. 
frm«<a) Pft|m-l4 faawla nml |«i>|ib> rr>m In'Uial'aml KiiKlaiitl. T>« alt 
alil|i« ami l«ir>|tti-« ibal nana li«aii Ibcma b« cmnla frvc ronuiilwliai !•• 
Itmla brrw In Ilm rhar «l(b llM>Mi«ai;>^; bul i bato mil yr| |a-rmitim| 
any «>f Ibrm lu |bm«, mir aliall I du m* nnill I rrr^lir unbr ami r>tm. 
maml lu Ibal aflnl fmm my niuM icnirbma quairtu, her Kayal Mi^aaty t4 
Swa<lan."— Maa^lraala Ifajrax^ar, Vwl. Til , |M|:« M. 

■ " Xntnin DU|ilnyail," Umlwo, I7»4. paga H.'. H aa^ 

»>IR i:p.mi-m> i*i.owm:m« 

of Maryland, which he claimed were included in 

his frrant. .He bmuf^ht over with him nomcnHis 

servants and m^ttler;*, and went to Ji^rcat exfiense 

and labor, in endcnvorin); to establish his daims. 

He Icnstil to Ix>rd Ma«on 5,000 acrrs, who was to 

settle it with rtO men ; to Lord ShorranI he leasc<l 

1000 acres, who was to settle it with 100 men ; to 

Sir T, Dandy he lea:<od K^M) arrcs, who wa* to 

siHtle it with 'l(N» nton ; to Mr. Hcltunhea*! 00(.N| 

acrm, who wn4(oM>ttlo 

It with 'lO men; to Mr. 

lleltoiiliead's brother 

fiiHUi ttVTv^t who wttJi to 

settle it with 50 nion ; 

to Mr. Bowls 40:ni 

aen*:!, who wim to !H>ttic 

it with 40 men ; to ( *ii|>- 

tiiin Will. ChivlNiriiv 

r»<M»f) iirrOH, who wiM to 

wttli* it with /iO iiifii, 

niid to Mr. Miiokrry 

/>(HNhirn'X, i\ho \\im to 

settle it with ^Ai luvn. 

Aeiimiiii;,' to Kvclyu's aciiHint of Now Albion, 
a splendid |Milutiiiato wiis pn>jeftc<l~thc l»nnk» of 
the iKlawnre were wt of!' into maiioiv — all tlif 
etirlVehildren receiveil tithf, and a ehivalrie onler 
wiif* iii!«tituteil under (he iniiM»iiig name of The 
Albion KinVhtn of the Conversion of the twenty- 
three Kin;."*. His frnint iw i\e liave shown, eni- 
bnuHtl nil of the territ«iry now eonipri!»ctl within 
New JerMV, n*;:iirdlt'!*t< of the prior irraiit of a 
lan;e iHirtion theniit'. to the New Kie^Jaiid i'ltni' 
imiiy, all of Deluunre. and iwirt-* of Muryhind. 
IViinnylviiiiia iind New York. IJv the iiUral 
prunt which IMnwden pmcuretl fmni his syiu|Ki> 
thetic nioiiareh, he waj* inv«>te«l with the title of 
Karl Palutine, which dri'W after it verj* jrreal 
privilep-s to the {grantee; lor Bnieton, •* the 
niieieiiteT«t tif hiwyerx," as lMaiitn;^>net ealU him. 
defines nn Kiirl Pulutine to U' one i\lio hai» n;nil 
|MWcr in nil tliinj.M, mtve alle^'innir to the kiii^j. 
The first of the ninnors, ciilKtl WMtei-^Ht, the tmrl 
n*M'rved for hiiii>M>|f. It Hit<« »itUHt<««l nibiiit the 
site of Salem. N. J., nt the southern eml of vihat 
]'lantn;0<net cnlls **the nioiinthi^t pliiiii, uhirh 
Master Kvelin vouehetli to Im« twiiity milei^ briKul 
and thirty hm^r, and fitly mih** w:L«lM<d by two fuir 
navipiblo rivent; of tlire(> huiidrifl thoiiKind aer^-jt 
fit to ph)w and sow nil corn, tobiieeo and flux and 
rice, the fotir stapliv of Albion." Thnv iniU-:* a:* 
was estimnted from Watei^^it, lav the d«im:iin of 
** Ijody Iturbnm, ]biroiie<« of Kiehiii'rk.the niirrir 
of wit and beauty/* adjoining; Cotton River (now 
AHoway*!! Cn-ek), "h* nanie«l of mx hundnil 
jNmnds of ei»ttoii wilde on tn-c irr«»win;f." j»ays our 
hiftorian; who further sets forth the value of th«* 
seat awanli><l to the Karl's favorite daii^'hter, by 
adding that it wa;* of *'twenty-tour miles compa.«s<% 


of wood, bof* tbtbn tico, «Dd tvo fnt bUek Mcirtaiy of nUta or Kal kcrper, ud tvilv* of 
Mould, Boch dcrind bjr Ibe VirginuiDi to plant the counrU of rtale, or upprr houM ; uid IhcM, or 
lobaMa" Tbe inoBor iiT Kilitoqijr, at (be fiilli of Sto of them, im* lira a couR oTchancciy." Hit 
Trmlva, «m anap|impri>(nl. Uutalnianack, or luver bauw cowutcil of (hirtj burEbcn freclj 
Bvlmlrre, on ibe CtiMimk* ibuni of Dclanara ehuocp, wbo ncn to oitct llie lord* in Parlianicot 
^■le, vu givra to ri*iit*BTnct UEKlor tlie lord'i innually on tlie tenth or Nnreuibrr, to l«)pflnlo 
•eal, 14 ■ Rward (ur bii jaiiw In cx|ilurin); iba for the palalioalc An; ta««ult under fortjr 
CMiiilrr. vliiliinK*, or one hiindml (luuiiJi of lobntro in 

llmt far ihla M-hpluO wM rvatiieil we nnni>t value, WBiiloLo''riBlnl by llit nealjurtieest one 
Irli. lib mill that tlie Kc« llareu Mllen at ■hiiiliiiceimive.'' Tlio jurwlicliun uT tliecounlj * 
Mrtu vera vi«it<^ by MiutiT Mile*, who aworo rvart^niiuuiilcdaf funr jiuliivr.and mcrtingevery 
(brir olflma to&ally tn tiw l^ililine hcfiire iheir two niuiillif, Intfan at ten (wundi alvrling, urfiHeen 
expaUau by ibe Uutch and Swnliv. WIh-h Ibe buiidml Hti|;iit uf tubaitv; nud iha coiIji of DO 
Earl biamlf ennia tu New AlbiiHi, In liU:l, it ii ami Iriiil biicin vera to rxrvnt fvur •liiltinga. 
mhI be " uan-heil, hid|!n) and nbiniied tugether AjifiriiJj biy fnim ttmw conrtu lint lo ciianccry 
annnic the Indinnai" atul tluin tuparliiilitciit; iiniluur author cuiivliulia 

Tbo Kiili-bla of Iha ('(Hivcniloii, r<>ni|>(iieil 
tiriKiiMlly of Mr Klmnwl llnwik-n, ami the vviit 
(Tlmwii w<tb «lM>m Itc nMir<'rrnl, ]iMrliiiik ■tniiitily 
uflhe fiintaHU- *|iirit whiih niarki-d ibr limit- 
hnMie ajie. Whaliirr tIHiiIi iiinllve nitjilit havo 
inriuriKTiI ibm in rralitT in lliiir iirgnnintiutl, 
ibi'y jmiAHnl to kave at bivrt only a ihvirc for 
the conveniuB of the twrnly-Ihm-'lmlinn Iribei 
Hving wilhln ibe linili of fir Kdninmra Krant- 
Hence u]Mni the bmlge of ibrir ontvr «a find 
tlieirowii and Iluwilrn'* aniia, Mppurteil by iba 
rigbl hand uf an Iwlinn kiHvlinf;. Bruund wliirh 
are tKonly-iwo itimmil hend<; the wlmk- Irin); 
enrirlml by IIh' h';:iiid iAictte ihi^hh fi'im lim, tl 
impii ad l« nmrcrlrutNr. TIk knijcbl'ii drviru waa 
a hand holdini; a (rniwn ajun tW )iiniit uf a 
da|.-).-rr. a1iuvcunu)iFii IMdr; and (hv lUaliiu-'a 

bell, wilfa tlic bicnid rirtti4 teat lit aaef. 

t>f the UDilu liiti'udi'd lu b(> pununl by ihcM 
knigbli in pnnvlyliii)! the Iniliaiu, llanli^'uct 
ha> h-ft u* a bint, (ur be tella ua lint any jtcnlle- 
■un «buwBiiuuti>rFiHpliiy,aiid mi( bent t<> labor, 
nl);lit nniH> tu Kcw Albiiiii ~au<l livo liko • 
ttrviiut Bl»l»lb|H0 w-kliiT, mik Un mnl and 

Ue ward, t<> rlviliM am) iiaivi-rt ll i In bn hla _,- UUVAV AW MiiiiuiN or TUK *i iiiOM KKiotira. 

niiji<ly'i> liripv. and by tmlhiit with lluin Pir ' 

nin.ii<'lblat<-ni>blllln|t>adny,"»hii'blH>ilH<ii)ibt hb extmilUn <>f llio I'Jiri'a Jmllrlary liy Hytn|t 

nmrh hi'lirr than (imlrai'liMic villi ibe pivrni- ■• Ilora are nii ji-ufuila mir ibiniin'ti ;' liut a auni- 

WFiit at kouM - to kilt L'brwllaM for IIyb ■liiltiiig* vary hearinif am) a i>I«-riir. ami ilcrk of court 

a week." vitb anatl fvc*, ami all fur the muat part la a (bw 

But ntitwtlhitandiae the ' apixtulKc blowi and vuida." 
knlH-k^" whieb llic KniiHit* of tho Cuuvinion Alter the dii|ierM«n uf tiw Kcw Albion nibjecta 

thin Bwiliialnl fi<r the eoud of their red bmllien' (a* I>bntaKraet riainx llie tMlleia on Varekrli'a 

toub. Ibe Eart binwlf ialeixled no ta-M b>|pc fur Kilt, in VM, lo liai-e been) ibe land embraerd In 

bii l-ji|:li)h Mibjceth He aieiinl by an ai-t uf hia theii purehMa of ibo Indinn* waa iho canM of 

(•rliamnil to rcfiuirc an ubK'rvauec of Miiue of much nmlnn'ony between the Dulrb gnveniur of 

the rundBmrnlal cmib, liul there wa* to Iw "no New Anwlcrdam, ami (be ronniindnBrn of the 

jimtiiliun to any dimnKng, bikI tu all •iirh a* uniliil ndoniva of New Knphind. On tho Iblh of 

tlie Walkxau Aw i4iB|a-U." Tlw Kuvrriiniriit bo tVptrmlicr, 1(U0, all diHicutlim werr apinnnlty 

bod iinjcrtrd WM, exrr|iting hu iiwn cxurbilant reniovcil by a Inaty eoucluded at Hartfcird. be- 

piiwero. Bi lilwral lU hi* ehun-h. It* uffin-ra vera tween Sluy vnant and tin laiil evmniiaaiuner*, by 

"Ike Lord, bead j^veraor, a depuly-govenior, which it wa< agreed "to leave both partiea In 


ttsta qao priM» to ploul and improve their juit chargei, together with my perfect pedigree at it 

ioterettt at Uehiware, lor plaotiug or tnuliog as drnwoe at my house.*** 

iher thall tee cau«e.'* ' In hi« will which wat proved Julj 27. 1C59, he 

Having failed to induce the emigration of the tay« he ** resided six ** years in Xew .Albion. Sir 

"viMOunu, bnrona, baronets, kui);hts, gvntlenien, J-Idniund IMowden's son Tltomaa died in IGSM. and 

merchants, adventuren and planten*' to the hope- in his will which wat si|:ned on the 10th of May, 

ful coluny, and having studied minutely the char- and proved on the 10th of September, 10118, he 

acter aiMl peculiarities of hit twenty-thRe kin)!S, be«|Ui*uthed to his wife New Albion, the |«tentof 

and as Watcemit had fnlien, ami divKiistiHl with which he miitl had been wmncfully dciaimtl for 

tlie treachery of the men he had loaded with titles years to hii« ytreat l«jts and hiiidranit*, by his son« 

and pruiiiiiH-SjSir Kdniund«l*Iowden determined lo in-law Andri'w Wall, of Ludshott, in tlie county 

n'turn to England. In tlte summer of 1<>4^ he of Southton.* 

visited ISoston on his return home. Governor llef<»rv the War for Independence Charles Varlo, 

Wimhrop in hh journal wriiei*: ** Here, arrived of I^ntlon, purch«.<ed one-third of the charter f»f 

one Kir J*Mmuiid IMowdvn who had lieen in \'ir- New Albion, and spared no expemie to secure 

ginia aliout seven [^ix] ycurx. He ntiiie first with tlu* pn»iM'rty, by it';;i>»tcring his title de«tU under 

a |iatent of a County ralntinu for Delaware hi\y; the ^rcntrntd of l^oiidoii. He hImi m^nt printi«d 

but wanting a pilt»t for that place, he went to Vir- copi<it of the clinrtt-r to Ih* iH^tributitl amon^ the 

ginia, ami there liaving loiit the i-state he bn»ii);ht iiihabilants of l-liii>l and Wciit Jersey. After llio 

over, and nil his |Ntiple Hiittenil from him; ho cIm!«o of the iCevolntion, in May, 17M, Mr. Varlo 

came hither to return to Knglnnd for MUpply, in- wciirvdanapixjintinentHspivernorof thepnn'ince 

tending to rvtuni and plant Delawan*, if he could of New Albiim, and embarke<l with his family for 

get sufficient strength to dii<iMigiM>s the Swedes.'* America. He took ^teiis to rec(»ver the estate by 

Arriving in Kiiglaud, riuwdeu deteriiiinc«l to a Kuit in chancery, and jiursuetl otluT nu^asum 

make another etibrt to stock the countn* with but failcil, and after the ex|ienditurc of much 

settlers. Accordinjriy "A Dewriptiim of llie time and tn-asure — he retunntl to Kuro|)e. He 

Province of New Albion " was ii«Kued, and on there petitioned to the king but ni^ive«l no an- 

Tue:<day, June 11, Iti-'H), a post was gruntctl for iiwer. He then oppliiil to the tniL^ury to secure 

about ** seven* score |H'rB(»ns, men, women and chil- coni|ieiitintion which woji th«'n uifually fiaid to 

dren to p» to New Albion,*' but there is nocvi- loyalists but he failed to obtain ntlniH becausie 

den(« tluit the |Mirty ever sailetl. The eflbrt to then* wns no act of rurlianieiit au(li«»ri/ing his 

awaken an interest in New Albion failed, and B|K'cial |tnyment. He then H»nght the l*riuce i»f 

when the Dutch Comniisotonen*, in tliefullof lO'it), Wulii* to um* Imm influence with the king to make 

vii>iti>d S'cretar}' Philip Calvert in Maryland, tliey Koiiie " rc«titiiti(»n for the heavy Uhmc:* 1 have hatl, 

argue«l that Lord Italtimorc had no more right to iu |ieru?>ing an uncoa^titutioual ati, arising from 

the Delaware Uiver than *' Sir Edmund Plowden, a crowned act." In all these efforts Mr. Varlo 

in former time would nmke us believe he hath faile<l, and U|ion the acknowledgment of the inde- 

unto, when it was afterward did pnive, and was {H-ndence of the colonies tb* frei* and inile|iendent 

found out that he only subuptiti' and obn-ptitriinth staten, all the rightut of the heirs of Sir tlilmund 

something obtnineil to that pur]MiiK! vihich wa.* IMowilcn were swaMowed up by the occufwntjt of 

invalid." To this it was rcplii'd by Calvert "That the territory. 

IMowden had no iiimmiNtion. and lay iu jail in 

Eniilnnd on nccirtinl of his dcbt<; that liu hud 

iM»liciti'«I n palcni for Novum Alhium from thu a ptpii V'lf 

king, but it wrn* rx'\\\H'i\ him, and he thereU|ion L Jl A I 1 fc li VII. 

applied to the Vice Uoy of In-laml, fnmi whom 

he had obtained a [intent, but that it was of no i>kijlwake under the ihti ii. 


IMowden signed his will on the 2iHh of July, After the conquest ofthcSwedUh settlements on 

1G55, in which he styles himself '* Sir ]C<lnmnd the Delaware, Director Stuyvcsant left for New 

Plowden, Lord Earl Palatinate, Ciovenior and Cai»- Amsterdam, leaving the administration of ju9tice 

tuin-Cienenil of New Albion in North America," and the superintendence of |>ublic interests in the 

ami devisetl his [K**t*ions in Amcrit-n lo hU son , ^ ^,,, ,„ „^ .^ ^^^ 4,,, .„,„,^, „f ,^.^^ v*, •*! t,.^^ 

Thonuts, and umdeWilliam Mason, iCs«|., (»f Grav's a*^* '*»•••« •"*' wiuu.i.i di«ru m ««it*i.«.i. t\Hiiii7 ..r kmiimm,4»m. 

Inn, his trustee. He dircctetl that his b^xly should ^ ',^1, ^ ,i,«p ,.Mj.r, i.y i,i. •m. a. o. i..v.. ».. un m^^j :ii.. 

be buried in l^bury Church in Salop, with ** bruscto •i-J^*! t.. u i«i*i *i».iu .«•>• »». r i.u .irM.i-r. .i..! .iir^ i* 1.. u 

, . .,' I'll ii<i*1a ill lltrii»a|a-l uT lit.- Iiti«i).-ti* Ml l.t'H'urr. lit ^■l••|^ mimI a pImm* M.ik«. 

phitet of my etghteenc cliilUren had atbxetl to g^., «„i. .„ !,..«, 1,41..,. t„ i»«. i.»rii.K ti*« mhm- ui hM rinMrm. 

the said monuuKMit at thirty or fourty iiowmles ■*» ■•«^«"-' ««t«i ki. «jr»wi i*rUiBi«r, .. Jn«n mi ■■ ki. k.«» .i 

. ' " WNinlrwI." 

) •• BMiUiitevHM wT OM CUMC«^*r, X. J., Vf lauc MkkK ^|« S3. • i\»m»^lfumim 3l<»fMtm». Vol. Vlf.. yMg* It. 


Wnb of Jobn Put JacqMt, who he aftannirda Um dty of AiwtnilMn tar Iha ild which thtt dtir 

vnalnnd «• TlcfrdinclOT. Andriw Iludd* um afrunlcil in tha (xpaUua of tlw Bwedn, utd (a 

Hail KmtMj bmI mmjor, *ad Elmcrhu,Ticn ilrcnirthni Ibcwulbeni bmiiHUrin of Now Nother- 

ICIcia tounrlur. Thaw thrre olHron, with tvu nf l*iul. It )>ni|ii>int lo c«k Fort Cnaimif uid > put- 

thr'nui^ rxpfrt ftniiKV." were to fiiriii tho ('ourt puniimnte Irect In ita vidnlly to ihe lIurKomHtrn 

of Civil JiMiiv, Fnrt I'wlnilr, now iV)pi1iiinB It* of AiiiKlvnUm." Confocvnno fullowel, iIm rwult 

orijtiniil nanw. who to In the mt oT ).i>veniiiKHt, nf whith wiu (hit tim ilwvo fiirt, with oil lh« 

■l»VB vhicli no InuKnjt vFMchi wrn lu jiu, unliw «iiin(i7 fnini tba wot niili! of tha M<n<iuu, or 

thpf iwriml > pemiiu In Ihc (rtlK'Hiuiil uf l\te ClirutiOB Kill, lo the nioutli of Iho l>cUwara Onj 

counlnr, tho <ii1unii-U wen to ronrantnto tbvni- (.nmnnl " Ihiuiiilj'c'x lliicnrk" li.v tlia Ihiti-h, now 

•tItm in fiMiilinnf 4xt«ni to twcntjr in numlvr, «arni|i(nl Into "llunituijr llouk,"nndL'iiruimw hj 

uhI w*n to p«r anntMlly fiir their lomU iwi'tvo the Inilinin), 'ncliMvo, ond to &r ** tin Mini|uu 

Miren * norevn in livu of tonllw, Tho luwn lou laiul cxtcmlnl, hccimie, with iho CiHH|iany'> ri);hU 

wrrc forty Awl by fiRy.anil Ihertmu (Voiii four to inJ privlU-jti'*, (hi' ]>m|vrt]r of iho lily cif Anvter- 

flveniliiu brroillh.' The Swcdv* votv to Iw rlocl j Hmu, anil wu vni-tiil into ■ nlony of tlw fint 

wslvhAl, lUil if any •houhl he Cwuil ilimirvctrd, chew, under (lio lidi' of Nicuvvr Amstcl. nnnml 

they wen to be ■rn( away ''wi(h nil inwinnatile after one of tlw nulwrlia bohmfpajt tu the ei(y, 

eivtlilT," and, if poMlilr, be imlucRl (o eotne to helweeu tlw Itiver Anutel and tlw Itwrlrni S«i. 

Manhsltao. The vlre-direriur vaaaboreiiuirHl In tfii runiniiwiriei were ip|Hiinted by tlw DurKo- 

'■Minuiuaud |initei't the Itcfomed religinn, a* nia>tcr>(anunaj:G theivloiiy, whowfrc "toiimnd 

it iitnmpd and (auptht in thi* country, in vunflira- hold llicir nwelinfa at tlw'Wift India Houm on 

ity to (he WonI nf (iud and tlw Synod of Uurd- Tuotdnrn atul Thumhiyi." A att uf " cuoditHim " 

reeht, and (o pruwolc it ai fur aa his |iowcr may mat drawn uji, oSkriu); a fmi puMga to coloniata, 
cxlenl" The whole nunilicruf inhaMlanbi cnii- 
•irtnl, at (he time, of abou( a dixru foniitim. I'uliMi 
rr|n>la(iun> weiv mloplrd.and a lilieral nnHnHTvinl 
timly wa> arranjinl villi the IiHliiin* with iba 
aM-(aure<if ihv inhahilautn. 

Nrw Swcdvu ccHHil to Iv thr lunie of ttie trrrl- 
1»rT, a> ll wao ttuw \mn of the Ihili'li lirrilH- 
rii-< of New N.'lhiTlawbi, awl wint hr that 
nanr. The iJelawan ilivcr wuanilk'il tU- I'milb 

Meanwhllr, infiiraulion tvachcd the Iftnim (.Sen- 
eral, through llH'ir anihafMilor at tlw (uun uf 
I^dodon, of tha fall of FuM l.'hririina, and uf iho 
ei|Ml>ii>n of (he -SrHtn fium ihe Ih'lnwani. Tho 

Sw.'di.h itOTemni.nt reiwaulmUil will, llieir Ili^h ^^ „ „,, KEniKauM.^ KUS-HMW. 
Ui;H<tini'afi« nl Ainxtenlani, but tlw jiniluM wan iif 

no nrail. Tlw Swntiv (intld KM fnlbiw up Ihrir laadi oa Ihe riveriihio for tlH'tr nuiilrner, and pn>> 

|iru(»U wlih nwilH<'ii'iitf»rii'iii<'oiiiiiuiiidA'p|>ix>t, vtatunaaiHtcluiliiiijtliiruiivyrar. Theellyonipiued 

tuT "(hiTr had ihdr hniid« full" nf tlw war tliojr toaend mt "a pni|a>r jii'rHin Cir n admoliuBMuT, 

wvrc ilicn wa)|i"i! apitnrt I'oliiaiL Un May Itll, who ahall nlnu rewl ihe holy t^ijituiM In iHibllo 

lUJO, iIh Dinrtiin eunuuuuieatul lu t^luywuiiit and wt tlio I'mIum." The munieipal govamment 

ibvir apfirvlialHin of hia niaduet, "tlii>U|[h ihuy wan lo be reguUilcd "in llie Mme nianiwra* hen 

(buuM nut have been dii|>lea«d bad lui-li a lunual la Anutcidani. Tlw cidooiili wen to boeitni|iled 

capilulaliou not taken idnce;" lor -whut in written from taialiun for h'n yean; after that linw they 

ii too luDK pnverved, and may lie pnxliin-il when aliouhl not " be taxed bi);lii-r tlinn tliiiro who aro 

not dnired, wWnau wiirdi nut ncunlcd nn in the taxed luwiwt in any otlier diatrit-l under tho pivero- 

laiwuftiwefuiHDtlen.or mayheriliUiiHidawny." UCnt of lliu Wi-nt IihIiu Cuniiinny in Kev Netlwr- 

Thv Dutch Wm India (.'uMiamybrinK Hindi in laml." KjiedSv nitulalinnn were a<h>i>tnl with 

dehtiiviMil bjitnoperaliiiMin JInuilamlOuinra, nryert In Inilu; anil liii<i<lrii tlw re<iit[n1liiHi» 

uiiw iHi-Biiia I'liilmrramil by tho ahl llpxlitudil imyable bi llw Wwt India (Viiii|iany oa giniik 

tt|uTV(*aiit In nwivvriiiit Xonlh Itiver. Inunlrr cxiBirtiil l>iim Ihillnwl, liwr jwrtvnt wwtobo 

lu lt<)uidii(v tlw debt wlilth the a>ni|M>iy owed to )iii<l in Xvw Nctlwrlaial. 

>tu kvi» -t rf M. «. Ik. txi—iiv ^ H- i™. J Nrw ■^" ''"^ arratit.iiiK-nli' wore ratilliil and ron- 

ahh. D-a )~> iipiu. iM- •> b<w ■!>■ M ••• <■- BM IBIU1.M flniicil by Ibc Null* (iviicral, u|iiin conditiun tlial 

V*"i-T^\?u!?!l«i4i'»'i'irrii'yriL™-'i!r.?^-'' 'J^iT"'' tS " ehunh (huuhl he urgfliiiivd nnd a elergynian 

uiba>.i»i>>c.>~<.<i-i>ukku<>-H«--— tii^hkw.-' niabliahed ai aoun aa tliere were two hundred in- 


bubitanti in ilM eolonjr. PrepantionB were imme- obedience to whoee orders the name of Fort Cbria- 

dintely made to orf^niae the colony, of which Jacob tina wm chanfsed to that of ** Altona.** 

Alrichf, an uncle of Beck, the vice<tircctor at During the lew months of Alrichs* dirrctorvhiii, 

Cura^oa, was appointed director. Martin Krrgier, New Anistd prunfiercd. The rouniriiail p>vem- 

of New Anwtenlnni, U|K>n Htuy vcnani's ** j^ood nicnt was n*ni(Nli>litl, the town was laid out, build- 

report," was coiumiMtoiicd as ca|ilain of a coni|mny inpi wcrp rapidly vrecti<«l, a brid<;e wa» placetl urer 

of sixty soldien, and Alexander d'iIiuoy<M«, who tie cnvk ni-ar Kurt C nsiniir, a nmpiziiic errctttl, 

had formerly served in Bni»l,wiw made lieutenant the fort n*|Niin'd, a pianl hoiiM\ bake hou«e and 

Ordinances were aim |iasiH.<d requirini; the colonii<ts f»r|ro built, tufri«tlier with rpsid<'ncf« for the dorjry- 

to take an imtli of allepance tt> the Siatei* General, men and other public officers;' iudu.'4ry pn»mlH,'d 

the burgomasters of Anwterdam, and the director succo!M,and thirty fnniilio:* wiretenipti<«l to emigrate 

and council of New Netlierhind, and likewiite to from Mnnhiittan to the flourijtliiii}? colony on South 

promise faithfully to olwcrve the articles which Hiver.' At the end of the An^t year. New Amstcl 

defined their duties and obiijentions t(» the city, was **a gcMMlly town of aliout KH) hour's!*** 

These, among other things, required them to remain An im'vitubie conx'4|uenee. however, of the 

four years at New Aro»tel, unicM they gave Mtii^ ei^tnlili^linieut of the eity'ti colony was the increase 

factory rea^nms for leaving, or rcfMiid, within the of itmu^liuL'. I^trge i|uantities of fur* were ex- 

pro|)cr time, the ex |H>ni<es incurred on their nce«>unt. |Nirted without |Miynieiit <if dutii'9, whieh caused 

The West India Ci»ni|inny informe<l Stuyvesant the regular Iradcn* to complain, and the reventie 

of all thctfe arraiigenietits, and instructed him to sufli'red severely. To remedy these irregularities, 

transfer the territory which the city had purchased at his sugge^itiiin, Director-Gencnd Stuyve?«nt was 

to Alriehs on his arrirni in 'New Nellierluml. At sent bv the couueil «if New Ami^tenlam, in com* 

Ports diristina and New Gottcnburg, "now ealled |»iny with IVter Tonneman, to .Smth Kiver. IHi 

by us Altonn ami the island uf Kattenl>crg," he his arrival at Alu>nn. the Swede?* were oalltHl uiii»n 

was to maintain for the present a small garrison, to take the oath of allegianet> which wa;* required 

"The conlideucc which wo feel," they added, of all the other <*oIoni^t.«, and they were allowiMl to 

" aUiut the success ami inrmwe <if this new ctdony, choose tlieir own otticen*. I'ihui hi* return to New 

and of which we ho|H* to si<c* some pnmiinent Aniittenliim, StuyvcMiiit infornKHl tlu' council that 

features next spring, when, to all npiH^anuitv, large ** many thinp* aiv then* not as they ought to 1n\** 

nuudien of the exiled Waldensiv, who sliitll lie ami to nuiiiitnin the rights of the «*«ini|Hiuy he 

warne«l, uill Iha'k thither as to an iwyium, induces ap|M)inte«l Williiim Ihvknmu Vice Dini'torof that 

us to send ydn onlers to endeavor to purchiuH>, district, llin inr>tnu'tions nH|iiinil him to live at 

before it can Ite ace«»mplislieil by any 4ither nation, first at Altonn. but to have his in-rmanent roidonce 

all that tract of land situated lietween the S«mth at or nmr New Anistcl, where he vtmU\ more con- 

Ui vcr and the ll<sik of the N(»rth Hi vcr, to provide veniently attend to the collccti«in of tlie n'venue. 

establishments for these emigrants." ' He was inve»tc«l with all the |Niwers of the e«ini- 

AlMiut 1G7 colonists endmrketl on I)i'ecndH*r 2>i, {suiy on the whole of the S>uth Kiver, exiv|»t the 

l(^'»(i, in the slii|M ** IVince Mauriiv," the ** lh>ar," district of New Ani.«tel, ami wum iMnintl to nmintain 

and the " Flower of Guelder," andxct Miil from the the Uefornietl n-lipimi. 

Texel forStaith Kiver. The emigrants, ullcrsuHcr* The pnpi|icrity of New AniMt-l had, nii'anvvhile, 

iiig nuiny dimimiforts, nrrive<l in ihc Siuth Kiver U'conio cloutlctl. The e<iliinii>ts had phinti-il in 

early in 1057. Alriehs* arrival on April 21 , ternii- Uu\k' ; but heavy rains si'ttiug in, their harvt-i^t wni« 

nated the olUeial nmiT of .laeipict. Upon his t Ariiyi..iift.rii.^b.,r»i„r.w-.i-.«*.i«i. h«M*i.tiiH,.i.i.i.,. 

return to Maidnittan on account of this misgovern- •*« •••*»'^ '"«'•. **^ «••»"» '•»•« •a««*». Th. «imi* «rf iw iwikUMs" 

nient, he was arrested aiul [irasrutiHl. • mi ...rkiiiir-rrfvrn^] i,. in tbf ivr..rd.«t ti.h rrti»i. r.^y r«.«« 

In a few ilavs after the arrival <if the first eolo- »••''. •« •••• ■•••" '•"•-. •••"*-J"«^"J »«• »h* fi"V. •••wh •-!.. i«nk*»i 

nists. Stay vesant, in ol>edienee to tlie onlers of tlic kuu-irr^i «ih1 n.tnv ..'uiMvp. i^r bf-i. .* au.ui r-.'oi ^h. 

Dutch Wttit India Omiimnv, formally transfern'd • Alncl.^ in ui.« u »u. Mi.t». uu. *i-^k. wi o.. «..%rn.i»«iii u n-w 

to Alriclis ** the r«»rt of C asiniir, now named ^ew .u, ..r • uuiiury •..un. ii..«rr n.- -.Mt<-n. wi... «.-»• Urr, .4 .44. tim 

Amslel, with all the lands demiulent on it. in con- •••«"-'-^-« »-"••-» «••• "»•» •»«"•• '^ •'•" r..i.4.i»i ..f -i~«i i.-ur «e 

formity with our hrst pun'liii.«u fnuu and tramttcr •.iii.tfM»ii.|.<i.a. »ii.i«M<.r.t«iy ii|i»tNir.t ti..m anMii« lu uimm* 

by llm nalivi«s to us on the IJIth «»f dulv, HJ.'H." •-•-••.••> n..^^ it- i-n.!. t.hU...|*it ..rii.M«.-i ij,.i« ...,..,**, Th^ 

l<|H>n his arrival. at rort Caitinnr, .\lriclii> n*ceiviHl iik» K.>nrMm«fi •ii.him iifc.iiiii.u«ii. •••..i.iuitf •..ii.» r>rtHiiii..*«s«*ii 

fn»ni JaiHUict a surr^'uder i»f hi>« nulhorit v, and the **• ;""'"' '»•' •»•••; ••r««"-".i«H.i lu w.^ 1...1,.. . .*.,-•> ; - '« --^ 

cidoiiy of New Amstel was formallv organized. tUrt. aii niutr* ■fKriiintim in Ui- >ttv ami miinaijr uMiim «••» 

The n-piun u»rtl, «f Chrirtiim Kill rc-ii'miiifa umk-r i?;r/..!ir t^Lit.^'::'; ^^.tTZZ t':,:::r.i T 

the jurisdiction of the West India Company, in •'iteUNCi>,"(iiiUii4*T.)«hruw\rM>iivr«.uiiiiii.jn««rr«Mi»«i,»ii4rr«'M 

th«-M thrrv Upw Ml lir|«'iM arr* rli<^« n ; «ii»ilirr av^triary mm4 aftLtMrt 
Wrr* «l*> a|ifK>ilili-«l, iwnrklrra anil inn 4rMi<rti», h^ thw myttuiip-n»f9i 

* BrjadWaJ't llbtoiy of .^c« York. v^l. 1, |>. C:il. vl iburrh aSair^*'- iM. {•»«■. ^uoiad In niiir \-y O'i'alt. Vul. h.. |>. M*. 


luiaed, awl Ibod heeama imroe and d««r. An returned to Mnrjiand, and nimon toon tpread that 
epklcmio fever broke out; the «ii)|von and nwnj live hiindrod men were to march upon the South 
chiMren died ; and moet of the inhnbitiintii PiifTcml River. Miiwpngeni were despatc*h<Ml to New Am- 
fmm a rlimate to which they were not nociintoinod. Htcnlam for riH^nforcomente and Director Ovnernl 
While the diiwose was yet raf^Rp, the nhip ** Mill " Stiiy vcwint irnt overland tixty MiKiieni under the 
arrived fiom Hollaml, after a diMwtruun voyaj^, command of Captain Kn*iKcr, who, with Kceretary 
bringing many new emigrants, among whom were Van Ituy vcn, waa commiiwionod to act an general 
several children ftvm the Orphan Houi«o at agents for the service of the company. August 
Amsterdam. Tlie po|>ulation of Nimit Anwtel now lleermans and Ucmlved Waldron, were also 
exceeded nx hundred; but its inhabitants a'cre desiuitehed on an emlmnBy to the government of 
** without bread,** and the ship which bn>ught the Miiryland, to w.Htlo the difficulties. Tliey pro* 
new emigrants brought no supply of proviiiions. cectlvd, with ai>ninll c<Hiirt, fnmi New Anistcl, and 
Industry was crippliHl, while wages ailviinred. after many emlmrniMting adventures, arrivisl in a 
Commuisary Rynvelt and many ** m*|Hvtnl»lc " we«'k at l*ntuxent. After U'ing h<Mpitably enter- 
inhabitants |)eri.«he<l, and a long winter stan*«l the tnine<l, and nim*ting (fovcnior Kendall and his 
fami»hi*d survivors in the face. ctmiicil, and StTrctsry C/alvert, and discussing the 

On the 20th of April, l(>o8, Kvert Pieteraon, merits of the nvpeetivo cinims to the pn»|K>rty in 

wluwe official piwition was that of sclHsilmaster dispute, the eoniuiissiuners returned, having failed 

and comforter of the sick, landed at New Amstel. in their mission. 

He is the fint schoolmaster of whom tliero is any Ponding these discussions, anxiety and alarm 

n*ciird on the Delaware. He at once conimcncetl prtvailc<l iiniong the Dutch cohmists; busin«<s4wns 

kcvpinff schiMil, and had twenty-five sclitdnrs on sus|K*ntliMl, nnd t>very one pn'imrctl for flight, 

the 10th of August following. In a letter of his Within a fortnight, fifty |M<n(ons, including s(*veml 

to the (\imniissioners of Aniotenlani, he siiiti<s fnuiilii's, nMiHtved to Miiryliind nn«l Virginia, 

that "wharves wen* aln^uly Initl out** at New Hmnvly thirty fiimllit<a rtnnained at New AnHel. 

Amstel, '* and ainuvt Uiilt.** I le also savs that he The mlonv was ovemlielmoil with debt; of the 

**f4Mmd twentv faniiliiM, niiM«tlv SwetU-s," in the soldiers who had lH*en sent iMit from Hollnnd, but 

C*ity*s Colony (thnt imrtion of Delaware south of five remained at the Hon*kills, and ten at New 

the Christina), "aiMl not nioro than five or six Anistcl. At the closo of the year 1(159, the in- 

bel«in;'ing to our (the Dutch) nation." habited part of the colony of the Houth River did 

New Amstel was in deep distres!« early in 1C59. not extend lieyond two Dutch miles from the fort.* 

Disea!« and famine had almost deciniiitcd its p<ipu- In the midst of these troubles, vieeHlirector Alricha 

lation, and the heat of the summer hud cnfec^blcd died, having intrusti'd the government to Alex- 

the unac(*limatc(l survivors. The wife of Alrichs andcr D*Hiuoy<«sa, with Oerrit Van Sweringen and 

was one of the victims. Everyone had U-en occu- Comelis Van (ierx*! as counciUon*. On a<«suming 

pictl in building housi*s nnd in pn'|mring ganlens, the government tif New Anntel in January, KitiO, 

so that little grain was sown; and the euiignuils lliuoytissa, by his Indisenvt conduct, pnNlul^Hl 
fnmi HHllnml brtaight very scanty supplies til* pn>- 

vwi.ns. Ourbreail magtume, mir )iantr> nsmi, ,„ ,hMii,«.i\**,-m o«i..«i..rf s.w a«m*i. Ti./r.*.«iJi»M.i« 

our only refuge is ti» Manhattan,*' wrote the iriiMnii»ii.v«>MiMii>i«i*nHitihi««Hi»iiMiiii«iroMiiiiKfrM«-«Mw«>*« 

.u,pon.iinB Airich. to stu)vi«,„.. iv «m.iiti<,n. ;!:,^»^rT£rH"':rx"' t'jiT^iiv^ w r^ts 

uf settlement a'cre also altered at thu time by the tii« tMUmy wiiiMMt iMTwitfiritHi •!.•» wn imwiijr |ii«w« m. Ko wOmt 

urp^uMer, of AnurtcrH.m, which ouiy «i.i«i j":!!::;;t.:x.Tii'rij^;:riir;r-X-r,«"i 

difficulties to the colony. The rlespniring colonists mImt •tcimIm." 

l*eg:in U» leave South River, the soldiers of the Aitku.,if* ii..fuHu«i.«««B:iurii., -««Hiuiyroi, vtii-w^ k- 

garrison deserted, nu<l titok n'fuKC in Virginia and 

Maryland. To add to tlie alarm of the distn'ssi'd 

tfi'itlers, intelligence was reivi ve«l thai the Knglijth »•". *^ •*••' "•■« •«»"• »>»^ »"«'^ »«""y *••". ""^ "^ ••■y '«»« iii«ir 

• a 1 1 i • I «i A kj .1 I** awttrn tiw Mrl*. to r mm-«|ii*ik« wT llirlr wwa vi->lwiMM>«. Aim 47 

in Marylanil clanui>«l the proiwrty on Ninth River, .4.,,.^ „, htu ••rr.Mi^ m w««rtt. rkiMnn •»! m.m •rrf»i.. 

and that persons wouhl sotm lie »*nl to claim vii.-* wiwi airin-a in ii«# »w**i "ii- w«i«.' 'D* s-«m.* •n» 

]M*»«ession. The panic causKXl l»y the liii*t rv|M>rt n„,b.*.i«i. tim. i«i*i •.. n: ir*i«.«»i. .wd •i^t.m-, :u ..Wirrt 

Imd not had time to sulfide before Col. Nathaniel •■■» •^»»' -nMi^ »« wMiMrn •»! rkiMrra.aMi th«Mi4 ■«r«Bi.i> «c 

-, . . . 'a- <^ • j> mt I 1 tbvNwrriril ««Mii»HRWlciMMrwt«, Ar^ «ha niM^ lM>raM BlBRlr wiMwii. 

I tie With a suite or six perMiis rroiii Maryland tim «•«« fi.r uu.r. m» ihu uhm. on hm iM«w.n., KruMtiic %a 

arrived. He spent some davs in sowing " seditious aih. h-* wum. »««, ft* ubui*r^ ihrw iuiu«n « s«/ ; ft<r aiwbuiica. 

'. . J ' aL -a »» 1 f«j«rfnll«lrni »•!•/. 

and mutinous seed among tlie community, and u |.mi om* Mhiwiiiv MHiaiiin mnm nii|4.i7»d at Kaw aim(»i. 

finallv is'remiitorilv commnnileil the Duti'h to leave ""^y ■»• «♦'- **^ "•■^ "• f-i»i.wiiiic ih^ •''^ >■ «•••• ««•»•. »»»^- 

• ' * * A»irit« Amlrk-Maii, ai-afiioNliT ; TlirwaUSiTfMrw, ui iMrlMH, • mufwr : 

•• In IIm • Prinr* Muirira,' " mM ba, •• vm* M rub>alM«, ft** tHUMU- 
rtsfl'a M«-«. anKMUPrt llirM mmf imrkiiiMi, bvl iha MMJwr |wrt inMi"*. 

Stuili River, or else cK*clare tncmm.'ives sui)J4*ct to r.«i...ii,i.Tiiritiii.rH. • •Miib: wiiium v«« u.Mwtiur,r. • •uric»«« : 

iinl lialtimore. ^''>> Jm<«iIi*-n, ■ Uiy «>irliliii( ai rwriwalrrluR vtlh .' 

.^ , * 1 « I II I • I |i<> U lb* Siai •■ar|a'iilor'a a|>|in>MlU-« r«>•-••^k<t|. Tk«-r 

Two days afterwani, I^inl ISaltiinorcs agents ANiatrnbiM.aiMiAiiiuiij aiiiiMapi>.ar vr«»iia«di.i 


grmt ditoordt, which woiv ineraMed when nows of Ibr the whole territorj wm executed bj StuyTeiuit 

the propoiod retrannfer of the colony to the Wott to AIezttn<kT D'HiiioyutM, who hccamc toUt com- 

Indla Company reached the Houth Itiver. With mandanttOrvioesU rector; and William IWi-kraan, 

Bookman hii rulationa were tcnrcely iilennnnt ; left withtiiit |Mwition on the Dflaware, wa<« aft«*r> 

and complaints were conrtantly mnile to New wanln apitointcd .SlierifT or Hchout of a district oa 

Amttcniam of hiA haughty and insolent demeanor, the North Itiver. 

and hit contempt of the provincial reguiatioiu In the mcaiittrae Ilinoyosini, who had arrired at 

respecting the sale of litpiors to the Havngus. AniKtenhiin. lnduiv<l the burgonia.'tteni to appro- 

The hostile attitude of the Maryland authorities priate lar;^> huiim of money fur the vigk»mus pnise* 

had, in the mean time, been under the con!«iiloni- cution of the work of colonization. Hv repre^nteil 

tion of the Anistorflnm dinH>tuni, who ordered the Mnr}'land authorities, with whom he had 

Ktuyvcsant to oppo.<40 their cncruiichnienti*, **i\rnt c«iniiiiunienti'd, a* anxious to promote intcrcol'inial 

warning them in a civil manner not to usurp our couinien'e ; tlmt the Swediv, V'lnnn anil i»th«*ni hml 

territory ; hut if they duspirtu sueh kind entn'iitifs, alnMidy itne hundred and t(*n plnntationja, and 

then nothing is left hut to drive them fn»m there, thou!«undi« of cattle and swine, IhwiIcs homes ami 

as our claims ami rights on the landit u|Mm tSituth shet>|i ; that the city had already two or three 

Uiver arc indisputnhle.*' Dut while the cum|iany hrewerii's, and more were wanted to mtpply the 

was thus rtrenuoui* in aj<sc*rting it:* U^rriturial rights English with l>eer, who, in return, couhl furnuh a 

to the whole South Itiver, it declincil to receive tiiousnnd tuhn uf tohiicco a year; and that ten 

hack from the citv of Am.«tenlam the colony of thousand fuK and other artichv 4Nmhl be annuallr 

New Amstel ; and the city's commisi*urieii, ohligi'd pnK'uretl fmin thr Indian!*, and ex(i«irtetl fnmi the 

to continue their n<luetant sup|)«»rt, npiiointiHl colony. TIkiii* repnttontation* had their elftH't. 

llinoyoN«a dinvtor in phuv of AlricliH. ' The next nionili HinoyofMa set sail for the .S»uth 

In llHll, public nttrntion was ilrawn towani the Uivcr with hImmiI oim* humlnd and lll)y cohiniMn, 

Houth Uiver, and vuriiius phinsof eiuignition were and nrraiiKi'meiiin ^vrv made to di!«|iateh another 

pro)MMe<l. iMually, a colony of MenmuiiKts, or ship. Not lung ai^erwanN he nrrivinl. and ihvk- 

AnnlmptiMt», establi^hed theuiwlvcs at the llore- nnni, in olMMlienee to the c*i»ni|uiny s onler)*, imme- 

kill. IMeter Corneli.<4 IMockhoy aras prinei]>ai dintely reeo^rnized him as chief of the Duteh on 

leiuler of the ctdony.' the South Uiver. His aduiinij>tration, h(»we\'cr. 

The Dutch West India Company, seeing the was of short duration, extending from iX^cenilier 

ini|Mwsibility of its eulonial enterprise on the South 2^, 1 (»(>:{ to Oetolivr 1, l()<i4. During this limited 

Uiver, pro|HM*cd favorable terms to the city of period, arrungenionts were made ftr extending the 

Amsterdam for the Mirremler of *' the whole of the fur and tobacc«» trade; a govcmmental revenue was 

Delaware fmm the sen upwards as far art the river pmvidetl for by the im|)ociition i>f a tax on importeil 

n>achet], with the territory on the east side, three giNMl;*, iind u|Hin tobueetMind furs ex|M)rtc«l,and to 

Dutch miles into the interior, nml on the wcHt as pn'vent trouble from Kavagi* exivit, the bn-wing 

far as the muntry exteudisl towani the Kngli^h, and diMiilling itf litpiors was probibiinl in the 

saving the rightrt of the oeiilen* and pMprielon* in colony. 

the neighborhood." An<'r fornud. and somewhat The relaliomi iN'tween the Kiigrn«h In Mnrylnnd 

lengthy ne•;lltiation^ it wai* at length determined, and the Duteh on the l>ehn%are durin:; all thiM 

on the rJth of Kebrunry, I<iO''l, that the Company time wen* far from iM'ing harmonioun. Ilunliy had 

shouhl confer on the eity the entire S«iuth or Dela- Charles 11. n>uche<i the thnme of Knghind, liefore 

wan' Uiver. Hy this grunt, the '* high and h»w I»nl Uultimon* instructcil Captain Jame;* Neale, 

jurisdiction" which the city of Amsterdam ]mm- his agent in Holland, to re«|uire of the W«'!«t India 

BcsHcd formerly over the cfdmiy of New Anistel Companyto yiehl upto him the htnd.^ on theiMiuth 

alone wa.'i now extended over the whole territory i»ide of the LK'hiware. Neale, aeetmlinuly, nuide a 

on the river. The formal transfer of the territory fonnal ih'nuind fi>r the surrender of New Amctel, 

on the Delawnri' to the eitv of AniKlerdam did not and infornnsl the direeton* that I^onl Uultimorv 

take place until DecembiT 22, ](i<><'l, when a deed would U!<e nil lawful mcan.<« to defend hi:* rights and 

subjeet the Dutch to his nuthoritv. The Am!>ter* 

iTh*»««i.ii.«w.Mi..rei.d«..r •.mirtMu».i.«.n.i Mnci* •••••, «h.. "«»'»> Chumlicr nfcrrc^l the «|UostMrti to the ( ollegff 

IumI kiuliixil iW ■«• ,4 iw«nijr ftwr y»*rs wli». wtt» nu* I«.hiimI Iw mt. „f the X 1 X. who ri'J«dvetl, OU .S»pt. 1, HH»0, tllUt 

«»u«i.( f..r : .u |Mi».M «•» I.. ..i»f iii-.*.iu«mr. for II..- "nMin- ^nvy wouhl ilefend their rights* with "all the niesins 

loiwHrvof PMC* aaa cuiMHifti." Nw uiiNiii-r of tii* r.*|i«i wm to u \ihich (JihI aiid nature had given them.** 

mIIiiwmI III thv ■■awUliuii : fur Miitf ri.m|«j«Nl uf urr* •im wf rart«HM tviii i*i ••! •■« 

r*liKl'.n•.•t•lMlun^ •u.4.« i.iii.i4.r cuM |tf^-..h In .....r.un.^ «iih ih« Doubts IiikI. meanwliilc ariiHil in the nntneil of 

wnitiiirntauribfwMvuf iMrt-«Miiii.uiiiiy.aii<iioffrit.iieuf ««riiwri, Marvhuid, whelhcr Ncw Auistel was retdlv within 

II wMariciwI. Hfubl nu« unlj In* lw|i>aMllilf, " IniI mi lii«viubli> |a«l l«i 1 •*• > <. 1 • 1 11 r 1 * 1 

M i«M-.p «n.i HI ." Tii» niiMiw iii«i MfMxi io*..<tii.> »m>iiv» tlic liiiiits of tluit proviucc, au*! all further dem<in- 

»i«..» Ti» riiy uf AhH.^hUi.1 ««r»«i lo h-iii well .rf iiiw w kmh. Mntliourt Weft' delnvisl uiitil l/»nl Baltimore 

im«l Riill>k n. Tli««h<i|« i-.iiiiiHuiiitir ««ir«lul«i BPVHnHl fur Uiia Iimh • • i <. 1 i< i> >• « i< 

TimarviT) iiiMi«w«ii«ij fur All Ilia fMi. oblultied rroni tlie Kiiig a conhrmntion of hi» 


patfiit Pemlinit thcw proccvdingi, the two colo- 
nlct concluded a trraty of peace with tho IndiaM 
at tho head of Apoqiiinnimy crvek. Tho Mary- 
bmlen, at the Mine tiinc, pmpoHcd to deliver two 
or three thousand hognhead* of tobacco annually 
to tlie Dutch in return for negroes and merchan- 

In 1^63, news cane that the heir of I^nl Ralti- 
niore was about to viitit Altona, and Ikekman, 
finding that *' hereon the river not n ciinglc draught 
of French wine it* obtainable/*- retiurstiHl Stuyvesant 
to send him sunie from Manhattan, "to treat the 
nobleman with." The next month. Lord Baltt- 
niores son, (.Charles Calvert, cumc to Kew Anirtel 
and Altona with a suite of twenty-«ix or twenty- 
seven pcrMins. Ikeknian entertiiinc4l him, not as 
a proprietary, hut as a gucKt, and their inton*(>urM 
was pleaHint and harmonious. In conjunction 
with Van Sweringen, the sellout of New Anistcl, 
Calvert renewed the treaty with the savages, but 
when it was proponed to define the limits of the 
two c«tIonics. he n>plied that he would (Hinuiiunieiite 
with liiird lialtimorc. The young iiolili'iiinn tiiuk 
Knivo of hiri Dutch hiMts in all giHNl fivling, and 
pn>|Mii>ing to vihit lltiston the next npring, by way 
of Manhattan, he de^irv^l llcekman to convey his 
thanks to Stuy vcsant for his '* otter of convoy and 

1 B*««dlM4'» HMoiy r-f Kr« Ymk. t»I. 1, ^ 717. 
In Ihc tally |«rt«if Jaava l«ttW ImA |4ar« bHwrrn Ilia MliM|it« 
•Mlm-nrra litillaM, **Tli* 8riM>m-, In ilie MuniWr of rl||lil biiiulml, 
MHckarfnl Ibv Mrn^ww IH tWrir fort «lill«l • lar|i« |ini|iMil«j|i U llivlr 
ummtlum »«f * ual hunllng. Wlira IW Mritrt^a a|>|ir««»-li«il, llinw ur 
Umt Mr* «pf» ili.|«irlinl to th« lutt wHIt llic ulCrr uT !•«•*», «liilt> llifir 
fvm* miMiiird at adUlaiMf: liiit i^ MliM|«a nrlHintnit fmiu hniitiHC 
«lbcu%rfMl Ibr »riH.M. .wllml Ike lirxl dbij- lbi»« III IIm furl ntiiiliMb-J 
Iw Mrt-ttbmi villi l«Mil| Mr Iklrl; inrn. Tkrullivr Miiii|um rI Ihr miim 
llwr, «Mh tlirlr fli>rrr«, immW an altaik, |Mit llw fivimaa lu HikIiI, ay«l 
|4u»i*mI IhvM l*<rt«wiki>M. n-lakliin l«ii |«'iM<iiaiO«lkililu|{ Ira S*iM-«a«" 
Tlw Ouxm^Ttd Mar>laiMl ai»iai«il Ikr MlNi|uaii «lili l«wrauii«4i and 
itmr MTU t« nMlMiffa Ibrm. 1Im> amuMtaur tbU liallW kanJrtl «lw«B 
U» M arv (HiMliaw^ it la uwirr Ibaa |<itil«Ulr Ikv aiwIslaiMV n-ialvrrtl 
lijr lb* Maokiii'^i* n'H*iliiii*'>l l«* tin* MliM|iiaatlrlMijr. Tba aila uf 
thm WtiW U MM ilrfliiltcly knovB ; Imi li la aunw^d to liava lM>rn 
• itbtu llw limila wf Ibr Male,— |4UmM; Im Iba liriKklHirlHJwi wf Irun uT 
11ir*IHuC Hill, nvar N'aaarh, a* Ibr Minipiaa furl waaallHalnl «>■ a bl|rb 
HHttMaia. Tbiw billa*M»«r krM lu ib« ikarrililluB glTva bv L'aiu|«iiliM 
■a iIm* M* *0 Iba MlUHHaaallwiiKliwIU. 

UM lb* Kxiilb KlviT at IkU ttnir, an-or^Unn Im Iba n-furt uf Ika Com* 
Bii.ali'iwi* U lb* (Itjr of AnivlriOaiu, llta Itttnira, I'tiiM auil HbiT 
mmitutf baU ralaUtalMtl aliwul IIokijuiI bwarrrlra ur laniM, wbub had 
■ »|i« k "f '^ >■' P>«a aiid «ixni, Ai lidiaia, lai abrrfs mihI arvrial tbi«ii- 
■i«4 aminr. Il WM r«riaiiBiriiilr«l Ibat li«* Ibtibilwirr aliwiibl l« Mii)4iijr' 
•*! In acibiilliirat l«ul Ibal ^«rtb-l^ Kiiiii. aitU uilii-r ImU'Ihh iialioua 
•ImwM la* iMutwl til rlMlcralr In Ibr Niilti lllvrr lui Ibal |Mir| <■«•. 1 ba 
tiiy «aa Iw ••Kir lu Irial am b if*t\4m mOU Irhl !•• |«,« ihi-ir |«iMa|P« and 
|Ml(bawaBII<-ullitlHl lhi|J< iwlila. M«*l t-l llir i-liilBlatila ubiiaMltiid 
|Mlb*'*l'ainM-biiMll'bMi<b*' «llh It'lllia-jiiwa «irir Mitib-aaMi Kiniil^ 
»b«i wrra abb-d bjr ibr t liy *4 Aii«airiibiiH Hi Ibia mmiHi r. 

Ill* I* 'hb uf Ibr |H-I««aiv al IhIa liuir bn'Wati a |im*nI dral wf ilnMig 
lirrr, «buh «aaaiihl billH< 3lar>laiidm (vbwdkl imi luanulwiHiv an;} 

UM tb« 4lb »f XiivrmUr, AiMlrraa llndda, wbo ARurnl •«» |ir»ntiiiriiily 
la Ibr rally |«rt *^f w«r hMwiy, dl«d al A|>|iui|iiiiiinty, «bkb «aa Ibru 
Iba naM* tif AfifailiilBlailhk. Ha liad lw«M • fallhlnl arnranl of ib« 
Imi.b b-r IHah) yraia, ami bla irrvKi-a «ri« a|>|«it iairU by tbriii ; but 
kr IimI l<«f-ii ii'lilanlaiMl all bia i-ri'|irny tinlmyrd by Ihr liHliana, and 
b* bad aiiBk frwiH Iba |i«»llb4i uf runinilMiry, ur |tuvrrii«fr, lu ibal iif 
ilriW. Ila |«>lilluM'd fi>r bla iti«a harirr a« (Ivik.aiid it IvIuk kimuImI, 
ImmI h4l All«i*ia uM th* lal uf KtiXHiil^T, BImI «aa Kulh|{ by ibr ttay uf 
A|i|a-^|MlMmy lu MaryfaiiNl,Blirir b* Iwli-mbHl riinaKliiK In ihi* bivainc 
I^WMiirMi : but lir ill«dl<«b>ir b«rvmli««lllirfr uf all *'aii|i-ii| rriir." Ilia 
nm arrtbr uuiirr Ilia iMilt h «a« aaawnryur al Maiihatlaii, IM'i, h*nn 
«bkb alaibiii hv ••« n-Biutnl i Ib Utih ba «aa i-iiiiiuii««ty at K«rt 

The oireunistancfa which led to the oTorihrow 
of the Dutch in the New Netherlandsi do not 
demand any long recital. The facts are few, and 
there is no stirring episode in connection with thcni. 
No revolution could have been more tame, no 
transfer of an empire more apathetic. The Dutch 
had always had the sagacity to know that the 
Knglinh were their wont enemies in this continent. 
New Netherland lay like a wedge between Virginia 
and New England, separating and weakening those 
colonies, while at the nuiio time it kept both fnmi 
access to the Ixvt soils, the most dcnirablo and 
siilubrious climates, and the boldest navigable 
wuten in America. From tho time of Lord 
linltiinorc's s^atlvment on tho Chesapeake (10.')4), 
the presMurc which the Dutch felt so much u]ion 
their eahteni frontier was re))eated with an added 
strain on thcsoutheni. lialtiuiure's charter called 
fur all the land north of the Potomac and south of 
the furtieth (mnillel. This line would hove in- 
cluded tho prcMTUt site of Philadelphia, and Dalti- 
more was urgent in asserting his claim. As lias 
Uini statitl, lie sent Cul. Nathaniel Utio to New 
Anistel (now New CiiMle) to give notieo of his 
righti* and how ho nK>tiiit to eiifonv them, luid his 
aiiitNiMtador went among the simplv-henrteil, timid 
Dutch and Swedes like a hectoring cotistablo nriiietl 
with u diiitniiiit warrant. Utie and otiien HS8i^ted 
the Indians who were at war with tlufeie trilaM who 
were clit-nti* and allies of the Dutch, and FendtiU 
and Culvert refloated ly made it ap{iear that they 
meant to invatlu ihc South Uiver colony and over- 
throw the Dutch p«iwer, either by sailing in at the 
mouth of the Duliiwaro or by an invuHiun overland 
by way of Klk Uiver. So great was the pressure 
put uiMin them that the Dutch abondonetl their 
settlenieiits aliout tho ll.>rfkills, and withdrew 
further up the buy. As a further precaution, and 
to erect '*a wall lietween them and the Knglish of 
Maryland," tho Dutch West India ComfNiny, as 
we have tdiown, valvd to the city .,f Anuitenhim, 
to which it owed heavy debts, its entire jurisdiction 
over the South Uiver colony. 

But the Kngliith to lie drend<>d did not live in 
tho colonies but at home. The Stuarts were in 
power again, and so gn<«'ily weru they and their 
followers, ath'r their long fust during the jMTiml of 
tho Coiiimoiiwcalth and the Protectorate, that 
ICiiglund, though eieun strip|ti>d, did not furnish 
s|N)ils enough to " go round." Charles II., more- 
over, had no liking for tho Dutch, and it had 
already become the fiolicy of Great Britain to 
obtain control of the North American continent. 
On March 12. 1004 (O.S.). the king granted to his 
brother Janieii, Duke of York n|id Albany (after- 
wards King James II.), a |Niteiit for all tho land 
einhruced lK>lween i\wHi, Croix Uiver on tho north 

Naaaiii, aliir««bkh lliiM* ba bad liarn bWnilAnl «llb Iba n«lrb* uM 
Suulb Itifar.— I'lmrmf* llrnktrg ••/iMlMntrr, |»|i. Mt, MM-Mn. 


Rnd Um Delaware Bay on the POitth. Tlib fovoral ran up alon;(Ni(ie the fort, hnMiUidc on. an<l 

all of Now Eiijrland, Now York, and Now Jvnf^y, clemnn<lc<l an ImnMHiiati* mtnvndcr. Th<* p(>o|ilc 

butitdidnotlncluflothowcttBuloof the Delaware aswtnblcil in town-movCin}» ami declami th«'ir 

litver and Hay, showinja^ clearly that the kin;^ hcIpKii'inoMi. the doniinie<i and the ohl wonii^n laid 

rcsiwctcd hilt falhcr'a charter conveying thia terri- •to;;c to Stiiyvoitant, and on the Ut\\ of September, 

tory to Calvert. All of the land granted by thi« ItilU, New Amnenlam punvndcrcd, the iXitch 

patent, from the Bt. Croix River to the PoMaic, marching otit of thoir fort with nil thvir armip, 

had Iteen previously conceded to the Plymouth or drum« Ix'aiing, and colon* flying. Thetermit»f the 

North Vir;;inia Company by King Jami** I. The cafHtuhition were very liberal, confli(k»ring that no 

duke. In July, i*old or granted the t«*rriti»ry U'twccn dcfon^* wiut p4Miililo. In fact, the Kn{?li«h «liil n«<t 

the ]Iud«>n ami Delaware Rivera — tiii> whole of want any war. TUvy mmglit territory, and thvy 

New Jcrwy, in fact — to Lird IWrkfley and Sir knew (hnt that taki*^ half iu valui; fnini licing in 

George Carteret. War betwet*n the Knglidh and a piivilic wtatc. 

Dutch broke out two monthn nfivr tho Duke uf Afler arranging atrjirit at New Am^ter^Iam. the 

York received his patent, and the latter, who was name of whifli was now chang«'«l Co New York, 

loni high admiral of the Uritish navy, at once Sir Rolicrt Carr, with two frigates and tome 

(May 2'>, O. S.) fittoil out an ex|K*iiition to capture m>ldicri<, wtui M'nt to the IK'lttwurti to receive the 

the New Netlifrlandsi — in oiIut words, to take 8ubniiH<iionof the D.itch thfrrc. Tlu'V rea<*hod New 

|MM«ftt»ion t>f the country putcnteil to him by \m AtiHtel ou September .'{nth. The inhabitants at 

brother. Theexpe«lition, cuiisi-Htingof fourvc^si'ls, once yiehkil, but the truculent D'lIinoyiMsa, with 

with one hundriHl and twelve guns and thn>e Alrirlis and Van Swerin'rim, throw himti'If into 

hundred Rohtien*, lH':«ides the Mhi|M* crews, wa4 the iort, and deelineil to come to terms. <*arr 

under cummuud of Col. Richanl Niehollf>, who lamled nnnio tnutpH, male his frigtitiN pour two 

was aeemnpuuiisi by Sir Robert C*iirr, Kt., (teorgo bnuuUides intu the loriress, and then ine«»ntinently 

Cartwright, and Samuel Mavuriek, eiMnmissioiiers to<ik it by i«torm, the D.iteh IimIm'^ thn-e men kille«l 

to the several Knglish colonies to hear complaints, and ten wounded, the Knglish none. The result 

redretM grievances, and nettle the "peace and of D'liinoyossa's Ibollmrdines^ w:L'* the s:ii*k of the 

•ecurity of the country." Their instructions bound fort, the plunder of the town, the c:>nH.4ealion of 

them Hnit to reduce the Dutch colonies, ns the the governor's pro|>erly, as well as that of !K*vensil 

fountain of nedition ami eanctuary of tliseontent of his supporters, and the selling of the Dutrh 

and mutiny, to ** an entire oiKvlience.** Themis* soldiers into Virginia as slave?*. A go*Ml many 

sacres of Amiioyna were citeil in pnM>f that the negro slave's al.H) were conKs4'at(>d and sold, a cargo 

Dutch were not Ht to be intniste<l with great |)«iwer, of nearly thnt; hundri>d of the'H! unhappy lN>ing4 

and it was deelarml to 1h> "high time to put them having jn^t lamled at South Amlxiy and Ihh'U run 

without a capacity of doing the same mis<<!iief in acroM tlic Delaware with the i^leii of eseapiiig the 

America, by reducing them to the same nile and English in New York.. The name of New Amstel 

obedience with the Kuglish subjects there." Sub- was changeil to New C;istlc, and D'ilinoytMsa 

mission to English authority was all that wau to retired to Maryland, where he was naturalize«i and 

be requircil of them, ami no man who submitted lived for several ye.irs in TalUtt County, but finally 

was to be " disturbed or removed fn»m what he finding he c<mld not recover his pru|ierty, wliieh 

possessetl.'* had been taken by Carr and others, he rvtumed 

The Dutch, both at home and in New Nether- to Holland, cntcriKl the Dutch army, and fought 

laud, were ae(|uuinted with the ex|HHlition and its in the wan against LsMiis XIV.* 
objeets, but took no real measures of defense. The 

first vessel of the exiHililion arrived at the outer ' v«..-^.a-y.: •v*fi.riuc*H..r..^ih-i..wi..»if.*t.^v.w ^ 

bay of ^ew Amsierdnm .\ugust *2'>th, and a pro- iiii/<tt«Hr n..w Aiii«i>i«i'r.< »>ii«« ••««!•. i.i\ir4iMu.r.r»t«it«.4«,.r» 

clumatitui was at onee issuetl.nHering proUriioii to !" '."'7'. *'."""". "'"? '*""*'' "" V" *', "* V ,y';- "-"-"•' -'V 

, , ' ^^ • li» till' "(it'll ••II Mifl mil «• I'M* %••« Jt i*t !•* \lil<l>« wi-rw f.>f|>ii«|, 

all who submitied. Sinyvesaiit n'paireil the walls ■•••1 im—h* .iiti^*.! miii.hc m« , «|.i.^t«. ••«- n,"^ tu*t oi- i>.it. ii n,*-*- 

of his fort, but be ctailil not nillv the iMHMile to '*"' •- ; -7' '^'-"« -;• •*"-•' »-'"«*.... i,».,mIm h-.,» 

, , • II •i-f" return*! lu Mm •.•m*- rnir j«Htr» Nn'r«4(il« Uy Kii*i<fi Artltiir 

reinforce the garrison. They would not leave their sii«-k «• ■ rn^ Kin. tii<7 ai< . i...** rr..iii tii» i> n. h aii in* i«— uT 

villages and biaierics. their wivin and children, ;I;V'Jl^^V*'l-^*':''':^"T''**'^^II*''''''"T-VV?"^^^ 

o ■«.•••.•.•»-••, 4iMM»r*», .» 1 lo •■•ir<iw« iiii>l <i|fii, « lir>-«r-liMii'«' aivl alill im-Utt^iu^ !■• 

U|>oii anv such venture. On the 30th, Col. >>. "O'l »Mw-iitiii iv^^iy i.> pm m|i (Thu u ih^ nr< m-ntcn «• iut« 

Nici.«ii»aem.mi«ith«,.urr,...aofortiH.f..rt»M,i i'^ir,:::"^ 'H:r;:,..Y:;^:r«:'r.-«:.;: Tliri::^ ut 

island, replying to Stuyvesant's commis.<«ionerH that v"r>i*«>r v«ii !4««riii<-i •-.( ^«-ii « u.n." Hi«ivt...4M .,'<.s m «rit- 

i.« W.U. not .i..r« t.. nr^...o .,.,.,.i«,„ .,r till... init to r;;::'^^lMl:.'^J:Jr,.:'::,":v'':..''vr^;r^^",*:T^ 

olN*y onlers, and thti place must surrender to him Mi-Mi*'i«Miirii»«o«i> ••iiiMtf»r iii«ct)u.<ii«Ai,<i •.Mi.-r««aBi4*»«. th* 

u'ltl'i.iiil iloKitl., <>■ K.. ..•...■I.I i:...t ........ > I •i»i«'M«il itf |.lini».-r«4iUliiH.| ■nHNinl.'Ji.i t !•»■•. ««rr. !!■•«« iOiM4it.|i«|l 

Mitliout UelMitc, or he wouhl hml means to fsimiH-l ,i,...«....r,i..f .1.,-, i r^m- ui,..h rr.i„ tu. .M.i..rt«.«i- . h.^-h, .J 

it to do so. Htuy vcsant was still di^posml to argue, ^"^ aium»i, in »riiiii( u, e..i.iiM.i m. ii..ii. iiviik an wn^ 4 tii* 

to*nin1t•lm«A »n Aolt* ST !.« ^..i.l I I ..* <l !• • . •«l"'«lllliMi, my. "Tliil n<illilM« wm |.t Im li*i mii |k« |l*U«ri*|a but 

tciniwnxc, to fight if he cuuUI, but the fngate .u., ..»«,.,,. Hr^M«u,« h .,.1 hmum ^rfinh^m^^^ 



la Maj, 10G7, Nichollf wm Mipeneded by BIr 
Fkmadi Lof«Uc« ■• goTenor of the Dutch lettle- 
nenti on the North and South Rivera, and in July 
of that Tear peace was made between the Dutch 
and Enf^lith on the bai>is of the Mti pottedetU, On 
the Delaware, the goTemmont remained in char|;e 
of ^ir Robert Curr, with Capt. Ilitliert Nee«lhara 
actinic as military cummander. In May, 1(»72, the 
town of New Ciwtle was ervcteil into a ofirponition, 
and Cn\4. Kdniund C*antwell was ttppointod the 
fiM High 8hcritr, and Peter Alriohs liuilitf, or 
diief ma|ri«tratc, fur the town and river. In 
Attgunt, IGUSI, loroe dii>turbonce aruso on the Dela- 
ware In contetiuence of the conduct of a Swede 
called *' the long Finn," who gave hinuelf out as 
the son of General Count Konigsmark, made 
seditious lipeeches, and tried to incite some siirt of 
a rvlielliun. He is thought to have had the 
countenance, if not the active sup[M)rt, of Prints's 
daughter, Armgnrt Pa]i|)ogi»ja. Mo wm tirrcstcd, 
put in mvwt tried, wnviclcd, tuid iicntemH!«l to be 
pttlilidy whip|ic«l, bntndetl un the face ami breast, 
ami nent ti> the Uarbiidoesi to be sold, all uf which 
was done as set forth. 

In 1U7**I war again broke out between the Dutch 
ami Eiiglia^h in cunse(|uence of tlie malign influence 
of Louis XIV. upon Charles II. The French king 
invaded tite Netheriand* with two hundn*d thou- 
Mnd men, and there was a soriini of deB]M>ratc naval 
Itatlles bftwecn the combined French and English 
fl(^l^ with one hundrctl and fifty shifw, and the 
Dutfh fleet of seventy-five vcMeln, under Do Uuytcr 
ami the younger Truuip. The hut cif tlu'se battles, 
ftHight off the Heliler, rcsuhed in the defeat uf the 
allied squadrons, and the Prince of Ontiigc at once 

dispatched several veiwels un- 
der Binckvs and the gullunt 
Evertticn to recover posnefiHitm 
of New NetherlnndH. The 
British made but little rcMiitt- 
imce, while the Dutch wel- 
cometl their old friends. Love- 
lace fled, and in a few da^'s 
the Dutch had resumed con- 
trol of all their old provinces 
in North America. 
Cafitain Anthony Colve was made gover- 
nor, Init there were only a few administrative 
change!*, though a general confiHcntion net was 
{imved against the Kngli»h. In 1G74, February 
lOih (0. 8.), the treaty of Weiitminftcr was signed, 
ami |)eacc again made Wtween the Duteh and 
English, with a provipo enforcing the restitution 
of all count ri«ii taken during the late war. Under 
thin tntity, the Engrnh ntiuimtl their conquMH of 
llHi4. The Duke of York's iwteutji were renewed, 

lli» lpitH«i* Im 1m«I In wml Into M»r)Uiii| aiaMr iirKnmi Im-IumkImk in 
|»*miMi>«<M, «litcb b* mM fir 'brrf, purk, bhA mh,' " auil, !«• uw lila 
0ma wimK **«lh«r mikII cwnvrntviKM^'* witkh. b* mM, *'lh« |Jwrt 

and the duke appointed 8ir Edmnnd AodroM 
governor over the whole country fh>m the wcat 
side of the Connecticut River to the east side of 
the Delaware. Andross arrive<l out November 
10th, and at once proceeded to restore the wtaiu quo 
ant$ Mlum as fiir as he could. He was an astute* 
well'informed man, of good habits, with the tact 
of a practiced courtier, and many of the rare 
ai'complishments of a statesnmn. Under hb 
mlministration and that of his deputies on the 
Delaware, Capt Cantweil,' Capt Collier, and 
Chriitt4)pher Billop, tlie settlements on the South 
River prov])ered, and grew rapidly in population, 
resotirces, ami in sympathy and fellow-feeling with 
the otlier colonics. 




A ITER the Restoration of the Stuarts the atten- 
tion of the court as well as the people of England 
was directed in a much larger measure than for- 
merly to the American colonies. Men who were 
weary of strife, discontented with the pmient 
asfiect of aflirtni or apprehensive of tlie fbture, 
sought relief and peace in emigration. Tlie hard- 
ship of the wildeniCM), the perils of Indian war- 
fare, the depressing di^HMwcs of a new climate and 
unbroken soil were as nothing to those in oomimri- 

< (h|italii KdwniMl CKotwvIl »ui WUIUm tmem wtn H«lh«(riMd to 
Uk« |MiMrtiri«iii wf Ibr fun at N«w 4^miW. ami bm to th# |N«math>ii of 
•II MwrM uf ««r at that plara, «r aay |«fl vt Iba rivar. TW fonaar 
«a« «|ip«>tBtr4 M*«rtir, <ir Mcliaul, •m4 tlia laMvr trtnimrj, er rirrk. 
Butli, In cwi^uMctlwa, vera wiitarail to rulUvl lli» .|uil-rrM« aad wtliar 
dylira talaliltolinl by Ibr K»cll«b, b»lwi« Iba cMnlan af lb« Uutrh. Tba 
tMr¥n*4 iha guvrrnmrnl urn llw lirlaaaiv, al tbia lia**, «ar*, tliara- 
tvrr, M r«>llwwa : Hbarlff, uf fvbtHit, i'a|ilalB K4ihun4 t1iMl«all : Wacwi- 
tary. WUIUm SCwtm ; MacMnlM <iC Nrw l*a.«la, lUiia Murk, Juba Mull, 
Ywtiv Oh|Ii«*«I, J««r|ili Llww, Itlrrk AlUna. Ma«lalnilra ua iba il«ar, 
rairr Vv k. IVtrr KaaiUs kraal IUInm>,« A4rkwn, WmJIa Saaltt. 

Tba Kwvvraaiaai ruMllanad Ibiw rwiialltHtr4 aaiil Iba yid uf Or^aHi* 
bar, lM7ii, alivu faiilat-ll aial Xxra wt-ra ifllavMl !•/ tba aiifwliilmant vt 
C^l>toln Jwhn Culllar, aa I'uuiuaiutkv ••■ Ikriaaara HIrrr ami Rajr, 
antl af K|ibniliM Hrrmaaa aa l^rrtary. Tba fwllawl af May ialnl«« wra 
aU» c«mmt»4«ia«4 : Fur Naw «-at4la, Julia Mull, llaury WanI, WUIUm 
Xwra. Fiiifia <HillHMit, Jaaa Faal JarqtMt, Uarrltl iHta. Ki*r tba Ktvvr, 
IVirr rwk, faifr HaMba^ laiaal llalMa^ Un Ailnaaaa, Wawlla Svala, 
Otfii ftlariiMlCurk. 

Oa Iba mh uf AniriMt, 1677, Captala Jobs Ojlllar «aa rrlla*a4 Vr 
Gwtrmur Aailr>«a, uT Iha caMWiaail of alhln a« Iha Italawan-, by tba 
aMiblntwral, In hia H*^t ^ ChiilaiM llirtoiiipbar Billup^ aa (liiaf 
USk^r. Mlkiii tttallHWMl aa CiiMBMiHirr, or (lilvT OSIcvr, w« tba livla* 
wan^ aatll tba lallr« |«rt uf l«>7y. «baa Iw Waa ivMovad for Mlwoa- 
dact. Wa bava nw ravwr^l uf lb* a|iia4uliMaMt U bla iinvaMiir. Ity tba 
Ou«arn«r'a itrurlaiiialkMi, latriMlHriiiK lli* iKik* uf Yurk'a lawa n|>iMi tba 
lialawaiv; Ibrra Ju>lklal tlklrkta n|««B ibu rivar wt-ra alau —talilMiwI, 
vli. : Oaa at Na« VmmU, vm at I'l'land, awl mm at lb* WburrkllL la 
liaA, a faurtb dMrict waa fatabllabtO. by a 4UMmi uf tba Whucvklll, 
«hkb waa calM MC JuMa. Imkt wf r»rk'$ Umk •$ lam^ y^ «M, 

naianl, naJar ilato «f 1A7A, Mya : **ll apfwan, fhaa a i«far*M« an 
Iba Naar t'aalla I'onrt K«N*l■^^ tw '{wvcmlM^ •/ afoarf feM to .Vna 
Om«/#, Marcb XI, h'>74,' (I«m\) Ibal rmiitavatw talaUUIml hat* aararly, 
ar |f*rlia|« |<rli« lu Ibia ilala. Tba rivwr4« ato, at naw'Bt, uwl awung 
Ibtaa at Na« t 'aMir, «bara tlia Hirli««l Ibat wa lw*a mwn aia tMaliar, 
|is7«H Wa liava hwm mu avblaara uf cwwria la iba tima uf Luff Uca, 
tbiNigb Ihaia muM, au il>»nbl, bava b<>aa aitiM* bipil |ir«iraa<llttm. Utmrla 
• rn> balil 'at a |ilai-a aww nilkril 'I'ruy wii Jmiaa'a (.'rrrk, iwar |iatf>r, fur 
Junaa'a, iMiw Ktttit, at Whun>klll, imw I.f«Ulu«n, fur Iba ewiiBty uf 
I>ral, Btur Simwi ruanly."* Ammlm «/ /ViMtflrMBto, ^ 4I«. 


•OB with Um blcMiingi of political and religious that he could use his nipier gmllantly. and hu 

liberty secured by emigration. As fiir as the father took him to sea to prove to the court, when 

court was concerned, Charles wanted pruvinccs to he rotumed as bearer of dispatches, that he was 

give way to his favorites, while his cabinets, both capable of beginning: tlie career of ofRtt. The 

under Clarendon, the Calml, and Danby, had plague of I»ndon M*t him again upon a train of 

strong political reasons for putting the colonita serious thinking, and \\u father, to counteract thts^ 

nioru imnie«liate1v under the contntl of the crown sent him to tJie Duke of Ormond, at the same 

in order to check their manifest ycaniing for self* time giving him charge of his Iriith estitte*. Penn 

govemmf nt and coni{ianitivc imlepi-ndenee. Thus danced in Dublin and fought at CarrickfiTgus 

the representatives of prcmgative were compelled e(|ually well, and he even applic^t for a troop of 

likewise to give an enlarged attention to colonial horK. He wiis a very haniLs«mie young fellow, 

aflhirs. The Council for Foreign Plantations was and armor and liico lK*eame him mightily. But 

given new powers and a greater and more exalted at Cork he met Thomas Loe again and heard a 

membership in 1G71, and in 1(>74 this separate sermon upon the text "There is a faith which 

ciminiii!«ion was dii«eolved and the conduct ol'ei>lo> overcomes the world, and there is a faith which U 

nial alliiini intrusteil to a committee of the Privy overcimie hy the wurhl.'* Penn came out of this 

Council itself, which was dirccte<l to sit once a meeting a eontirmed (junker. IIi« father roealled 

week and refMrt its pnKi'edings to the e«iuneil. him, but ci>uhl not break hi:^ ronvietii>n ; and then 

This conmiittec comprised some of the ablertt of ngitin he was ilriven from home, but his mother 

the king's councilors, and ani<mg the menibem (>till foumt means to supply his mi'ils. He now 

were the Duko of York and the Man|uis of jnine<t the (Quakers regularly, ami lK>camc the 

Halifax. nitxit prominent of the followers of that t»in;;uhirly 

William Penn, who was a great fuvi»ritc with ecf-entric but singularly gifle<l li-ader of nH'n, 

theDukeof York, and the founder of Pennsylvania Cieorge Fox. Penn's aHeetion for Fox was deep 

and Delaware, was Ixirn in London, in St, Catha> and Ktn)ng. He re|)eate«lly got ** the man in the 

rincH Pari/«h, hard by the Tower, Oetol)er 14, 1G44. leather iireeches*' reU>a.<ied from jail, and he gave 

His father was Vice Admiral Sir William Penn ; him a thousiuid acres of land out of the first sur* 

his mother ^fargaret Jasper, daughter of a well- veyt made in Pennsylvania. Penn preached in 

to-do Uotterdam merchant. They were united pultlie as Fox was doing, and so well that he boon 

June 0, 1U4H, when the elder Penn, though only iound himself a prisoner in the Tower (»f lytmlon, 

twenty yenm old, hud already reeeivc<l his com- where, when brought up for trial, he dcfendeil 

misi«ion as |K>st-cuptaiH in the royal navy, and hini.<<'lf m> ably as to prove that he could have 

William was their first child. It is probable that become a great lawyer had he m eh<i«en. 

the stories of Admind Penn about the comiUMt of Penn nmrricil in 1G72, his wife being Oulielma 

Jamaica and I ho tropical splendors of that benuti- Springett, daughter of Sir William Sprin<n*tt, a 

ful island first turned tlio attention of the younger lady t>f lovely {htkou and sweet tenifter. He did 

Penn to our continent. not s|iend many weeks to hii* honeynuMin. He 

William Penn rei-eived his first e<]ucation at the wus s4Hin at his work again wre:»tliiig for the truth, 

free gnunniaM*ehool of Chigwcll, I'Wx, where he and, it must be said, wn^stliug i^lill more Itwtily 

ex|ierieni«<l strong religious impnawions and luid as one who wrestles for victory with the opprvs- 

vinions of the "Inner Light," though he as yet sors of the faithful. In this eau:te he went to eourt 

hail never heard Fox's name mentioned. He was again, ri'sumeil his relations with the Duke of 

not a jniuy chiUl, though he nmst have been a York and secured that prinei**s influenc-c in Iiehslf 

studious one. He delighted and excelled in field- of his {lenieeutcd sect. This iiemi-allianre of Penn 

sports, boating, running, hunting and athletic ex- with the duke le<l up directly to the settlement of 

ereises. At the age of twelve he was removed Pennsylvania and llehiware. Peun rtndizetl the 

from Chigwell to receive private instruction at fuet that the Friends could not e)H.-a{K' iieniceution 

home, and three years later entered Christ Church nor enjoy without taint their jiceuliar religious 

College, Oxford. Penn 8tudied assitluomtly, he eeelusioo, nor eould his ideal commonwealth be 

joined the ** serious set," he went to hear Thomas planted in such a mKMety as that of Kun»{>c. It 

Loe preach the new gosfiel of the .S>ciety of mu^^t seek new and virgin soil, w here it could fonn 

Friends, he resented the discipline which the col- itD own manners and ri{X'n its own c«m1c. Then, 

lege attempted to put upon him and his intimates in 1072, came home G«H>rge Fox,' fresh from his 

in conHciiucncc, and ho was oxi>elle<l from the uni- ^,, . ,.^, ,, . . ^ -^ . .. 

versity for rejecting the furplice nnu noting in the ,ukir«i ii.i.|Mri ..rib»rMiiiiirr. luanutni rnrtn jkH»i.m. (n m«muii.i. 

quadrnnirle. His father beat him, relented, and •nn. •.-.•..•.•i-nM by j..!.iiH.inir.«. K..i-riWiti..r. -r-i •;«*«- i.tit- 

■,,®_ ,, . 'iL ■»Mi,"tiiht-ir way lo X-w KnKli»n«l, I'jf Uuil. Uirf |.,a.-||.-.|«c >»• CmIK 

sent htm to France, where he came home with the «n.i rr.«i (ii«no-. wfiii iiMi.b .iim. uHr, rn.«t<i ib«- i>.-u«»r». tu, ti^ir 

mannere and dress of a courtier, but saturated rrturn. ibr, -jtHhi %wt n*« iwK.»in.B....Kih^,-.i., 

. »i»ii •!»• of miwm, •i*'l unil«-r«riii niniiy iliin> Miti* «. At >»• ia*ilr, ih*-y mH 

With Oenevan theology. He had shown in I'aris vuim uimImu* re^irtiwn frvu* uv««nM^ cvr. kmi us* K««tybrg« 


jauntj through lli« wildamo* ud hii viitu to m'twuij oolonirti did not hniUla la prodalm.' 
the Quakrr ivul«Denb <n Xav Jenej tnd Marj- Tha Ihik* of York wound New York. Fen*- 
bnd, in vhirfa Utirr proTinn th« *nrinit mwtiDRi iftTania and Dulawitre to htoMcIf *■ hb OWD prl- 
•if AniwAniiKklandTnlbiitCiHiiitK* irerealreadj vua iHMMwinnii. That pan of New Ndhrrland 
impnrtnnl gitlierinc* of a happr people cnlirelj lyinK bptwtvn the Iluibna inH dw Delaware 
frae flrom penmiliiin*. We nuir imagina how Itivcn waa Ibrtliwilh Qn IKtM, belbra Kieolli 
cagerlT ami rinai-lr I'van rnwl Fux'* jminiHU and Milcd fnini PoRrnuiiiIh to take New York) eoa- 
the Irtlpn of KilnmHlMan, Weolock Chrialiaan, vcjed bj the diikr, bj dcvdi nf Icaie and nlmac, 
and Dthpfa nhout Iheir Hlllenwnla. to I^rd John Ik'rkclcy and Rir Geor^ Uirt«ret. 

In ICTS.when hia iliaj^ft with Knropan HtCKty The latter being piveraor of the niannel Uandi 
and hi) conariaiuiina of the impuaaibilily to elll'ct at ihg tinK. Iho ncweulnny waaeallnl New Jcncjr, 
raHiml relurm tlicte had lieen cnnfirmed and ur ralhor JVmb OeMifn. in the nri|pnal gmnl. In 
drepencd. Pain hecamc ppniianoiitlir identifieil 1ft73 Ijinl Iti-rkelfv •uld.liiroiie Ihuiuamt poutkda, 
with Aiwrimn mioniai nftkins and wai put in the hk uniliviihii lialf-olmni in New irncj to John 
br>t jiTHible pniiiiiin fiir iiiinlrinK a flill and Fiinwick, In inwt (iir Kitwani IlillinK<- and hit 
an-urate kii<iwh?<1|tD uf llie n'MWrn'* aiui |i>iiiil- Ki«l);liik Kiiiwii^t ninl !lilt<niti-w«n<lKilhQiBikerit, 
■lul ltilliM)(i> waa iwnhnipL Ntit lunjc allrr tliia 
Tiiiivpvawo >Vnwifk and Bitiinits fell nut about 
liir |)cu|iprt^,and,iini'r (hi'riii4»ni oflbc Friciirig, 
the dn^mle WM ■nhmtlh'd In arliUmliim. Tbo 
■liKputunla Exrd n|iun Williaai tVim a* arbitralur. 
Wbuii bo mwIp bia award Fvnwirk woi pot aali*- 
fledami rvAui'd to ahide by I'onn'i drriiion. wliich, 
indeed, RttVB Feewirk only a iFulh of Lun) Berke- 
ley'! rliaro in the joint lenani-y, rtecrrisg the lo- 
nuining nino^cullia to Itillinge, hut giving Fen- 
wick a inutiey pnyinent bcMdu. IViin WBiulfeiuIeil 
at Fcnwirk'a recalcitrancy, and wnite him auine 
aharp Ivtlcrt. "Thy day) aficiid on," be Miil, 
"and nuke the bvM uf what thou ha*t Tliy 
Hmndchildrvn mnir Iw in tlis oilier world hvfiini 
llic Inud ihuu liatt allutlcd will bo eniploycil." 
I'cnii (tuck to hia Jeciaton, and, fiir that nMlter, 
Fviiwick likcwiM mainlainnl liu grievance. IIo 
aaikil r»r llio Delaware at the houl of a ealoiijr, ■ 
roan lanilcd at l?nloni, N. J., and rommenpcd a aetllc- 

. mcnt. Hero becarrivd matten M'ith web a faigh 
bllltle* of the conntrr b«w«n Ihe Suaqudianna* hand, |«tenling land, dutrilniting offlar, etc., that 
and the llwlmn. Aa hax alrwd» been Mated, un he made )["»' truuldo for liniMlf and otlwri aUo. 
Marrh T.', KHU, Kinit Charlm II, itranttil to hb Hi" anthi.rily waa n.* tceojcnioil, mid (br aiworal 
brnthrr Janii*. Ihik« »f York and Allauij, • ymr^llieuaniouf Mni.irJ.ihn Finwick lill-alarKo 
MliM Hir all llw laiida tn N.-w ^i1Bl■llll from the I'la"- in ll"- murt mimia of how Crdrtli-, U]><anil. 
W. Cnilx Wwr t,> ihc Di-laware. TliU pilent, ■"■I Nf« Vi*k, whero ha waa fn-niiciuly hn- 
•nrant to lead dirertly up to tlic overthrow uf llw JiriiHmcil anil auiJ Bir danagn by nwny iiyurcd 
Dut(4i power In New Kctlicrland, waa pmlMbty jierfiina. 

aUii iuU-ndod no hw «a a hwtilc dinidiiatralion WlliiiKo'a hwincaienibarraiiiinentainctoaainghe 
apiin>l Ihe Sew KiibI«ih1 I'uritan clonio, which ma.lo owr hia itilcMl in the teirilory to hi^ 
birthlhi-bnilhvnhatclivnIiallyandwhichbtU-Hy cniiiti.r^ appi^lilint; IVnn, wllh Gawen l^wrie, 
hwl pniwn ao Inilcpi-ndviit ati<l had ao marly ea- ol" l^'nwlon, and Nirhnlaa Una, of llirtr.inl, Iwo 
bMiahed llwir own ■utlH>rity aa to provuko mora of the cmlilon, oh tnulcoK in tlw mailer. Tho 
(hall otM charp' that tlwy aoUBlil jmwnlly to H"" *na not to avll, but to iin|>rovc ihc pro|<eny 
abamlon all allc|iUiic« due fnuii. limn to the for tlio UiicHt of tlio eniUtora. To ihia end a 
nR4li>'r«Hiutrv. At any nilc, the New Eii|ilaiid partition of the provim-o waa made, a lino being 
euloiii(«atoiicBulleiu|ih^ to urnaiiiiu tlHinwlvH drawn tbroueh Uuh: Kgg llarlwr ' 
into a cunlvdEtacy for |>urtiw«a of mulunl ih'fcnae 
ajtainat tlie Indinna and Canwlian French, aa waa ,^ in^X^<^ 
alleged, but lor divcra otlicr and wtiuhly reaaona, •"^" ■" >*■' 



■CM- wben P«it Jenii wnr k The part of Um 
provinMon th« right of thi> line, called Ent Kcv 
JenM, ihe mmt ictllHl ponifln ot the tcrriluiT, 
wu wviBned (a CartcreL Tliat on tht left, Vi'vH 
Kbw Jencjr, nu deeded to BillingtV tnutcca. A 
form of goveniineni vat at onre ntabliilicd fur 
Wen Jene^, in which PcDn'e liand i* litatinctlf 
aecn. The baai* «>■ liberty of jicrMiD iikI cuD' 
idfnce, " tha power in ibo people," lonil telf-nov- 
emntrat aod anieliurMlim of llio criniiool coite. 
The territory vaa next iliviilvil into one hundred 
part^ ten lieing aMigncd to Frnwiek and ninrljr 
10 UiUinee'* iruoln*, nnd Iho Intiil tn* ojXToed ftir 
mIc and oci'nivhry, bpin); oxtriuivcly ■dvcrtiii'd 
■ml inrtiiniliirljr miminimiW la Friiiirlr. In 
IIIT7 anil KITH llvti vi-mla Hiilcil fiir Wot Niw 
Jrnry, «ltli riithl humlnil mii|tmnt», warlr nil 
(jtMkirrK. Tmi roni|ialiii'a of ltwH>, uin- (hmi Yurk- 
■liirr, lliu iitltrr frtini IjuhIuii, liiiu);hl larjn' trui-l> 
iif land, und smt out runiiiii>i>ii>ii<'n In ijuict 
Iniliaii tillm and tny ufT ihc pro]>(-r1ii'>'. At Cliv- 
pKt Mand lliry luatcd a l.>i>n, lii>l iiitl.-.) Ih'v- 
erty, then ItinltiDgtoii. tlKD Uurliiieton.' Tlum 
na« ■ ngular trcHlj with the In.liiinn, and the 
Friend* nut unlj n-vurcd [mii'c fur IliimKrIvn but 
I«ve<t llw way Gir the paijlic rvlalimu w fimily 
•ntled by Fcna'a Mihwqumt nrgolialiuna ■ilh the 
Mvai^ni. The llurliiigl'in cutuny pn«)H'ri-'l, and 
wo« reinf'iiecd by ucw roluniaii iiHitinuolly arriv- 
Imk in ciinMilerable nnmben. In ltP*l), I'enn, a* 
FounKl fur Ihe IruNnt of WtM New Jenry, aue- 
cveib'd, by nnima uf a vij^niua aial nblc n-niiin- 
■tranee, in jivllinK (Ih! Ihikc of York, ihvii pru- 
priclary uf New Yurk. lu miiow an unctiniii lax 
uo itn|wrl« and rxjiurta iM|ii«il by iIhi (Iuv- 

cmur of New York and collected ml the Hoiekin. 
The next year I'enn become part pioprirlor of 
Eoot New Jeni^, wbicb woe oald under ibe will 
of Sir Gmrpi (.'Hrterrt, then direaanl, (a par 
hie dcbu. A b«rd of Iwvnty-fmir proprietarin 
WOK arinniinl, Prnn bcini; one, and to Ibem tbe 
Uuke uf Y'lirk niade a fieih jpnnt of HaA New 
JcrMy, dated Jlorch 14, Kfi. Itnbert Barclay 
bc-mniintc Uurrniur, white Penn'a IHend, Billinge, 
va/ made xf \\\tl New Jeivrr. Bvth 
ihcK i^vininii-nla were HirremUml to the cniwB 
in (^ureu Annc'i iviiin, A|<rit 10, 17lti. 

Whilu I'uiD «» lliiu a.'qiiirinh' kr»wled;,T of 
ntnmit pm 

jiMicnre with llii'i 

ml U 


■I Kiittlan<L One 

nan Sidrwy, tiir riirliHiiiin). the dale of 
tlwrccTcuti I'enn biYHii di Iwik Mi^hIiIv wstward, 
Olid prrpanil hinw-lf liu ~ Holy "or - Divine 

Adaiirut IVliB at bia iknili Imd i,H bin nm a 
|n^>|>pKy iif CiniKI a ynir in Ijiuli-b awl Irl4i 
nlatvik' TlH-ru aaa in ailititMii ■ iliiin ag""^ 
King ChariH' pivi'Tninnit liir nxioer leat, whirh, 
willi intenvl, anainnttil ti> i,'l->,Oial. Tit biajc 
hwl DO MuncT anil uo PtKilil. What lie iciit fiuni 
Ijuuit XIV., thmuufa Ihe cunipliast Ibuillun. 
IihrIIv nilflvul liir hii uwn ■wiiii* jJaUn' Prnn 
b(!iH|cl>o*K''ul>'''>ll"'<ti>''ti>h a (iJiiMy in AnKrin 
alun|;uilc lii:i New Ji-nvy planlalinnii, and tu rt- 
niuve there hlnwi'lf with hi* family hi a* to lie at 
the brad Iif anew (fnakrrctinuuuii iiyaDilcniiimnn- 
wcalth, pL-ttlinoed tin kin;: tn gnm biin.iD lii'U of 
Ike eUu uf ri.J.UHO. a tniet of einiiilry in Amrriea 
nuitli of }[nr)'laiul, with the IJvlaware >« it* roil, iu 


VMtnullintlillwnBaittlHiwofHuyland.BBdlli BecnUrf of Buta, at Ilarrlitniif. TV aaiM to 

aunhfin M (hr M pUnUliltnmntrjr sxiMiiIrd, Bu> bo ^mn f) Iha mir territory «h loft bbnli Ibr 

Gm <h« IMv^r (Vmartl (NinimlUn> IViiii i<x|ilainn1 iho htiiit t<> nil up, amt ClMrlna t¥,\M It IVniwyU 

lliRI hr wantnl Dtp ilPKTvra of Utiludt wiiuufMl niiila. (■vnn, wlio mwiw to luin lin<n wnlWIjr 

(him lionlltiillimiHyVUiH'ianiUtMt llnp,Rthki>iiH- M|iiv«niU)i un Uio nulijiiit, wrutr (ii hin fHi-nth Ui 

iN^iiia, TM (Invn lVnmlbadrpiitHfcn>n«*Df aril* Miy (hut he wanlail tlie Ivrritor; nllcd New 

tIp, the nuliuinf Hhlch wulwdva mlliiifnini Kc« WdIfo, aiHl ullbnil Ihe Uixler >>Fcn'tar]r tirptitr 

Cvtie u iu rentre. TIip |<clilit>n ot Tr nil'* WM ra- (ruincni h> chnnKa the name, " fur I Kind tat ft 

niTT-IJunc 14, KINO. The ol'jeet MjUKhl by th( ihoulil b« looknl on an ■ vanity in rib." Huwevsr, 

[irtiluiiipr. it «a> alalEil, wai bM only la provi^ a he coiimIhI hiiuiwlf with tlie rvflwtion tliat " it li 

prarcful bnnw lur the |vNrnit(il niniilH'nnr tiie ajiM ami cluir ibinK, ami my Qoil, that liM given 

Airtply «t KriimK but to aHunl an aayluni Hit tlw It me i1iruii|{li many dilltiiillica, will, 1 bulicve, 

fitni awl (>|>..niwii1 iiT ovrry naUiiri an tlw ImaH uf blvM anA malce it iho anil ot a nation. I aliall 

a ]iiailli-iil B|>|illmliin i>f thr |Hin' ami laiHi-ablu 

Iirim4|il>» of nirimianlty, Tlir jvihiim fitnHin- 

lp>nlMw4ian>lvari<>uiii]>i»<'ll<»n. HirJiAnWor- 

ilHi,a){Miioriiio]hilto<if Yiirk, n|i|KHiil li Wvnm 

itlF tiTritory fmiKlit wa>> an a|i|iitiilnKP tu llio ipiT- 

ernnatit uf Xv« York, atui aa luvli brliincpj to 

ttn dulie. Mr. Burke, Ibe active anil uDliring 

■pent of Lord Baltimore, o|ipw«il it becaui>e tlie 

grant aaked by Pvno would tnlVin{>e u|k>d ihe let- 

lilurr vuvered by Ballimoni'i charter. At any 

ratr.MKl Mr. Burke. In a letter tu the I'rivy Ciun- 

ril {'uniniiim, if the grant In niaih) lo IWn, lit 

Ihr ihiil vlpmaly MBIu himk lu tlio mirth of Sue- 

■|iu-luinna Fort, *• whii'h ii the bouwlary iif Mury- 

lami (u the iwithwnrd." Tiicie wa* alni (tniiig 

0|i|iiMtinn in the I'rivy Council lo tbu iih'a nf a 

■Hin taeh m Peno h'ing j»ruiitl«l lo t«laht»li 

plantalinm after hii own peruliar model. Ilia 

ilworH* uf goTrmnicnt «e« lield tu bu Ubipiiin . _ 

wiu loiikn) upon u ■ Ite|Hililinu like r^ldney. xu, obawtid to williaii pbin lt> IMI. 

Iluwevrr, be had ■inniK fricmli in tlie >jiri of . . , . . , ■ 

Samb'rlan.l, L»H Hv.l... tliief Jiiati™ North, and '*T' '.'T'^" "_" *" "" »""">'»<"'t "»* " »>• 

the Vm\ uf Halifa*.' I(e had an intervkw with '^" "'^ ",..,.,_, , , „ 

Ih.- imko „r V..rk. a»l r,intri*.-J to win owr P" f>'t^r'h,ch k. fiveu eompkle in II... 

to ».-* ui.« hl< pr.!i«t with rnv.»,ai«I Hr J. •"'* Annnb. c.«.u.l. of l^Hlythrw artwh^ 

W.^lrn»n.letothe«rt4arv,«vinB,"lli.r..y"l "'"' ? ^.rT'"';'", '^■"'"* "l* '''"*' ''?"' ** 

llielin.-- oimnmnJi me t.. h'-t v«;. km.w, tu .mhr ""■"'• "- '""'"''.'I"" ■"' '™Jf. '^"'"^rt the aav- 

1.. your informing their l.^l.i.i)« of ll, that he 'B^ ^J*^- ■"'' *»• «■"" "^ Migttwa lo Hir W.l- 

H vprr willinR Mr. Penn'i (rqucM may mci-t with '"" *^™'' ■ 

mirtcti.'' TheBtloinoT-gcncrul,Wr William Jvoex, '■ vin fn« rm irii n ui ibt ru< •<*•«*». ■*«■ ««i«fc< 

examiofd Ibe |vlilion in view </ pru]i>iMd Uaiml- Z!t^ii^'iiS'J!ii7^J'iL'-^nM^J^'!^aTa-!l!n*^ 

aiiii<,aml rciiiirlnl that wilh dime allemtionii it | » ifaiM..wwt«-i»whfi^it ■|*.^igMH4M.>ii«4.M< 

did mit appi-nr t<> luiirh n|HiH any li'Trilory of prv. il^tr M^*bta ■■. u* >>mmV<C »wX>rX'?h tiT 

v!<Ma|;ranl>,"pxniit IbelmnitiMry limvof New ".^'^Jjiiji'l!; 

KuKlaml |>lll<'nt^ wbirli aru biwmh'd w<i4wardly 

1^ tlic nwiu wi-an. nlioul'l give lHi>ni a nnil lli«ii)(U 

Imimrtii-alilc njcbl tu all lh<«p \M Irrritiirli'*." oIk^'h 

The dnught of tlie pad'nt, vlirn finulty it bad ^i-t' 

irai'heil that n»p! of Jcvvhipnirnt, ■'a* aubmittrd ^ wi 

lo tlie Lunli nf Trailc to aiv if Kn);li«h naiimereud f~' 

inlmita were Miliarrved, and la tlie Uirlinp of . . . 

I.<nHlnD lo kmk afler the rigliU of the rhurch. r^JliljJ',;!;^;^'';^';;^"^^'";!;^"*""^^^* 

The king lifninl Ihe patent on March 4, llWI.atid <MU.*?>ri-Hi,>u",*k>M<iMM,f ito^llllHrVlbUH 

Ihe veneralile diiciinipnt niay now be Km hy the ' '"' "" 

rurioui, fraiiH-d and hun)[ up iu iho oHice of Ihe i 


iMi»« •hMii* -r ito mMm MtauwiMMii ar jMib*, viik tb« rfasto |N«. Council of nine, of which ha wan to he nmtUlent ; 

ii«r n*|Hi««MM to til* !•«• ma atMiiiM .if Km hiwi, aimi iimi sii i»fMM to MMTiirp a mf >}niition or rcnn s aiithortty on the 

•ii|MMk^iMrtcM..rNH<MiiMiH^Kih«. ,^. ^ , ,^ pnitdfthoitcoiilt*; toMtlolwHincblictWHn IVon 

i*niviM>* Mill u4iiM« bM« umi wimhhm A« itHiH. iiml hiM nci)(hiN)n« • to furvcy, my out, rent, nr 

VII. u»« -luH-d ftf ih# -"T^r*"* ••' "•; •'~*'"~ "r^ Til? leimo IrimIw iintirdlfitf to hi« liwtructlons ; to crcrt 
^4Mity uT iHr«4iiinir «ai4. couft^, iiiiiKe •hcritrii, Jufltim of the pnire, nna 

VIII. UcvMNMilKniiioaioilisMweMloMy. other infertor rmiiipitu ofKcvra m fw to keen tli« 

i*i«rinkMM «r th* N«viKH(kM Acta. prftco SHU cnforce the lawi ; to nuppruM ciuturb- 

»■t•li«>■^ Mc. oniain any unliimrv onlinttnccA or do whatever he 

uhi ruMin»R«, wii4w< 1.1 Kiictbii riMiuma rrffiii«ii»4w. pnivincc. Matkhnm wai partittilnrlv iuftruciccl 

XIII. lv*H*»ltiwfru«in.«.toUv«lii«riyiol.Trrurt.HM*iiHih«. #o ,|« if hf. ..ould iMiiindnrliii with I^inl lliiltU 

iMniMur rhariii^ Pli* , HHtl rwiilitiiiiol MUrmMiM-w In «uM Ik* fUmtimr niOflMIIHt ]\»|||| plV(i hllll It K'ttcr IO thilt I1«*i^hhl>r 
■ml iv«li«m lliK C»t<'rHUM*Ml iif ih» I'imvIwc !•• Ili* KImk. <• i i 'IM i .* . a _ ti i j« _ ii i 

XV. I'M^lnlTr, r..r<4.U.ii liii»n..,.i« ..r ««-,..rHWi«* «lll. Ih« «»f "J"- H'^' <'''l««»y '^»'»«» lift IT Willi'. I ft.f r*im,.yl- 

NiomiMof Kiii(i«<Mt. Viiiiin, on wlint ilny in not dfllnili'lv known, hut he 

XVI. ilMMia U^\* iM l*ni|irlrfiirf lu |iiirati« snil NMk* war «n lb* ^ {„ v . \* i. ' I . tii • . *i . i i « • ^ 
«*.«.« ,.c Ma-n, |.imiri. .ir.. .wi u. My r^rro. for ii»i mkI. .i*! to ^i*** »" ^«w 1 "rk on Jiine 2li.t, wImii he <ilitnined 
hill ami riaj •niit^iiiiit lu lit* u»a uT war. frum tlic Govemof, Atitlionv HmcklioIIii, n nm«*lB- 

XVII. ilniularnll bu««r to Pann to a*ll orwIlirrwbproMVaf laaJata .• ... .1 ' • i. i •. a j* i» 

iitaifv^inra. niutum ctijiMiiing i\\¥tn tile inhubitantB of iVnn- 

XVIII. uivfaiitiaiopanoMhoMiuc nudar Pf an. •vlviinia that tlicv shuuld obcv the kin;»f charter 

XIX. Poiiii MMV t-rvrt mancm, sihI rarb Maaorla hava privllagaof 1 • 1 1 1 1 i* ^ a1 

<oNn.un«.n.irni«ii.pUJga.buidm«miar.Mi.oriiiiaiuU|««iactad «n«l y»t'ld a Pcadv olwlicnce to the Dew propriv- 

i« tiidr tmiif*. turv and Id* deputv. When M:trkham arrived 

XX. Tha KI114 ih4 tolay laxMtn tha rruvlnca *'aitlMi tba BtiBrlia ^ *■« t 11 i* 1 t 1 v> i • ,.1 t 
vHk llM. mnaaiit ml Ilia Pnn-rtetofy. or clilaf tiavarnur. or AaNwUy. »t I plund he f<»Und I^ml lillUmiorC thufe ; the 

or It? arti^ iwifomaiit oT KiiKiand." bouiKlarv quiiitiun at oncc Came up, and was 

XXI. Tha rtMrtrr lu W T«II<1 In Kn|ll«h ciHirta MmlMl all mmim^ •lii.i t ««ii j*ii t 

ibM. nr i««..Hm|4i..«. uf miNM'ra ur i>.>ai .«i.«nk w (iiiuklv Ut dnip wlivn Murkliniii foiiiid that the 

XXII. iiM».4M.ruMi.i.HiiiMjraan4oiiiri.>rg>MaairMkMiiuduaai.y fi,,,^ ^^^^^\^\ „„t i^. pm aroordiiiK to tlie two ohar- 

tarntjT iNliMliilanta of Ilia rrwvliira, . , , , . . ■» 1 • 

xxiii. Ill nm-» t4 i^mm Hi* iinfivr la to i» laianfHfd ami f.Mi. ten r(t>|iectively Without pviii^ to Hnitimitre M>nio 

■I11H.I llbrrally in lUnna fa.ur, |«»«t.l»l amh conalnirUuna 4» Bui Im,,!^ ^.|,J,.|, J\.,„j xmi* fliMilvCMl tO kcCp M hU OWn. 
iMrrrrf* villi ur la^aft-w Ina ntjnl |M«<ivgnllva. ,. «t«aii ■ 

It IH not 9up|j<i!«ea that Markharo took out any 

On tho 2d of April, after tho eij^ning of the emigrants with him. Hid bu>inei*.<4 wn« to jrci 

charter, King Charles made a public proclamation IK)s^)•l■^tfioll of the province aa s|HH^lily n« jm^sihle, 

of the fact of tho patent, addrciwed chiefly to the bo m to in;«urc the allegiance of the |ieople, secure 

inhabitantJi of the territory, enjoining ujion them the revenue, and pn-pare the way for IVnn. It b 

to yield ready obcdiems to Penn and his deputies probable, therefore, that he Niilvd iu the fir^t ship 

and lieutenants. At the same time I'enn also ' oflering for New Y(»rk or 13o^ton, without waiting 

iuldrciMCHl a letter to the inhabitants of the pro- for company. Meanwhile, even U'tore Markliani'ii 

vince, ilGelaring thai he witflutl them all happinexs de|Nirtiire, IVnn lM>gan to adverti-H) bin new pni- 

heru ami liennifter, that the Pmvideiico of (lod vimv and iN>pulitri/.e what infi»rniation hehndeitn- 

had cast them within hix h»t and cure, and, though ceniing it. TbiM was tho luitfiiieM |iart of "the 
it was u new hui<ine4 to him, he undenito<Ml bis Divine Kx|ieriment," and Penn wan very c«)m{ie- 

duty and meant to do it uprightly. Ho told tho tent to disK-harge it. He publi;«he<l a |Kiniphlet 

{icoplo that they were not now at the mercy of a (through ]k.njaiiiin Clark, IxxikM-ller, in (leorge 
Governor who came to make hiii fortune out of Yard, Ix)nibanl Street), entitled **S>mc account 

them, but ** you shall be govemcfl by laws of your of the Province of Pennsylvania in America, 
own making, and live a freo and, if you will, a lately gnintfil under the Great S«al of Kngland 

Milicr and induptrious people. I nhall not UHurp to William JVnii, etc. Together with prtvilegesi 

tho right of any or oppn*M his |ierMin. (SihI has and |•owen«ne«'e^«ary totheweII-pivrrningthent»f. 
Airnislusl me with a iM'tler nwdutiunand hasgiven Made public for the infurnmiion tif such as an* 

itio his gnuni to keep it.** Mo ho|HHl to m*o them or nuty be dir>)MNH'd to iran^iMirt tli<-iii«4>lvi<it or 

in n few monlbx, and any reiiMMiable provision MTvaiitii iiiti» those |iarts." Tliir* pnii>|N>clUfi sIkiws 
they wanteil made for their eecurity ami happi- the extent of the knowleilge Penn hiul aln*ady 
iHtM would recrivo his approbation. Until he gleaneil coneemiiig bis provimv, ami how closely 
came he ho|ied they would obey and |Miy their cus- he bud studied the mellnNts by whirh he fin»iiu!>c<l 
tomary dues to his deputy. to necure its prompt and eflinrtive planting and 

That deftuty was Penu's cousin, William Mark- si^ttlemcnt. It is not necet^^ary to inctjr(M>mtc the 
ham, a captain in the Britisfh army, who was whole of such a fminphlet in this narrative, but 
on April 20, 1G81, commi.'«ioned to go out to some of its salient points niu.<*t be n<it<*<l. It was 
Pennsylvania, and act in that caimcity until written, we must remember, in April, Ki^l, a 
Penn's arrival. He was given power to call a month after the signing of the patent. Penn 


Iw]cIm with Ml «xeaiiiiis opon iKe benefit of pUuitA- buy, those who will rent, and tervaDta. ** To the 

Worn or ooloniee in ijeneral, to ** obviate a eomnion fint, the nhares I aell Bhail be oertain ai to number 

objeetkm." ** Colonic*,*' he aay«, ** are the Medi of of acnw ; tliat ia to lay, every one ehall contain five 

nations, begun and nouriphed by the care of wise thousand acres, ft^ee from any incumbrance, the 

and populous countries, as conceiving them best price a hundred pounds, and for the quit>rent but 

fur the increase of human stock and beneficial for one English shilling, or the value of it, yearly, for 

eonimerce." Antiquity is then searched through a humlred acres ; end the said quit-rent not to 

for examples nectllcss to repeat, but all brought in begin to be paid till 1684. To the second sort, 

to prove that colonies do not weaken or im|K>vcririh that take up Inntl u|Mm rent, they shall have 

the mother-country. Indcetl, this part of his lil)crty so t4) do, imyiiig yearly one penny per acre, 

an^iinicnt rcails as if It worn IVnn's brief while not exttniling two hiindml ncnti. To the tliird 

his pi'titiou was U^fon* thu Privy Coiiiicil, and as sort, to wit, m^rvniits that anf citrrU<d ovcr,^ llfty 

if hiMlKw it up in rt>ply to tibj<vtions tlu'riMirpnl acn*s slinll Ik« iillt»Wi<«l to thu mnster fur every 

apiinst niiicctling him the |mtont. He hIiowh how hi*ad, and fifty acres to every servant when their 

colonics and foroipi plantations have contribute*! time is expinnl. And bccnusti some engage with 

to the lieiM^Ht of Kngland's commerce and iiidus* me that may not lie disponed to go, it were very 

try, and might be expecte<l to continue to do so. advisable ft>r every three ailventururs to send over 

He denies that emigration has de|>opulatcd the an ovenwer with their servants, which would a'cll 

country, but says that the increase of luxury has pay the cost." ' 

drawn an undue proportion of the rural comnmni- Penn next speaks of his plan for allotments or 

lies into cities and towns, and that the incrcaj^ed dividends, but as his scheme was not tlien, as he 

cost of living thus brought about tends to jirevent confesses, fully developed, and as he Inter furnished 

marriage and so promotes the decay of jrapulation. all the dctnils of this scheme as he finally matured 

For this and the many atteiidunt evils emigration, it, we will pasA that by for the preiicnt. It is 

he suggests, is the only ellective remetly. He then enough to say that the plan is very closely fol- 

procevils to s]tcak of his province, the imlucenients lowed ttwhiy in Knsteni KuroiH) to promote the 

it oflers to colonists, and the terms on which he is sale of government bonds. 

prepared to receive them. The jicrsims, Penn siiys, that ** Providence seems 

**The place," he says, *'Ilcs six hundred miles to have most fitted for plantations" are 'Mst, in> 

nearer the sun than Knghind," so fur as dillcrcnce dui>triouH huHlmndnien and day laborers that are 
of latitude goes, adding, *' I shall say little in its ' hardly able (with extreme lalior) to maintain their 

praise to excite tlc&«ircs in any, whatever 1 coultl families and portion their ehildren ; 2, laUirious 

truly write as to the si»il, air and water; thiit *\ui\\ hnndicratlM, (*siH'einlly car|H*nten«, niawNis, smiths, 

Mitisfy me, that by the hUitsing of (i<n1 nnd tlie weavers, tnylors, tanners, slitHMuakers, shipwrights, 

hon«*sty and Industry of man It may U* a giNMl and etc., when* they nuiy In« spnreil or low In the woHd, 

fruit Ad land." He then enumeniti<s the laeilitles antl as they Mhall want ni» eneounigt*nient, S(» tla'ir 

for nnvigntiim byway of the Hehiware liny and Inlnir is worth more then* than hen*, and there 

Uiv4>r, and by way of l*h«i«ii|icakc Hay ulso; the provisions ehea|N*r." «), Penn inviti'S ingeidtius 

variety and abundance of tindicr; the quantity of spirits who are low in the world, younger brothen 

game, wild fowl, and fish ; the variety of priMlueUi with snudl inlieritnnt'es and (often) largo families; 

and commodities, native or introduced, inclu<ling *' lastly," he says, " there are another sort of 

** silk, flax, hemp, wine, sider, wood, madder, persons, not only fit for but nece:wary in plaiita- 

liquorish, tobacco, jmt-asthcfl, and iron hides, tionn, and that is men of universal si>iriUi, that 

tallow, pipe-staveis beef, pork, sheep, a'ool, corn or have nn eye to the good of iio&terity, and that lioth 

wheat, borley, rye, and also furx, as your poltrcc, uiidcrstuud and delight to promote good di«ciplino 

nitncks,nicoonii, martins, and such like store of furs and just government among a plain and well* 

which is to be found among the Indians that are intending {wople ; such pontons may find room in 
profitable commodities in Knglnnd." Next, after io*Utii "rv«WMpii«m»n,"Uniw»tiirjauMth«trarrrtrM fur atvrM 

explaining the channels of tra«lc,— country pro- «*)«"»«w«r;'^'''-«««"«jH;y»iv«K^^^i^ 

duce to \ irgmm, tolHU*co to Knglanu, r^ngliHn <»nrvm wnmiwirwutt. ivwTMiwBfau wmM uaiMj »umi unn; 

e»i>.n>«<iiti« to tho «.ioDi«^-iK. give. >«un.nco " — S«r.SiVJ'l!:i.Xr«i;ii«« ';;::;;. " 

that under his liberal charter, paying due allegi- i«m«i qait-rvm h u. i«ri<M a...... .......... ! a lo 

(Rqnal lo ^71 pane* par 100 A. p»r •■««■) <• log. 


ance to the mother-country, the f)cople will be able 

to enjoy the very largest protwrtion of lil)erty nnd iVM«to.--.w a «* m i«r a. 

make their own laws to suit themselves, and that g,„,^^K .^riMu m ma.. «|y.i i« stiu a. W id. is 12$^ 

be intends to pretwre a satisfactory constitution. ^ ^ . , , ., ^^ , . __ ,_ — : — • 

Penn state* explicitly in this pam]>lllct the con- jmt\f rwnia muuumIuh to Ui i».,vtt».M. mmttj par Ii« mena, iIm 

ditions of immigration int«» his pniviiiec. I lo looks •?•'" "r* "^ *»? I;"'*'"' '•'»»«. "«"•• •••• -^i* *:*"**! "^ '""'*• 

** , * , ,,, Tlia purrliaavr uT Awuit aerm liwl. MtiTMtar, • fartlirr ■•ivaBtaio in 

to sec three sorts or iieojile come, — tliuse woo will abiifiiig m iha •immmbu, w "sivMvihii,'* ■■ ivm «»• umm. 


rokmict for their ignoA eounsol niid oontrlvftiiM, Mter, Mid h« wos further mmt actlvetv cinploytvl 

who are shut out from being of much uie or aorvloe In du|HMinK of lendc sod Mperintemliiig the 

to great natioBf under feUlcd eustonw ; th^ee men Muling of »hip>Io«dM of hu colonbtt. The ficvt 

drterve much ortcem and would lie hcarlccn'd to." of thoe p«|H>ni on cfmcGwiooe and c<>n<lttion« wan 

Very considerately Penn next tells all be knows prepanHl indeed on tlie eve of the Miling of the 

about the cost and equipments for the journey and lint vcMsels containing his ** adventurers" This 

mibststenoe during the fin^ few months, *' that such wan in July, and the vcskIs arrived out in October, 

as incline to go may not be to seek here, or brought Kvvry («per he publi>hcd called f«»rth nuniert*us 

under any disappointments tliero.'* He nH*ntioiis letteni fnmi his friends, who wantetl him toexpUin 

among gcMids lit to take for iiso or for salo at a thiK or that oliMMire iMiiut to them. aiHl 1m« aUnys 

{)rtifll**nll sorts of np|Hin<l and utensils for bus- mviiis to liuvo nii)HiiMh-<l elu-eriiilly |o tlN<M*««x> 

miidry and building and Iuhim^IioM sluir.*' Tetiple luuiiitlvt> tiix<« u|Miti bin time. Hi* \iturk Mrnin to 

niunt not delude I bemselvw, bo suvii, with the idea liiive uitnieitHl ^n>nt iittiiitioh and ntiniiuuidnl 

of Instant proflts. They will btivu a winter to ndminition. Jniiuit <*liiy|MNilo «ritcf> (July 2'iil), 

encounter licforo the stinniier comes, ** and they '* 1 linvc begun my Ictirr on too little a piece <*f 

must Im) willing to bo two or three years without ii(i|)er to give tlice my judgment of IVniiM'lvania, 

some of the conveniences they enjoy at home, and but, in ithort, I, and muiiy others wider tlinn I am, 

yet I must needs say that America i^ another thing tlo very much npprovc of it and du jud«:e William 

than it was at the first plantation of Virginia and Penn its fit a man lut nny one in Kun»|H' to plant a 

New Kngland, for there is better accommodation country.'* IVnu bad nUi Iki-o Iiti.«ily nt-goiiating 

and Knglish provixions arc to be bad at etuier with the I>ukc of York for the lantU now eonsat- 

ratcs." The passage acroHS the ocean will be at tuting the State of iX^laware, which wer« the 

the outside six ])ouiidii per head for nmsient and duke's pmiHTty, and wliicb Penn xtunteil to |mm»- 

mistrcKses, and five |ioundj« for servants, children m>h in onler to insure lux own pn>vin<x' tlie free 

under seven yearn old fifty shillings, *^ exiv|it they navigation of the Delaware, and |H'rlui|v, aUt, to 

suck, then nothing." Arriving out in i^'ptemlier keep this pmvinue fntm fulling inii» the hamis of 

or Octolier, ** two men may clear as much ground hij« nei;;hb<ir, I/ml lhdtiin«»n*, who elaimed it 

by spring (when they set the com of that country) umler iiis charter. Hut Sir John Wenlen, the 

as will bring in that time, twelve months, forty duke'K ngi>nt, still held oH' auti gsive Penn nmch 

barrels, whicli makes twenty-five quarters of corn, trouble and uniti^ineii<*. The latter had nivived a 

So that the first year they nuut buy corn, which . UMupling offer fn>ni a <'om|Kiny of Marylandera of 

is usually very plentiful. They mu>tt, so smm as hx ihousnnd iNiundi* cai«h, and a twi>-an<I-n-hnlf 

they come, buy i*ows, more or Icmh, as they want or |H*r (H'ut. n»yaliy lur the ni«>ii<i|Mily nf the Indinn 

a ru able, which iiro to Imi bad at easy rates. Ftir (Air) tradu lulwirn the Delaunre and SuMpu^ 

swine, thoy an* plentiful nnd ebeii|i, the^» will hnnnu rlven>. but he r^Aim'tl It ujmmi noble 

quickly Inenwse to a stiN'k. Ho that after the grounds. 

first year, what with the |NionT sort s<iiiu'tinu*s KinU)IN'nun'l\iiH*<liiMduiictliequit-niitiievenlo 

laboring to itthers, and the more nhlu llnhing, . bin ni<Ht| InliMmtelVienils," intending," an l'lay|Miole 

fowling, and sometimes buying, they may do very wn»le, *'to do eipuil by nil," but he did niluiv 

well till their own stocks are suflicient to supply them fnmi a {lenny to a half-|H'iiny in favur of mt* 

thorn and their families, which will quickly lie, vants iH.'ttling (m their fifty*ncre lots, after having 

and to spare, if they follow the English husbandry, servctl their time. SuWquently, oj* we chull see, 

as they do in New Kngland and New York, and Penn was le:<s rigidly moral in his land ctiiiiracts. 

get winter fodder for their stock." Finally, the In lieu of the pn»iNiH!dni«»no[Mily IVnn nuide many 

candid Penn recommends that none should make liU'rul c<uice!««ions of land and privileges to another 

up their minds hastily, all get the consent of their comixiny, ** The Krce S<N*ieiy of Traden*,** whose 

friends or relatives, nnd all pray God for his jdans he favonni, and wIum; t*oni4titution and char* 

blc!«ing on their honest endeavors. ter he hel|M-d to draw. 

During all the rest of this year and of 1082 The charter to the Pennsylvania Com|iany, tlie 

and up to the moment of his embarkation for Free SiKMety of Trndens fa^iirs date Man-li 24, 

Euroiw, William Penn was mcvt busily and ab- 108*2. The incor|N)rutor8 named in Penn*s deed to 

sorbingly engaged in tlie multifarious preparations them wvre "Nicholas M'Kire of liondon. medical 

for his new plantations. He drew up a great doi'tor ; James Clayi»oole, na'rchnnt ; IMiilip Ford 

variety of iwpcm, concessions, conditions, charters, (Penn's unworthy stewani) : William .<herloe. of 

statut(!fl, constitutions, etc., equal to the average Ixmdon, merchant ; Jvlwanl Pierce, of I^»udon, 

work of half a doacen congressional committees. leather-K>ller; John Synuvck ami Thomas Itrus* 

In addition to work of this sort, re(|uiring con- scy, (»f Cbivhire, yeoman ; Thonui.** Itaker, of I«iin- 

tvntnited nnd alntracted thought and study, his don, wiiie<c<M»iK*r ; ami F<dwnrd ItnNikis, of l^m- 

corruJ«|H)ndcnco was of tho most voluminous char- don, grocer." The divd cites Penn's authority 


WMfer hb patent, nentions tKe eonTcjrance to the centre of hie lot end eurround hie hou« with gei^ 

compeny of twent/ tlioiumnd ecrM, erccte thie dons and orchanK**that it may be a green ooun- 

tract into tlie manor of Frank, "in free and com- try town/* lie nid, "which will never be burnt 

men KMTnjse, by such rcnti^ cuntoms and tcrviocs and alwajrs bo wholceuroc." Of ctrarM no great 

ae to tlieni and their mirocMioni tliall aceni meet, to city could be built on any luch plan, and Tenn 

ae to bo fonKintcnt with said tenure/' nllowM them hiniiielf abandoned it or greatly nuMlificd it oven 

twojuntiew'courti a year, privilege of eourt-lmrun iM'foro lie willed, the rummiwiouor nml eurveyur 

and ciiurt*kH*t and view of fViuik-]dct!ge, with nil finding it ini|MiMiil»lo ti> ulwen'o the c»ndili<»ll^ ee- 

llie nnilMirity re<pilititti In, the pn'UiiKtM. The ptM'iully when viwelii Imvuh to Iw nunieniun nluiig 

wieiety io nutluirixiil to op|M»int and renuive ils the wulerfViint un«l IniKineM tpning up. Tliiit Hyu- 

ulK«vn and M.>r\'nnt«, i« given priviU'gu of frue teni uf gn.*ut fHruin, with a evntnU tuwuHliip dlvidtil 

tran»|M»rtation of itn gmida and pniduvfii, nntl ex- into minor lotM, IVun pn»|Mii(v<l to extend all over 

empted fn»m any but rtatc and liK*al tnxen, while tlie pnivince. Hia rond a}'tftcni was excellent, 

at the Kanie time it ran levy all needful taxes ft»r UuutU were to lie built mit lew than fiirty feet wido 

itn own HUpiiort within iu own liniiUi. lui chief from city to city, uii airdiinv as mtirly an |MiM>ible ; 

oflleen* are coniniitttioned tm niagixtnitctf and all Ktreetn were tobelaidoff at rightanglva and of 

clmrged to keep the |Niice, with juriMlii'tiun in euiw libenil width, oiid no buildings were to be allowc<l 

of fehiny, riot, or diitortler of any kiinl. It u to eneronch on them*, nor wa4 there any irregular 

given tlirev repm<entativM in the l*rovincittl Coun- buihiing to Itc |K*niiitte«l. Thirt nde of nyinraetr}', 

fil, title to three-HAlM of tin* pniiluetH of all niineM amounting aliuoKt to formality, could not bo cur- 

and niinemli* found, fWv privih-gt* to tilth in all the ri(*d out uny UHire tliiui the gnnit city plan. It 

waters* of the pn»vinee, and to eitiabliKli fuirx, nmr- wiui not IViin's notion, probably, for he waM u<it a 

ketit, etc., and tin* lio«ikii of the stM-iety niv exem|it piveisinn in anything, nntl it look« much more like 

from all iui'iM.'ction. The MM'iety imnieilintely \tT%> u contrivance borrowetl by htm for the iHMiee frtmi 

|iaml and |Mdilitfhc«l nn addnvK, with itj« eonntitu- Sir William Petty, Sir TlumuM itruwnc, or Mime 

tioii anil by-laws, in which a very cxteiwive field other liare-bmin among his contcni|Hinkrius. l*enn's 

of operation is nuip|ied out.* system of quit-rcnts and of nuinon* ali«), the fotinda- 

In the n-guhitioiu« for ivlonii^ts set forth iu his tions of a great fortune, resembled duscly that of 

statenM'nt of '^ certain «*on4liiions or conceHt*iuns Lord Hnltimoru in Maryland. It is likely that 

agre«tl n|NHi by William l*enu, pn»priet4ir}' and I'enn gf>t the idea where I>»rd Ihdtimon* derived 

Governor of Pennxylvanin. and tluMe who are the .his, fmin Iri'liuul, that form of irnHkn'mnble 

attvenltiri'ni autl pureluiseni in that provim-u the gruun<l-n*nt U'ing nn oltl and familiar lrii«ii ten- 

Uth of July, lOHl/* the system of ]>lnntntion is urc.' Tlio (pi it-rent system ciiuamI almoot inime- 

plainly diwrilKtl. I*in<t, a large city is tu lie laid <liatc discimtent in IVunsylvnnia, and undoubteilly 

otr on nnvig:d»lo water, divi(le«l into lots, and ]nir- injured the proprie(ttr)''s ]io|Milttrity ami interfered 

chnA'rs of hirge tracts of lands (five thousand with his income. His largo resiTvations uf cImmco 

nervsi) are to havo one of thc^se city Iota assigiie«l lots in every section that was lni«l out, «*i»iitributc<l 

them, the location determined by chance, it was to this also. 

l'enn*s original plan to liave his great city consist Kvery |ienion was to en}oy n<.*ceM« to and use of 

of t4*n thiMisnnd acres, dividi*d into one hundred water-courses, mines, quarries, etc., and any one 

kits of «»nc hundnnl acres inich, one of these lots to cotihl dig for metals anywhens liound only to |iay 

lie awanhnl (by lot) to each piirelmsor *>f a tract for «lamagi*s done. Settlers were re(|uired tu plant 

of nuinoriul |iru]iortioiis, who was to build in the hind sun'cyetl for them within three yiiirs. Cimids 

for ex|N>rt ei»uhl only bo Iwiight or sold, in any 

j.i"„i"::rA:r.rr .rjT r^r^iir «S3 »••««•. «> !•«•'«« »•"'"•'• r» '■™"' •"•' ''^•'•••>'""» 

MMVllMMiii* t«4f.«wl|ir*tl«irtiiiMlirvul4i<l. Th« «iSlt<m wrni km|. WCrU to llC pUllislKHl llV forfclturu of tllC glNlds. 

«Nlipr>^l^l "C ilriMMr. » •imrnm. CMiiMlltrPiMM Iu lwr» IhiI om ^" inmillg Willi illUUIIlS WaS lO 00 HOlie 11) 0|K»n 

«ui» MTiitii mvHiiiic^ «Mii iim cMiing vuco («i tit* |irMtii»ai. oRiwni market, uud fniud u|M)n them preventetl by insfice" 

:::i24"2ru;^,.irJi':l^:rk',^i,tr-2! ^^» -f !■'"«'••. o""«««-» "i.-""* i..<ji«.» *«« w 

nnrt at lU rwl «r Mch bwlana }ri«r. Hi* oSk«n i« llv* mi Im* pUlliAllCtl jUSt M tllOaC aguiust thc wlutCS, and 

X. i«*. ^^in* i« •-rtei,'. Lmm. .n4.r ihiM locu. lb. kl;. 1. disputcs U'twceu the two races to lie settleil by a 

riMr«»wri«»Air*i,imMnr,aMi«MM«cMaMMt««-iiwB, and Muc u>iw mixed jurv. Indiaiif to hiivc thc samo privilcgcs 

m4 in ih^ hmm, ufuf* -vrn pmMH, .|i»iHiii i.y <U>»in*^ Hi. ^ ^"*^ vtUitA!* in inipruviiig their lands and raising 

•.4Hy«Mh»«r»ii«wii««ar«4amruuiwiviiiwyit.aiaiiwsniyr«r croiw. Stock Dot marked withlu throo montlis 

totauM !•«* urwiMw framl faclwrlMla IN'aiMyh«alik,wH« u« 41mw 

p A9 n»y. Mne «« mrfevara ur vIwwImw ; In aM IimIUm in iMikllni • iMlnHiifMM to cnmnilHi««m fur •attllnf IIm rvtuny, Ort. l». IG»|. 

Hr.. a»l U» h.<M mnfnim t^ fMirlMi ynua' wrvira, wb«n (liry Tlil* ha* bwn cwMluilrvly ahuva In mtm vt*uiam (|HiMi>lMd In 

> Iu (w frra, •• wn (Ivlng lb* wcMy I wwiblnk uT what lli«> ran piv tlia MarylaBa Rrpiirla) tiT iIm> JwIctc of Ilia Maryland i 'Mnrl wT AnMla. 
4nra «n Um4 allulffd to iWat by lb* nrlHy, arith n Murk and luuto; If Thfva vplnk>na mm ginn In lNt«nifHall.Ni uf baM - tor nliiHyntna 

tbay a«f«^ m« bf tbia, to ba wrvaMa UII Ibay 4»." Tba Itndinc ulf(«rt yfwa, rvnanabhi funvar." It waa dw blH that Ibfaa Immm mmtm par* 
•r iba a*lrty at Iba vnlwt awwa to bava toan an asiaMlva fraa Inda pal nal, and IbHr bialiirtcal n'UlUm |.i tba IrtOi laaara waa daniaaitnilad 
arltb tba In Itona. la »fdar to faiabllab tba fbet af tbair ImdatwaMa cba«nctor. 


after eominf into pMnnion of pUnUmito be for- bills hy the clerk of the.Pnivim*ial Giuncil, rnd 

Ibitod to the Governor. In clearing land, one- the ocowion and motive* fur thciu bein}; opened 

fifth to be left in wood, and oak and mullierry by the Ouvvroor or hh deputing «hall p^*« tlirir 

trcet to be prMer\*ed for ■htp'buildiug. To pn> afflrniattve or ni*gativc, which tu thoni tvcnieth 

vent debton from furtively aluMviMling, no one wan ItcKt, . . . and the lawa mi pri'imivil and t»r«>{)0iicd 

to leave the provinit) ttnttl after three weeks* puli- as nfunvnid tliiit an* ai«M>tite<l tu by the (i«*iH*ral 

lication of the fact. Ai«<ciulily nliuU In* eimilled as laws ol'tlie prnvinee, 

On April 2r>th he |Hililislic«l his "frame of j^iiv- with this viyle: * Ity the (invi'ninr, aith (heawnt 

eniment,*' i>r, as •laimn (*liiy|NNilo iiiIIihI it In his mid nppnilititiiui tif the fnrinen in ihe rM\iiirial 

letters, ** the ftiiMhuiienlnls for government,"— in Coiineil niitl <ienenil AMM'mhly.*** Ilenf in tin* 

fact, tlte flrst e<>tutitiiti<m of IViiiiM'lvnnin. futul defivt of IVuu'h <*oni*titiition, a det«Tt whieh 

The dui'umeiit is entitled ** The fninio of the rolw it of even any pn-tence of licing n*|Md)li<-nn or 

gnvenimcnt of the pn»vinee of Pennsylvania, in dvnuH-nitic in form or 8id>!*tnnce. The A>«*nd>ly, 

Ameriea, Uigcllier with certain laws agree<l ujion tlie |N>pulttr ImmIv, the n>pnwntativeKuf tht^iH'opIc, 

in Knghiiid by the governor and divem freemen of art* nf*trie<e<I »iniply to a veto|x>wer. They cannot 

the aforcmiid province, to be furthercxphiinctl and originate hilU; they eiinu<it even delmte tlH*m; 

continiieil there by the fin*t provincial council that they nn* nt>t aUowctl to think or act for iIkmiuivIvcs 

i«hall bo held, if they see nie<»t.'* or tlioKc they re]irc:H*nt, hut have nothing to ilo 

The ** preface " or preamble to this couittitution cx<vpt vi»te **v«*i*** or "no." To be miiv. tlie 

is euriou^ fi»r it in written iw if IVnn felt that the CtMincil in an chrtive ImmIv too. Hut it in UMtint 

eyt« of the nairt uere U|M)n him. The fintt tuo to coiiMKt of the tu»vcin«»r's Iricndi*. It ix theartsi- 

immgniphs torni n simple excursus u|N»n I lie tloe- tiH'miic iMNly. h iI4n*s n<»t nuiie t'rtWi fnuu iIh* 

trine of the law and the tniUKgrcMitr afiex|M>uiided |N*«>ph'. Tho tenure of its memU'rit U three yeara. 

in St. Paul's Kpiftle to the Itonmm* : ** Ft»r we licf^iilcs, ft>r onlinnry bufim-w, twenty-fuur of the 

know that the law is spiritual: but 1 am mnuil, (*<Hiiu*il nmke a rpiorum, of whom twelve, with the 

Bolil under sin,*' etc. From this IVnn fh'rives, not (iovernor's (tiKting vote, c<Mupri?H* a nuijority. Tlie 

very jH'rspicuounly, however, ** the divine right of (lovernor has three votiw; the .Sicicty of Free 

gi»veninH'Ut,** the object ofgovernmeut Is'iiig lwt>- Triuh-n* liiu* six votes; if the (iovenior have tlin-e 

fold, to terrify evilHhN.'nt and to cherish thoM' thiit or four friends in Council, >\ith the xupiiort of thin 

do well, ** which gives gi»vcriinMMit a Ufr Itrifumt iMH'iciy he can n'Utnd nil l«>gi!«ln(ion. llHi^'miiiu* 

rturuftfion [i. r., divine right], and milker it lis cnililile that William Pcnii flioiiid liiive ef his 

dunihlo in the world as uimnI men shall 1h'." oi\ii fn*e will iNTiniltcil this hliMiii;>li ti|H>ii hii*('on> 

Hence Peiiu think** that goveninieiit mvnis like a stitution. which he clui:iieil giive all the firmer of 

|Mrt of nOigion ili^elf, a thing siu-red in its ill^titu- pivernment and lnw>makiiig into the ImiimU of iliu 

tioii ami end. {leople. 

In the Constitution, which follonn the preamble, A^iile from tliix fatal piece of i*uliKervienci* th«*re 

Penn U'ginn by eontirming tu the freemen of the is much to prui^ in IVnn's Constitution and 

proviniv all the lila^rties, franchises, and profier- nomeihing to wonder at, as lK*ing hj far in advance 

til's securi'vl to them by the |Nitent of KiiigClinrles of lii.<4 age. The executive functi<»tis of <iovcmor 

II. The g«>vernnH>nt of the province ii* to consist and Council are carefully defimil and limited. A 

of ** the Governor and freemen of the mill province, whoK-iHUiH' and libeml provUion !;• nuide fiir e«lii- 

in form of a Pnivincial Cmincil and (ienend As- cation, public «clio«dit, inventions, and um-IuI ci'ien' 

seiiiblv, bv whom all laws shall be made, oftiivni tific di^'overii's. ' 

ehoHcn, ami ]»ublic aHiiirs traiiMictcd.** TheCoun- The Pniviiicinl (Council, for the nion* prtmifit 

eil, of M>vcnty>two nMMnhers, in to l>e cliH'ted at dit>piitch of buMitiiw, wti!< lo In* divided into f«sir 

one(% one-third of the memU'n* to go out, and their ctmimitteet<,— ^me to have charge ttf phiiitntion«, 

succeiMun electctl each year, and after the first **to situate and settle cili«*s, |mii»u«, and market- 

seven years those going out each year shall nut l>o towns ami higliwiiys, and to liave and decide all 

returned within a year. Two-thinls of the Coun> nuits and contnneniies relating to plantation]*,'* 

cil arc reipiired to cmistitute a quorum, except in one to lie a cimiinitti-e of ju^ttii'e ami safety, one of 

minor niatteri, when twentv-four will sulKi'C. The trade and treasurv. and the fourth of mannenp. 

Governor is always to prcHide ctver the sc:4«ion of e<lucatioii, and arts, ** that all wicki-d and scan- 
Council, and is to have three vt>tes ** The Governor 

and Provincial Ouincil shall nrriHirc and uroito^t » '» »••• !*«"•'•».. r^im Uy- •!•.«■ • A^inn* im« ••nir«r«iiy iw«. 

U> the General AKsembly hen^after inenliotu^l all ^^^ K.Mr»Mir« r..r ih» fti-fuiy «r Ant-nr*.».,. ii.«i %». 

bilU which tliev shall at anv time think fit to be •"• ■••» •i-i.m«.-i^«m«. ii.rT ,i.«ii.i ..m »iih »»ri.iijr ii.ii»rita».<^ 

,, **.i>i •*, • 1 iiiiMl !»• rarvfiillv |<r<i«ic«lrd I7 ■ viriMiiMaf.liM'at>»uaf «• iiib, f..r«lii>l« 

pniHiHl into laws WItllin the said province, . . . and •ftrr«r-*«MI«»r Oi* rmr» ••••1 |.ni.UiK».4 r.«n.Wr. >n.| Ik* 

on the ninth day from tlwir so meeting, the said "«^^" m-^i-i^ y iub i« iiM-ir pm^uu t* ih,« i«i*«i^ >"?'*"*' 

< lenenil AioHiniblv, after reading over the pro|)08ed niiiL 


dfllooi ItTiiif mmy be pferented, and that youth cultivated tweoty* " and oy%rj inhabitant^ artifi* 

BMT be ■umwfully trained up in virtue and u«- oer, or other re^dent in the said province that 

ful knovli'dge and arte.** pays scot and lot to the government" All these 

The (.Scncral Assembly was to be elected yearly, electon are also eligible to election both to Goun- 

nnt to exceed two huwlrvd menibers, rcpn.i«titiiig cil and Atw>mbly. 

all tlic frvcnicn of tlie pniviniv. They were to Elociionfi must be (Voe and voluntary, and elect- 
meet in the capital im ** the 20tb day of tlio see- or* who take bribcw shall forfeit their votes, while 
oimI month,** and durinj; ei^rht days were exiicct- thtiscofrvriiigliribi<s forfeit their election, the Coun- 
cd to froi'ly confi*r with one another aiul the cil nnd AiMcmbly to be solo judi^ of the regularity 
Cbunril, and, if they cImjsc, to make sii<;gcstioni of the election of their mcnibera. 
to the Cuunril mmmittecs about the anieiitliiH'nt or '* Xo money or goods whnll be raised upon or 
altention of bills (all such as the Ctiunoil pro- imid by nny of the ]ic«>p1o of thirt pniviniv, byway 
posiMl to ofll*r for the ailopiion being publii*hed of |Hibli4'tax,cuMtom, orcontributiiin, but by a law 
thfve weeks bcforelinnd), and on the ninth day for that puqiosc nmde." TIumo violating this 
were to vote, ** not 1«m than two-thinls niuking a utatutc arc to lie trcatinl as {Mibltc enemies and be- 
quorum in the |iaa(iug of laws and choice of such traycm of tlio liberties of the province. 
«>tficen« as are by tlivm to lie chosen." The (ivn« All c^nirts uliall lie o|K*n,aml justice shall neither 
enil Assembly was Ut nominate a list of jutlgiii, bo soltl, denied, or delayed. In all courts all |)er- 
treasurens, slH^rifCi, jun^ticen, conuicni, etc., two for sons of all (religious) in'muaniom* nmy freely a|)- 
each office, from which list the <iovenior and iHwr in their own way and acconliug to their own 
Council were to selivt tlie oflitvrs to serve. Tlic manner, pleading |M'rHonnlly or by friend ; c«iiu- 
biidy was to a«ljourn uiMm being served with no- plaint to Ite exhibiteil fourteen days lieforo trial, 
tice tluit tite (.lovemor and Gmnoil had nii further and summons isc^ui'd not [vm than ten days before 
buKiness to lay before them, ami to asiicmblc again trial, a copy of complaint to l>c dolivcre«l to the 
u|ii»n tlie summons of tliv (lovernor and Council, jiurty complained of at his dwelling. No ci>m- 
Kleiiion>« were to lie by Imllot, and so were qucs- plaint to Ih* rt'Ci'ived but U|)on the oath or aftir- 
liotts of im|N.iichmcnt in the Assembly and judg- miition of complrtinant that lie U'lieves in his con- 
nient of rriminals in the Council. In cane the scienit) liii« caiim; to Iw juat IMctulings, proceiwes, 
pnipri«iary In* a minor, and no gimnlinn has nnd rccordi* in court are nvpiinil to lie brief, in 
iNvn np|Niint«'<l In writing by Ids fnlluT, the Conn. Kiiglinli, and written plainly i<o ns to lie untlunlotHl 
ril wni« ti» ap|Miint a eommiM«ion of tlini* guiinl* by all. 

iann to aii'as (lovernor during such minority. No All trials ithull Ik* by twelve men, farrv, of giKal 

biiKinetM was to lie dtine by the (ioveriior,l'ouneil, chnnu'ter, and of the neighIiorh«MNl. When the 

or AMemhly on Sunday, ex<vpt in caM^H of cnu^r- {H^nalty for the ofleuM) to lie triifl is death, the 

genc}*. The Constitution could not be altenKl slieriH' ii* to summon a gnind inquest of twenty- 

without tlie conwnt of tlic Governor and six- four men, twelve at lenKt of whom shall pronounce 

sevenths of the Council and the (General As- the complaint to lit' true, and then twelve men or 

M*mbly. (Such a rule, if enforcetl, wmild hnvo |ieers are to lie further n*turiinl by the sheriff to 

|ierpetuated any Constitution, howuver laid). Ki- try the iMUu and have the Hnal judgment. This 

nally l*enn tolemnly declaretl **that neitlier 1, trial jury shall always lie subject to reasonable 

my lieirs nor ai^igmt, shall pnK'urc or do anything chnllonge. 

or thinpt wlieivby tin* liU^rties in this charter con- Fees arc rc«|uire«l to bo moderate, their amounts 

taiiMHl ami expn»<setl shall 1m> iiifringe<l or broken; si>ttkxl by the Ix*gislature, and a table of them 

and if anything he procure«l by any |ters«>n or hung up in every court-room. Any iwratai c*on- 

|ierM»ns ciattrary to these preminM it shall be held victed of charging more than the lawful fee shall 

«if mi force «»r ellect.** pay twofold, one-half to go to the wronged |»arty. 

On May I'nh Penn's code of laws, |ttii«e<l in while the otiender shall be diflnii:«ed. All ])enoiis 

Enghiml, to he altered or aineiuUHl in Pennsyl- wrongly imprisonc<l or prosiK'uted at law shall 

\-ania, was pnmnilgated. It conjiiMs of forty have double ilamages against the informer or pro- 

ittatut4«, the fin^t of which de<-lares the charter or secutor. 

iViuiiiiiution which has jui*t larn nnalyxe<l to lie All prisms, of which each ctiunty isto have one, 

** t\nidiimental In the government itm^lf.'* The shiill In) work-houses ft»r lelons, vagrants, and hNiHO 

Miiiud «'»tHbliKh«'s the i|unlili<iUions of a fni'iiiiin and idle jNTstms. All |H*r>Mins shall \m Indlable by 

(or voter or eh'«>tor). Tlu^' lnelu<U* every ptir- sullleient security, siK'e in nipital ollensi*s ** wliera 

cliaM*r i»f one hundnnl ncnw of laml, every tt<niint the pnsif is evident or tla! pn*!«uuipti<in grtnit.** 

of one hundreil acres, at a iieniiy an aero tpiit- I*risi»ns are to lie fn*e as to fees, fo«Hl, nnd lodging, 

ifnt, who has |Miid his own |NtS!*agu acnsis the All lamis and goods shall lie liable to |iay debts, 

ocean ami cultivated ten acn-s of his hohling, except wliero there is Icgid Ihsuc, and then all goods 

every fWicnian who has taken up fifty acres and and one-third of the land only. (This is meant in 


ciM a nail ihould die lofoWeot) All willi in mict to pence and conconL Faeton and otbef* 

writinfif, aUeited by two witncnH*, shall be of the guilty Mi brrach of tnirt niiwt make fatiofaction. 

•ame force a« to land* or oilier conveyances, beiuf^ ami uno-thinl over, to their t*mpl«»yeni, and in t-nfe 

legally |>roved within forty days within or wltlmut of tlio fnctor's dttitli the Council C(*ninil(ti'e of 

the province. Tra«lo is to m-c thiit sntiitfactif>n is made out of bis 

Kovcn yean* quiet |KMieMion givm title, except estates, 

in cases of infants, lunatics, marrie«l women, or • All |Hililic officers, If^fislators, etc., mtuit be prufi^ 

|iersons beyond the seas. son of fuith in Jc>kus Cliri]*t, of pootl fnmis N»ljer ami 

Hriliery and extortion are to be severely liornvt convittioiis, and twenty-one yean* old. "All 

pi:nishc*d, but fines should be moderate and not |ienii»n>t living in iliis pmvince tihuconfi-Mtand ac- 

exhaiiMtive of men's pni|ierty.* lcnowleilgi> tlM> om* Alinijrhty and KtcnmllHMl to Im* 

Marriage (n«it ft»rbiddi>ii by the di*grces of con- the ('real<»r, rpholdfr, and Kuler of tlie %korld, 

sanguinity or affinity) slmll be enctKimgeil, lint ami that hold tiK'tiwlvfs obii;!fd in cousi'ii-mv tu 

|ian>nts or guardians must fin*t 1m» nuiMultMl, ami live inticeahly and juhtly in civil 8o«ncty, shall in 

publiiation ma«le before Holcninixntion ; tlic ivru- noways Im moKi(ti>(l or pnjufliccd lor their n'li- 

niony to be by taking one another as husband and gitius |»ersua.«ion or practice in mattcn of fiiiib 

wife in the presence of witnty^MM, to Iw followctl by and worship ; nor shall they be coni|iellc«l at any 

a certificate signcil by isirtii-s and witiu^Mscs, ami time to fre4]Ufnt or maintain any religious «or- 

reconled in the office of the county n^gis^ter. All ship, place, or ministry whatever.** The pitiple 

deeds, charters, gnints, conveyances, hmg notes, are re(piire«l to n>|ii>ct Sunday by alistaining fn»ra 

lionds, etc., are required to Ims rpgii<tere«l also in daily lalMir. All "oHviim.'s against (mmI/* swear> 

the county enrollment office within two months ing, curbing, lying, prulane talking, drunkenness, 

after they are execute«l, otherwise to Iw void, drinking of healths, oli^ivnity, wliuredoni and 

Kiuulnr deeils made out of the pruvini^* were other uueleunnew*, treasons, mi!>pri^ions, murders, 

alK»we«l six months in which to lie registcriHl \yo- duel.'*, ieK»ny, M'dititm, roaiiiiinp<. forcible entries 

Aire l)e<-oming valid. and other violence, all, stage-plays, cards. 

All defaivrs or comiptersof legulinstmmentsor <lice, May-games, ganut'ters, mu.«k.«, revels, bull- 
registries shall nmko double sat ist act ion, half to baiting!*, c«>ck-figliiin;:s, and the like, "which ex- 
thu ]uirty wnmged, Ik* dismismtl from place, and cite the |H>opj«' to rudem-f;*, cruelty. liMisenos, and 
disgra«'e<l as faUi men. irreligion, uluill be riT|ie<-i fully diMtmnigitl ami 

A si'|Niniie n'giitiry of births, niarriagi's, d«'iuhs, severely punif>lied, aemnling to the ap|Mtiritment 

burials, wills, and letters of administnttiiMi is r\*- of the (lovenior and I'revmen in Council and 

(|uin<d to Im* kept. (leiiend AsK^mbly." 

All pn»|»erty of fehms is liable for diadde satis- All other matters not pnivide^l for in this 

faction, half to the |mrty wronge«l ; when there is omIu are reffrn-«l to ** the order, prmleiK-e, ami 

no laud the sati!*ffiction must Iw worketl out in determination " of the (iovernor and J^egii^laturv. 

prison ; while e]*tates of cniiital oflenders are The mo!>t atlniirable |Nirts of this cinIc, putting 

esclientt*d, one-third to go to the next of kin of the it tiir ahead of the c«iiitem|Hirary jurispruileniv of 

sutlerer and tlie remainder to next of kin of Kngland or aiiv other civilixed eianitr\* at the 

criminal. time,' are the n'gulatioiut for lilM>rty of woivhip 

Witnes.<*es must promise to .-iwak the truth, the t n..t •» N.n.i r,.r,H ti.^ r«ti,..i.c rui..*, m M-f>ui,.i,f..««.«ra its.r 

whole truth, etc., and if ctiuvictcil of willful ful>H.*- «•"•!:«' t'-i**^". »ii.m- .iwrtir>'( hui.^nj ik«»t..r i-unnhB 

oud shall suiter the fienalty winch would have ci^pr,,..,. r«.,n.,.. ,...;„ i^i.i-.«i «i....B^».i*.rf iv..,;,«..,k. f 

been inHicte«l ui«»n the is'rsouaceuwtl, vhall make »»ripiii.riij:iiuui»ii«K^..f.urki*ri«iiH-«irai.«r. (ai«<rt-*rWrirr«M 

satistacium t«» the party wnmgeil, ami lie publicly rti«.iii..i. .1 ii.r «br. «ii u^M^n *»r i^^nv^i m m.^-ui,.! 

exiiose<l as false wiineM.«es, never to Ik* cntlited in ••"' •'" ■ '•*"''• ^'^- ••• "^*" *" '**'**^* "•• *^'»'«*^ N«t«i««. tu 

any onirt or lM*tore any magistrate in the provimv. Li.ti»i-i iit.. rurii.n pr|«raii.u. ih.-n.*i««« t^iue^ rot ..i.ii.»..n-- ».k«>. 

Public offiivrs shall hold but one* office at a ''•"r«)'«>«'«»'"f'-"*^'-''K'-"«»"^t"«'.««»"«fc»*iti««««»»i.h*rf 

. .. , ,| I . , |U>- rliiliu«lilH>-lll iif J<*«ll>ll (llMl ll«-<l llll«ilrflllM« alial |< r**-i'Vlii«li. Ib^prr 

time; aff children nuire than twelve yen m old Wiiiuhw^m uiii-ii.nI in k.l.. m i<.-*m>.« iU|.ii>u«-rr m^m tw ik* 

shall Ihj taught some useful tnule ; Hcrvants hliall •'"! i»'«.; 1^. «•. >• w ii.«r« «..» i.« i^«.>i r,.r u.. rM-*iM..« u ai-- 

I t , I ,.i , , tal|>li»««, In I'-l. I'T till* •*illl*l"IH<r Ji-^IHIS ••••i If M»»J HlMllwJ lU^y 

not 1m* kept HMiger than their time, niu.<«t 1m! well «. n- 1.> !<•• i«i 1.. .in«iti. in ii.viii»a*.WHrr<^i«a«ii..i-ii.«».iMKt 

tretitinl if ih-mrving, mid at the end .if their term l! »•'•'";•»•»•'•* "7" "f ••• '|'*- •.ni •i.».i. .,• r...... ., .*iw 

he *' put in htting e4|Uitsige, ae<*onliiig to eiiMtoin.*' |•rl■••nr•l,l^Mk.lUH.k^l•r•'«•lllllli••••l,lMll•lMKll••(r•l-tllu>...|..l.t..t.^'* 

H«iiii»lal.moiigi*rs, back-biters, deliiinei-s and V" " ".!" '■'"'»•"••'• V"'"^"! - •:"*": '" ': ' "' V "'r '• "r 

, , r* ' lit •' • • i«f, ki|i« •! ». rk.Miii'lM |.. |.-iii.ilii »lliiil.«ii-l w"*!-!!!?*!.!!.!-.!. 

s]>n*nders of lalce news, «h«'t her iigiilii.*>t public or Tht*»>ui*kiii>i^ r.>tii.m|..i«if«..n.«i«rri nhiiiviin •ii-i. u»i.a»« 

private iK-rsons, are to bo severtlv puiii».hetl as enc- T" '"":;•' '"'['":"' "'Vr.'*^? '.' ,.!'.' '1'" '".'••'"^ '"".'"' 

' » ' » I ...«m«.^ TliBihurliT nf « •l»«'ii »*• ii.ii til In- liii»r|i«rii-«l •.! ■• |.. »i.rk Bh^ Jim. 

InwlUxi (if liiMraMiml HirUiUu rylieton, ••!«■■ !•• all miK I'rvfi-Ust 

• •*C>Mil.'M#w*nti^ MwrrliAiMllM^ mmI wmIimk*,** wr* tlw Ivxt.— Ih* sihI •'«ili.'lh, knU ll»« hcI ..f |.»lrr4il.>n srHl kll fr^^^'liiiK l>-vUI«ii..a, 

tatwl kjr witlvlia WM k*rpi kto kwOM, hit riuSa, iiiiS kU mraiw uf traii*- oSI< inl .Miha, nr., I.rr4iii«<l ilir miur r|.|ni wT t..l'rjlk-.n i>i..| 4.-t«-iiiltM> 

IwrtalkMi ll„B, la tk« wwrJs uf Ik* uaik u( 1(47, tkal aoo* la tkc tututtj, Lj hian 


«kl tbe adminiitnuioa of jiiKice. Penn'i eode Ute, and the people I fcnd are all of the flame 

OB thw latter point b more than a humlnd yean mind, and ahall in all tiling* hehave themiclvce 

ia advance of Enj^land. In the matter of fcca, acooidingly, and if in anything anj ahall oflend 

charismK |»lain and niniple forme, proGoncs, rccord«, you or your people, you ■hall have a AjU and 

ami pleadingN, it itill renmins in advance of court fliieedy sativfaction for the tame by an equal nuni- 

]«rucvcilingi ami rpgulatione nearly everywhere, her of juet men on boih eideis that hy no meane 

The dauio* aliout work-hoiwce and ahout bailahle you may have just oceaeion of being offended 

ofiemie* are also far in advance of even the best against them." This was the initiatory step In 

modem juri«pnidence. that '* traditional |H>lify '* of l*enn and the Qimk- 

Nutwithstamling all these and many other ers towards the Indians which has been so con- 
heavy ami pnwin^ engagements, Peim seems to si«tcntly maintained ever since, to the im|icrish- 
have fiiund time to attend to his work as a preach* able honor of that Kcct. 

er ami a writer of n>li)it)us tracts ao«l paiiiplilets. As the year 10M2 entered we find l*enn re|M>rted 

He wi»nt on a iniMtMi tmir into the West of Kng* to be ** extraordinarily busy " about his ]>rovincc 

land, he wrt»to on ** Spiritual Commimon,*' lie and its atliiin*. He ii« wiling or leai<ing a great 

me«liat(*d lMiWiH>n diiMi*iitiiig Kricndi*. and licalnl a deal of hiiul, and mauling «iut mony servonts. A 

bri'ach in his church ; his U'iH*v«ilctit einhiivurM thousand |N*n«onji are going to emigrato along 

wen* given to aid and eniiiumge the Urintol with him. 1 ie gi>tri Clay|ioi>lu to write to hii« itir- 

Qunkcrs, then seven*ly perse<nite«l, and he iNirely reHiMindcnt in Uonleuux tor gro|)e-viues, fifteen 

cacaiNtl Ix'ing sent to jnil himself for pnrachtug huiidn'd or two thouMiiid plant*, to carry out with 

in I^MuKm at the (.trace Church Street meeting. him, dei«iriiig vines that be:ir the bii»t gra|M«, not 

IVnn had cx|iecte«l to go mit to I'enusylvania the iiuHt. Clay|ioule ha:» himself bought five 

hiniM'lf Inte in the fall of lliMl, but the prcKHure tluuisHnd ucn-n, wants to go out and settle, but 

of all ihesc cim«<erii>« ami the rush of emigrants doubts aiul fenrs. Ho don't feel mire alNiut the 

ami coUmiKts delayed him. lie ftniml he woiihl climate, the Mivagift, the water thu vermin, reptiles, 

liave A*ltlers fnmi Kran<*o, llnllaiul, and Si'«»tlaiid, etc. 

aH well as from Kiiglnnd, and few iMttidi^s servants Dy June 1st l*eiin had made the extraordinary 

would 1h* ntidy tn p» lM?fore the spring of ](M2. *nlv of fivo liundntl and sixty-fivo thousand fivu 

**WIhii they go, I pi," lie wrtite to his friend hundred acres of land in the new province, in fiur- 

Jiimen llarrifxm, ** but my going with servants eels of from two hundred ami fitly to twenty 

will niit settle a government, the great end of my thouMuid acres. Penn's niuther di«*d about this 

going.*' lie iiImi sai«l in this letter that in sell ng time, cauxiiig him much aHliction. The Free 

or rt>nting land he cleanil the king's and the Jn- Traders' Society is orpinized, Chiypoolo makes up 

dion titk% tlie purchaser or lessee |Niid the neriv- his mind at ltt!«t to emigrate, the silo fur Philiidel- 

ener ami surveyor. In Octulier Penn sent out phia ia det4'rmined, and Markham buys up Imlian 

three comniis>*i«iners, William Cri:<pin, John lie- titles and McUlers' land uiMm it, so as to Imvo all 

xar, and Nathaniel Allen, to co-4i|K>rate with clear fur the coming great city. Auguiit iilnt tliu 

Markluim in selis'ting a site for PeniiV pni|MiHi>d Du^e of York gives IVnn a protective deed for 

great city, and to lay it out. They aUi were Pennsylvania, ond on the 24th the Duke fiuolly 

given very ftill, cnrt'ful, and explicit ii*!«truetions eoiurdes New Cantle, and twelve niiles about it, and 

by Penn, |sirticularly as to di*a!ing with the In- Iloivkill (l>elawan*)» between New CuKtlo and 

dian^ Mmie Indian titli*s ncetling to Iw extingtii^th- Cuihs lIeuh>[M'n, to him by dee«l of feoHbumU^ 

eti by them. He wnite a letter to the Indians This concludes the niiijor fstrt of IVnn's business 

lheniM*lv(*s by these e«immi!«(»ioners, which shows in Knglaiid, and he is niuly to sail S(*pt. 1st, 

he had ittiidicil the savage character very cnrc- 1U^2, in the ship ** Welcome," three hundred tons, 

fully. It tiHielusl thn ln«lian's faith in the one Captain Hubert Creenway, master, it is then 

univemil (iretit Spirit, and finely ap|Kmli*<l to his that ho writes the touching letter to his wifu and 

strong innate senst« of jiuitii-e. lie did not winh children, in which ho mi)**, ** rememlier thou wast 

l«i eiijuy iho gntit province his king hud given the love of my youth niul much the joy of my 

him, he stti«l, without the Indian's eon^'iit. The life; the umihi lielovetl as well its the niont worthy 
rill man had sutK'reil much injuHtim fmni his 

»iiiiitrviiioa but ihiii woa tlio wnrk nl* iM.lfMt.k. • It •••mW BiiMr fn«Mil» fMll«HiIiw,lh«l *rry iuo* .Hrf iwcd«lii« 

nmnir^ men, iiiii iniii iaoj* ino nora oi m>if mtk- iiw.i«rt«.rr.* ivhim-iUhuk wmum iw»»m wihiiuiim &».'«•« 

en» ; •• but I nm not such a man, ns is well known «'>••••'• •'"* i*-**'''/ '•* «'»• ivnwiuing v"*^'^ •■' ow «Hrii.ity ui»w. 

•^ ^^^ «.....»-.. I I.... A I I •"»«r JgliM Wridrti «f«i|# |« Mr. IV»ii, Owl tli«il«k« »wi iwt irri ilh* 

m my own country, 1 have a great love and re- p^,..K„.ni« i.ab.u«i s^-i^i^ ii^m ti„««« ii«i,i«. 

gard f«ir vou, and I desire to win and goin vour fununi iiim iiMt Im iiifwgiii kb cktaw lu uw Mawb !■ um ii«uw«r« 

love ami tnemUhip by a kind, just, ami |»caceablc ^^ ^^ ^ ,„„«w i u«.i. ii. tmJLii.iri, ».rx^ dS.^., 

iUmrmorut K«« Yurli, lu prvveBl Ktran't varniariinieaM «*• liU |wu«Im(«, 

•rif «r ««lirr SIracfly «r ladiicctlj, will *• tiwiMp, nwlcii, or tlbciMW' «r lu iI«|wbU«im:I«s fiviittf • nwaua. wlilvli abu** ilw w|4mIum uf in** 

I •■• J |M>raMi |i r u lw il«ig to IwlUv* la J wmh iltrbl fur vr wa amtttul « bw liail «lttB« m wurh Uiainw^ « ii h klia, ilial hw wa« % «r j lul«ui vm 
«f blB ivU^yB.** hit vwa laterwis 1h IIwm yuU, m jtim wUvrr*."— CkaliMn^ p. *«. 


of all my earthly comforta; and the reason of signwl br Xanne.Seka,KckaKapnan.Jon2Gof««. 
that love wa<i more thy inwanl than thy outward and E^iwn Apo. and show tlut 
excdlencca which yet were many." He embarked -wh^c^^cn- .,...«, or -r>., n,,..r«. f.tu«!w« ^sm^ 
at J>cai with a iar|^ companr of Quaken, and '* i*«Mn«TirAiii«. anj mn m Xi« ci«ci«: «• •■an • Ktv«i«r tii-«a«. 

from tho Down. «ni . ietu,r of " ^lutaUun to .11 r;.;7™::rL7u:r.!i^:rjL\T.."..=ir»^-^^ 

fattlirul inends in England. '*•• pr>hil>.ilM|. Tli^n.r«r« ««. wh-m atiBM ar* li«r»aqlir vritM, 

4t4««ii>«tli«( till pr.i'iibiii »■ Mvrb« Uk«>« wff. >»l raa •»! Mroaf 
Uqa.ira in«jr Im cmM (in Km fjn«U<l pravine*) »t r.irm^ly. ■•til || i» 
I pniliibiUil la Nfw C4«la, »ad In llwt (jvwaiwiit vlD-U%mtm." 

Thw petition npiiciini to have been renewed after 
CHAPTER IX. Penn'u arriviil. <or w« find in the minute:* of the 

Provincial Cniuril, under date of lOih of Third 

DELAWARE U.VDER WILLIAM PEXX. Month (May 20. HWlt). that ** Tlio (Jov'r [IVnn] 

Vess wna vorv woll «»n«»-«n#«,l :« .u iwtorms the OMincill that he had Callwi llw In- 

Y«rk. .urn»,don,l tl.o <,.l„,.v. until 1,1.1^.^1?^* ;"i'"''. T' '' .« '"•;'. "''••V"-"T' «»• I"";« ;- «'•« 

rivcl ....1 took fornml ,.^wi..n. IIU ^LT V. l "" ^"'"j? '''«•■' »•","''" ?'•"'•'"-'• 

l%.rf \v:ii:..... \r..Li i* / ">"«n, ||„. I^v wjw in lurl dwhirttl to be a di:id loiter. 

Ca|it. \\ illmni Mnrkhunu iVpiiiv-Ctovornor, as haa l..* ;.» nsxi i» .... i i . .1 #. ., . , * 

been neeu. .irrivt.l out in OUiber 1G81 Murk! •? ''''^"°'" ''"' ^^""''*' ^'^ '"'•'"•^'•*'* 

ham w.« in New York on June 21,1 but' the fi« "'"^'' ''" '''', '"^'n ^^^ "' ^^' "" *" "'*"' '"'^^ 

rc^rd we have of hi- up,LZ.:^ \he D^^^^^^^^^^^ u'r^^Lui " ' TT .7 ''^ T"^''" ''*':'^ 't 

\m the following: ■»*' ' ."^ '^"'"^ T"/'*.*^ ^"*^'*"" " i-^titinually 

,„^^, . , . ,. eoiuin;? up ui the (.'uK.nial KwtinU 

•*U(4lcMiuBtir('iiuni'llHMii:"" Wh«f><«M, «Mi«hi««bAn<l«»»i1BMU l»..i,ii'- -1.;.. #1. «• U* I "Ml i« .. t 

•r.lH.f^«Bl., H.^l.r-•l,«*nl.JW.,. SUrlih-.. (•jp-trt l" wirivTis * ^'»»" •* ""Ip. "«« * » *'k-..Ml.-. XUiKnI fnini "the 

K*i.. rr«»i»fi»i«»r..ry i'r.«jnc«.if i«.«iwyiT*i,u) iw im uT ih- r.Hinriii Douiir'n " (ihi! road^tiMid off and Itjimt'nitt* 

r4rjr«««|«ri»m-«i, i|« ||..ri«l,» Mill ,„,r^.lv^, I,- ^„, I , , ^^1 , ^ .1. < • i • .^' i »• • i ,.■*.* 

ih.t »- «iii *-m,.r ..I r *uu*. ....r ^\.ulnlnZV!ifZu|^u^t ^ "*''^' *"*' * "»"*'««" -^^''H'l"* «»"««'*•» « iiatund bntik- 

•iM«i •rtiw»-.^ii«,i,,,«r..w« iv,,,^.i.ti,...ih«i^i-ir.M'y.»rM.. -na waUT) ou or itbout Si»t. 1. H»m2. ClaviNxtlc 

Tu-ii. ...I •<..• «f «^ Tl- ." C.»nU. nutLiZ^H^l^Zt^JHi W"**"^ "" -^ pflnlKT 3d I hlU *' Wt' ho|H. the ' W.'l- 

^aZS ic'.r "^ ** •* f ""•••••J. i»*i"a •! V|4mj ribini u«, ^f oMiie,' with Wiliiaiii IVmi, i.^ p.ttiii clear." The 

-K-WrtW4.KM«r».iiDr.w«ii. w-«««.(w.w Th« mark "'"'* """'*' ** tolcniblv bri>k Vova;,'!-, n-jichinff the 

«/) WiiiumW4r.*.Tii..N.wFr4irw»M. j4«--j»A».ii,B,.4. Win cuytou. niln'-* of tho Diluware on ()il.ilKr24lh. and N'ew 

OilwlMTIIMl Kuvlt. •ni|jr«IIMrk(Ll vf Ur* (or 1.WMP) Click -• n .l • .. . ■ . • -^m, "IIM •'«. W 

I.. «... .1 I- 1 «. ""~"-*''- Oftlc- . , II tlwr -.'Till. iK-iiis thus>fn,m 

bcei. n^nniiMU^ ...i.l.-r M«rklmi..« i„^„,e,i.„„ „„,.. «Im,„., i.. ,1... i..i„i „r .lisa.....r. TU-Muall- 

«u.l ury tnnU ms m,Kj. TIk- j„,,i.„ ,.„«,„ « ,h,. lm.l Urn ,«k...'..lK>=,nl a, IX-al. nn.I ., «.vc«, 

Wnir.Tri''' f '';:^„V""''{,-:"T-'»""»,"«' ,"-"« «•*•« »o™ ;,- n,vap, ,l.a, of tlu- one hun.lml |..^i^ 

W C«)ton W .Ihnm W .,„,„. U., Url \V..,I... p-n, ll,„ ,l.i,. „,rri«l. .I.irlv. or nnirlv onMhrnl. 

r ';L;''7'J'-'"? "'"»'-""' •^•"'[kl'HH'V"""- f-t."-" th:.. i, li.i.: «„,i .ri«„,. H^r..l.inK n.; 

I. 11.0 d..rk „i ,1,0 fonrt ,v«, n.-Hn.,, U .v..|l, l „«,... „,• ,|,„„ ,iw „.|v..I,„.,..r. «l,.. .,.,«.. ov.-r 

H. I» .iK-nl , name w.« John -n.,,. Tlu- liw will. lV,„,.-« |i„ ..f „«,».-, „.„«. w.rll.v ... !..,«« 

jury .ln>,.. fin.. .Inmn in IVnn „^^„1 ,h„„ tl.c n.lU of U,«..|| AmIv 

-jlv«,,m-w.«.,,.l,c.-a.H.of.««„,l,«n,ll.a.lm(l'e,..r wl.i-l. ,.n.«.rv« .!.« na,«.„ of tlu- M.l.ju.,.,..^. .-.f 

Lar.ek«.-n w. Ilarnmn J„„«..„ „„a .if..^, „„,, j.;, ,„,.,, „,,., .„„„„ „^.,.^ ^j , ovinia „,|„. Cm- 

l.«.r ..««.«,•««.. M..rK«« Ua-wut. William \V.«.l. .,u,n.r.-l.«„. U-n al.Ic .« ii,..| ,1... „„,t ..f .Lm 

UonoljU UoU.rt N-h»ol..y. I,..|,a„| ru,,,,,,,.. ,|>.. »vI|.t.«Io„.l,.-r, an.l ...mlv v.^.nun wl... 

jiUMo 1).,IIhm.. .John Akniiua,,. l-.t.-r Uaniho. .Ir, ..M.l.ark..l nith I'.nn on the " \\VI.:..«." an.l .li.,1 

e .ry U.,„K^ a.Ml W ,l|.«», OxI.-V! .«■» iMor.. .|uri«« voyat,.. Th.- li,. of |,K.n,.r.. .I..riv.,l 

.In. K.,».ly.(.over«or;« t;.,..,,,. I !«.,„« „„ ,|,u ,,,i..,|y f„.,.. jfr. l-ilwanl ArnM'.ronV.:«.i:in« u' 

J«n. At th,- u..xt narluiK ol I ,.Iuh.| (;.„,r.. in fi.r.. il,.- IVnn,vlvania JIi.tori.-..l .S«iHv at Uu^ 

.\oy..n.lK.r, Marklmni «-,w piwia, nn.I ho atteM,KJ kt in IHol (hi, .uthoriiio. being th. li riven in 

«lltlio™lMc<iuentiH-Mion...uiitothotiMicofI'cnu'« full). iK-aim. nith 

4 .„.,;,; _.«*.. . ... _ J**«M D4K.C. MmI Kllabrth, bb wife. "*— * *'flrn rwTThtmr^ 

A iietuion to Markham, ilalnl from " Pesicnk •"iMj.i.ta.iUo.u-rtii.. -«,!««.•• ■"■►•"s-.r. 

(I'aMvnnk), in Pennavlvnuia. 8th Uelober lUMI " *■"""""•"»■••'•.«"< !»•»""» Hi'i«fcipki..«i~rt»««««,. 

»uuia tend to show that the Indiana of that day 

eould not «eo the meriu of ** Locul Oniinn " li !■ ' *'»'»""»"'»'»'J«m. r"»«i««<u>«»fcMbi«»«.4.«riii« u» 

^ . UUU.1 V|niua. li u M«u.iilk».a«u »™dCu^l CM- «w talk, *,,„.. 11^^,^ ,„ 



J««« CASvn Mrf Mary, Mi mth^ if lltfti 
IMS) aad ««lMniW pnttlarM la fmMe afcli^ 


villi rii cUV 

JiMia >!■■■■, H«ivu«<, kit wllkk 

TaMi«« Fiviwai/ru 
■Miliwm. (H«loMkto«ifr.JlM7,Mi4 
Miib* ««9»t« ) Sl«a1 

]lM7, UiCkiUlMI, 

IB I«M,mUv« 

Ta««*a Oiiiat. 

Bmut OausAWAV, ■irttr <f lk> **W«I 

CvniKBT lUvarMT, Ui wlfc m« ivUlj, •€ 
T«r<ulili<f^ m tn* fwictear. 

Thwba* IIkkwvt. aC UM«l*ntrMa<, !«■»■. 

J«H« IIkt. 

Rkhab* Imcmc rVfli •• PMtlwtol C^Mll la IMA. 

Ukhc la«)a«N, af Oailaa, lanaf . 

tian Kaiua? . Mary, kla »lfc^ aad mi Jawf*! af OlaacaatartMia. 

Wiujah Lraaiaatua. 

llAaa*a Mvaaaiaaa. 

J«aar« Moaaia. 

»Art» Oaaca. "fiofcaMy ftwai Uaiia." 

Stab Hutu, a ilk Jtaa, kw all*, aad ckOdmi,— Bavli, BtaakMk, 
Jaka. Baaaak, Mai j, Evaa, aa4 tnlwra, af laaaar. Vaka. (Tka hMt, 
a «aagkMr, kN« al Ha, vllbia •ishi af ika Dalavaia Ckf(% Oct. M, 

— Auaaoa, nalfiaal ftaai fVciar, Fraa*« Maad, wka 
VfUmi afWv kM aatUa |4ar». ilto •»« aaaia |««Aakl)r RaUtt. 

Jvaa Bowiaaa aa4 lilKlUa, kb atfa, af lkUln«kani, I 

TaM«4« RoaiAHat lUlllaikaial, fMaart. lint |«trlNMar. 

JaM»iii<a«aiMT,ari'kUllaai«<*«i'aiwi. riM^nkawr. (taaawf 
thm (Va)liMn«,arllllrkla«ll»ia,»awpi.). Iia*t4«4 lalVaa. M f btr 
af •lai WW* Mil«»^a*al iMaatUtoa. A arltvr bb4 lavackaral dktlactiaa 
aaaiac ika friraik 

J«as l^TAi-aaaraa mi Marcirj, kk arlfc^ af YatkAlra. 

Cawaaa Tawataaa, 

RmiABa ToaMacav^ wife Aaaa, aua Jaait«(bura aa **WilrBan*' to 
IVfaiaaia ill«vr),al Luadwa. I'll** lamltaMT. A WaJlag Fitoa4 aad 
■ailata t adaUlaf. Miller al Tptaad aad na arkaylklli. 

VitUAH WA»a, af Haaklwa farlik, »«■»«. 

TaaHA* Waummjr. EUaOirtb, kla wtfc. aadMa cklUna, af Talk- 

KKaaLftt Wau, af Tatkakiia. Flm ^atrkNarr. Maaikerfeai 
af Inc AMrtaUj. PiMriaaal ia tarly kirtuty af ifwviaea. 

THca** Waiaawvaara aa4»llh, of Torkaklra. 

TaoMAB U'tMkR,rkinirBma, af carrajr^ VUalakira, Kartk WaiMb 
ipMkar vt •nl taa AwrailJIiaL MaciMiala fur *«»•« Cuaalj. **A 
^M«iai t4 aaia aa4 rkaiartrr/* (Clw«iaM Miwl, ia 11itia4vl|ikia, vaa 
afialMllj aaaiwl aArr kiai.) 

liUftM NtM-ai'Maa aad Maijr.kiavifr, Jtika Ilt>f|i4l'a4aackl*r. flaai 
l(rart«4lrjr, M'rkfunI, In-laai. AW Ikrir laa «laatktN%«ka iM al 
■a. RwrklwrlaasaaMaikrraf AMaMjIaltoX 

J«ia» Di rtaa aa4 alfa, 

raiur TaiaBaaa LBaaa*« (aArnraal Lrkana), Naa*li prirala 

BAataataaaw CatBHe 
KATaAkin, HAaaiaaa. 
Taa»a Jaaaft. 


WiixuM nana. 

ll*aaAa l^maMcaa^ Aiagklar af Illrkai4. 

Dr. Oitirirtt Hnilih, in thit ** IlUinry of Dolnwiire 
<Ui 1*11*," liiNflttiii tlH* AillimiiiK nn hnvinir \tr»\Hk< 
Illy iMiiiH* miniit tlio tlimi uf Williiiiii IViiii, miiin} 
Ih'I'oiv mill iillHiii hiiiiiMllnlvly itAorwnnlis MiU 
before tlM end of 16M2 1 

Rn aftaa R«aRAaa, af fkr0l«y, wtiM ia MkMWiava. 

Joaa Rkalm, ar Rala^ akaaMfilrd Mavy, daagkitrU Willkai Chf> 
laa, >r., la ICIi. 

Jaaa Rtrafta*, af Onkydiiia, kli wMk Saiah, aad l«a rklMrta. A 
yararkar «f tka Inrlcty, awaiUr af ika AmmiUj mi af CaaadI, aa4 

aa pavra, kat, aa tka caaoaij, Ikat 
tka aHaai|4kia. Tka arMaaca to 

to Ika 

it ikalHtokf ao 
tka |irr|Miadriaaca to acaiM* 

I Tkrir daapktar Mafy. wka a«nM lataa Kal(kt, af AMafaaa, to 
■lat«4 hi kava krta **aaa af tka km cklidiva kira uf Ka|rilrii |«i«ata 
to iVaaolvaaia." Mw wm Iwa »a tka ttik af Oclator, Itot, tka *iy 
af rNui*a haiMc al Xa« CkMla. 

MmiAn Rm w i iaa, IHtla liaHua, 1 

TiMiMAa ltoAWBv(ar Bmry)^af 
af Ika iMatoty af Ftaa T ia*i>^ awarf u r af Yim kmmVtf, 

lABi'CL RaAaaaaw, af Oalnai XaiiiagkaaMklia. 

KawAMa OAMTta, af Biaaipiaa, Oaftinliklfab Miaikw af Ika iNl I 
IMi Jary iaifaaaM at Clwalar. 

RoaaaT UABraa. asa af ika fciajriag. 
• Jaaa OararaaAa, af WaUraa, Kms. 

WiLUAB Coaa. aka gara kto aaaM la 
Iwrda's aiiU oa Ika Xaiakaai 

TawMAA Caai-aa, kto vlfa IllMkilll, 
JaM|ik, rrna C^aktl, irriaad. 

RicaAaa t'a mt, af Loadaa. 

RutAaiTN PcABai, wMww, vltk aaMkaaaad* 
■arak, aad Rrkwra, af Drikyikffa. 

RicMABa rnv, of UtIaiitwa, WikAlia. 

IUrbv OiBBvM, alik alfa'llalra aad Jtoally, af TanlitH Itotkf* 

Joaa fliMBMR, rklrargroa, af fcrl»ty af ftaa Tf 
dlii^** Julia aaii Harak *' or '• RrlMal fkrlar.** 

Jaaa llAanaoa aad EliuUtk, kto alfb. 

JoKNVA llAariaoaaad Kliiak^k, ktoaMb. 

Ta^aAt llooa, af nnaaoa, DnkyAlra. 

VAtRKTiaB HoLUMoawaBTa. af CImkifa. Aariilar af Ika 1 
vonk faaillv uf |>ktladrl|ikto <aad Maryiaad). 

WiLUAa liovcu. aad Marfirvt, kto alfa, af CkMtoUgkt, 1 
dllia. WalM. 

RtitABBra UraraBBT. vHk aoa natOaaUa, aad daackton Ai 
OuUika, «f Llaariiria, Mafloaalk, WalM. 

Pamirl III araiKT, af Maia iiiaca m fofagalaff. 

pAVia jAau, kto alfo Haraaral aad teifktar Mary, af Itoagatoy 
aad CJtowuai, Radaucakli^ Walra. 

JAata KiHRBLKT, wf Clinklrv. 

IIknrv Uaia, kto alfa Margaial aad Ikair fcailf, af VMkrtk, ] 

MuaaiMAi MAaaara, af l^arai Mill, CiMAIiai 

Tai>a*a NiaaaAtL aad wife Maitcaivt, af Itaka^ Ckwkliaii 

TiioaAB INiWBLU uf Kwdbrllh. I'kfvklw. 

Calbb Pvut aad alfa Aaa, aad daacklrr Aaa. 

■ami-ki teiLiaa, af IM|wr, litrkyiklfa. 

Joaa, Jaar, ktoallki, aad rklldiaa,— Pkrka , Mkm, ' 
Jaairt, Catol^ Jau«, aad Ji«r|ik. wf lladdialea, CWaklra. 

Joaa Hiaomi, uf Kurlrlj af Fraa Tiadii% ftaai RMlay, CkMkwa. A 
bwdlag awa la iIm pro«lac«w 

Jwaa Hiantra, Jr., aaa af Ika forripdag. jAcaa 

raRiRToraRB Tatu>r, of Ml|ilaa, YorhriilrR. 

PRTRB Tatlob aad Wilaiab Taimb, af kattia, 

TauMAA r«UR8. 

Tana*! Vrbhob, af Itteatkara*, (V«kii«w 

RwRRBT VRRxoa, af tfliaka, CkwkirR. 

M4h»«tL YrrxmB, i>f K«bd)«ay, Ckaalill*. 

R*tra M iTaraa, uf HMH>|i'a Caaaiac Wlitoklia. 

ORitBuR li'wua, kto alia llaaaak, ktoaa Uautfi^ •■4 alkar 
af Hiiamll. ltorl.y«klia. 

Rira*Rii WiiRaRix («ir Wuraltv, vt (Viia, Itorfciklfa. 

Jwaa WuBRiLL, |«i>l«lily l>ralk«« uf fWrgulac. 

TauBM MToBTa, of Uakia, RattlackaaMklra. 

Tho imtucngcn by the ** John and 8anh " and 
** Bristol Factor/* to far as known, include William 
Crinpin, who died on tlie way out, John Bear and 
family, William llnigc and family, Nathaniel Allen 
and fiimily, John Oltor, >^lniund Ix>vett, Joseph 
Kirkhri«lKis ntid (Sahrifl Thonins. 

Ihiriiiir tho trial ami atlllrtion which the pas* 
Mii^ffni mill cn<w of ihu *' Wcliiitini *' wen* sulijt*c* 
tcil (o OH (licir vovHKii to tlio lK*lnwnn*, when tlni 
nadirnl liinllncls «»f man nm niriicd to terror and 
«(>l(iah MH'liiaion, IVnn showetl hlmm^lf at his Ixvt. 
Hill whole time, and that «if his friends, was given 
to tho support of the sick, the consolation of the 
dying, the burial of the dead. Richard Town- 
shend, a fellow-paseenger, said, " hb good conver> 
sation was very odvantageous to all the company. 
His singular care was manifested in contributing 
to tho necessities of nuiny who were sick with the 
smalliNJX. . . . We had many good meetings on 
board.*' In these pious services Penn had the cor- 


dUd help of UuM P«ftiw», to whom. In return, he 
gmteAilljT gave the privllofre of rebeptiiing the 
town on the DeUware at which eome of the Minri- 
Ton landed, and thue the significant and appro- 
priate name of Uphuid, applied by the Swedes to 
their seeond colour, was lost in the euphonious but 
mcaninglom and inappropriate cognomen of Ches- 

The record of Penn's arrival at New Castle is as 
follows: " October 28. On the 27th day of Octo- 
ber, arrived before the 
town of New Csstlc, in 
Delaware, from England, 
William Vvsn, Esq., 
proprietary of Pennsyl- 
vania, who produced two 
certain dooils of feoff- 
ment from the illustrious 
prince^ James, Duke of 
York, Albany, etc., for 
this town of New Castle, 
and twelve miles about 
it, and alM) fur the two 
lower counticn tlio Whuro- 
kill« and Bt Jones's, 
whicli ftiid deeds beardnto 
the 24tli August, 1682; 
and pursuant to tlie true 
intent, purpose, and mean- 
ing of his royal hifrliness 
in the some deeds, he, 
the snid William Peon, re- 
ceived {HWHession of the 
town of New Castle, the 
2Mth of Oetober, 1G82.*' 
Tliis delivery was nindc, 
as the n>eonU show, by 
John Moll, l'IiM|., and 
Kphreim lleriunn,* gen- 
tlemen, attorneys, consti- 
tuted by his royal high- 
ness, of the town of Dela- 
ware otherwise called New 
(*astle ; the witiiemHii to the 
Ibrnml eeriMiiony lu which 
the key of the fort was 

«rlio |iMMilit*NU]r Rtfitr* In Iht 
liMifry wf |irU««r«, «ar« ImiUi »>m 
•f Anrn^In It^riMIN, • lhi|l«>- 
Mhia «df*alur ir vi kimI •rcomiilMii 
Vfijrwr, Milwr, RtKl lilpiw— i it, «||«^ afWr 

ell I* M«w AiiHli««faiii,«Ml eundiirllkff m tmOamf flrwa Mm •• Lwri 
BaUloMira, lararrfti th* hMfliljr dlraetw** dttfUmmt^t aa^ «m <wI 
lalwpriaoa. lU Mcapad, »«M lato MaryUad, Mmjad Mad awri* • Map 
■r th« a^mpfak* Iky aad th* provlaw, aad «m pahl «rllb IIm (HA af 
a iMTltory la K*ai aad OkU Omiallai, vhlcli ha ealM BiilMmhk Maaar. 
ll WM lairiwctMl bjr a rlwr uf lb* taaM aanMn A part of thi« tract 
wa« tulil by Uviaua iw a CMifrritatlaa wf Lalmltala. vhoMttlad a|wa It 
KykraliB llvrtaaa, wha wm bora !■ IA5I, lived chUAy aaiaa( lb* Svad* 
la Svw Aantal aad UpUad. ll« wm cUrfc of th« mart b«fa ia I6T«L 
la ICTt b« aiKfTWd KllMbirfb T«*a ll«d«iiUirK a daagblar vi tba G««. 
VOMIT af Caiafua. aad tawk b«r to t'plaaaa^ wbvia ha sliunly afUrwaal* 
4 man »t bar to Jala tba LalHdtau. Ila iMnnMd to b«r, bwaTar, alW 
a wbUa, aad «aa te Vplaad aa tba day «r Kau'i arnval. 

delivered to Penn by one of the eoramissionen, " in 
order that he might lock upon himself alone the 
door,** and which was accompanied with presents 
of " turf and twig, and water and soyle of the 
river Delaware," were Thomas Holme, William 
Markham, Amoldus de la Grange, George For- 
man, James Graham, Samuel Land, Kichard 
Tugels, Joseph Curies, and John Smith.* Penn at 
once commi&tioned magistrates^ for the newly- 
annexed counties, and made Markham his attomev 

lag la Slayvaymat's 

tTba lahaMtoaii of !law (Wita ala* mtM a fWilca •# JMtvmf to 
Paaa wm Oe««brr W, l«"i. >a4 "vulMaaly pfMalM to yMd to Mia all Jart 
•badlaaca. aad to llr* i|ul«tly •«•! p— cw My aadrr hto c>t*«raM»ai.~ II 
wm •lipi'd by AnufldNi •!• la tiraa«i. J. d« Hap*. II. V. D. BrWcb. W«. 
SImpbill, Jvba llulataa. llenJri^k Lraiaaw. Jowpb Miiut*^ JaaMa ruw 
wm, J«aM Ankiaa, i:it«a BtfMtta. Plalrr CtoaM. Sana*! Ltad. 

■Tba original rvaialialua k p n wrtwl at tlarrW'ats, la tba Liad 
Oflkw, fnaa whlcb »• ha«» eo\4mi iIm fullu«ia« : 

*■ Wllllaai IVan. Vsq^ |>rufirl«4<ir aa^t gwwraur at FaaaiylvaaU, X«« 
(^ila, IM J«Hif«i» WHorvkill*. aliM |iwl, «rlib lh.4r frimr bbanl«« — I 
du^ la IIm klug'a nam*, bvrvby oMiltut* ami autlK«tM yu«. Juba M<«ll. 
ralor Alrkka, JubaaaM do IU<<«t Willt*« Slmp'o. Araollaa -im W 
Oraair*, aad Joha Caan, to bo JoilicM of lb* pnro. aad a coaft U i«41- 
cataf*. for tba luwa «f !(•« Ca«l«, apna UrUwaio, aad l««l«o mIIm 
aoitb aad atal uf IIm mm*, to lb* a^lb •I'lo of Uttrk Ciaob, «baf«wf 


to reeehrt potwioa of Um lower eountiet flmn laiA were, towards the cloie of th« your (December 

MoU «kl HemuuL Thb wet done on NoTcmber 25th), egeio chiDged,— Deal to Sttaiex,and Jones to 

7. 16^. Kent, — and Penn directed that Cape Henlopen be 

He also recommended a court to meet at New called Gape James. 

Cssile on KoTcmber 2d. On that day Pcnn was At a meetinf^ of the Deputy-Governor and jua- 

present with the justices, and Markham, Holme, tires in New Castle, on a commiiwion directed to 

Hai|!e. Bymrock, and Brasioy, of the Provincial them by tlio prupriiHary, " touchinf( the hooping a 

CtmneiK* Hie hiwer ctainties gave in their allegi- wwkly <iiiiKtHnt ninrket,*' It was nwilvinl, ** that 

anee to Markhiuu for Peiin uii NovvmU^r 7th. Kntimlny, the iHih iiintnnt, slwll Iw the llmt lunr- 

Jn the Interx'al Mwti'n his arrival and the niM- ketMlny, to 1m eoiitimiiiil tin wet)* future Knttirday, 

ing of court, Oetulwr 2lMh, Peim went to Uplnnd Tur tliiit town, when all |M.»nMinii aru deitinHl tu re- 

to pay a i>hort visit. It was between Novenilter 2d pair with their coiuniudities tu the fort in the mar* 

and the 8th that Penn arrived in IMiiladelphia. ket-place, at pment api>ointetl fur the same, and 

Penn was not idle while his people were petting that the vherifl' shall pruelaini the same to begin at 

rratly for the winter. He wnt oft'two nieivengers 10 o'clock in the morning, and continue till 4 

to Luid Ikltimore " to ask of his health, offer kind o'cluek P.M.'* 

nei;!hlK)rhu(Nl, and agn*c u|M>n a time the better to After Penn had laid off his province, he took 

e^tnbH^ll it.** He isttuid a writ on NovemlMT 18th, a horse and rode to New York, to see the (lovernor 

to Peter Ikiuconib, the sheriff of Jones Cuunty, to tlicro, and look into the affairs of his friend, the 

summou all freeholders on the 20th '* mid elect out Duke of York's province. When he returned ho 

of theiiiselves, seven |ienM>iis of most note for wis- met the Af«einbly, on lX*ecnibor -Ith, at Upland, 

doni, sobriety, and integrity to serve as their depu- Nicholas More was president. The first day was 

ties and representatives in General Assembly, to be devutol to organizatiun and the selection of com - 

held at Upland, in Pennsylvania, Dcccnilicr 6th, mittces ; on the second day tlie credentials of 

next, and then and there to consult with him for mcmbcra aiMl contested election cases were dis* 

the comnHin good of the inhabitants of that province, posed of, and the House proceeded to ailopt a series 

and adjacent counties of New Castle, St Jones and of rules and regulations for iu government. These 

Wliurekill, aliat Deal, under his charge and juris- have no siweial intcr&it, except that they show the 

diction." On the same day John Vines was ap- Lower House had set out to l)eeonio a deliberative 

fMiinted sherifl* of Whorekill and Penn di- body, and was pr(*pared to originate bills as well 

R«ett-«l him to hold an election for seven n'\tfn- as vote U|Mtii theui. Tlic three lower eiHinties stMit 

sfutaiives. Similar notices wertMNiiie«l to the other in a |ii*titii»n sigiietl by iH«veu {lerMins fnmi New 

oiunti«ti. Penn*s prt»viiuv wiis then dividul into I Kill, six fniin St. Jmuv, itnd five fntin New Ciis- 

thnn* count iiii,-- IMiiliulelphitt, HtiekMUid C'lui*ter, tie, asking for anuexntiou and union, and the 

—and tlH* territoritti into New Cn^tIe, Jtuies, and Sweilin, Kinns, and Dutch another, asking that 

Whon*kills, o/tiw Deal. The names of the two they might bo nindo as (rw as the other nieniU'rs 

of the province, and have tlurir lands entailed u|ion 

•My ft«r «r J0m iImN Mak* • ^wmiM, to art Ib th« nM ra|iluy«ebl i i • . . 

Mki tHMt, tut lb* i«Mrrv«iiua tff ib« pnf9 ans jiMikv of th* !•«>• tlicm and tlicir lieirs forever. Tlie same dav a 

4m attS jaai at^diniiv !■ Um diMharga uT Ilia «M tniM. And tiik from tlio Govcmor and a'as pawcd, and on the 

lafflbaraMrf^ tiUaa aadfr ..j haad aial m.1. la N.« O.1K IHU »«»' ^^7 "»« Jx^'lslllturo |mssed PCUU S *« Great 

mk Say «r ortiiiar. iMH willu* I'tHN. I^w," SO cuIUhI, and adjmimt^ or was prorogued 

w«iu«iJ»Ha.Am.M2s.u«ia.;r,a«4j.*r«^.«.»u..arnrp: V "»« Govcnior for twcnty-ouo days. It never 

■aara aaS t441iatlt«, tltaml hf IbraMrlwi^ to aba |iiMrn«4 aa lul* met agaill. 

**^W^ .iNaa aalM am li«f aatarrtM. brInR Uj Willi.. fHi., Tho ail of UllioU " of tllO ONinticS of XcW Csslle, 

Bai^i««t«tati«aiai«wv»nMtr of iha |w«tTiiica orivaiwyUania and N«w Juucs's, Slid Whon>kill, alias Deal," and natuniU- 

CMlla, Aft ai«ulata'4 Juplli-«a af fmn tvt lliv Iowa vl Xv« i*Mll«k .•«<>- 11 i> • • ^i ' j 

«,.« HrlavaiT^aiMl laelva lalWa iN.nb and «mI uT iha «aM-. >«(»>» O' ^'1 forciglicn lU the prOVItlCe and COUU- 

to fw Mtk M» «c Hack ciwk, do krr»i.y, la iha pr««rara «f Ovd, fics sforcsaid," af\cr reciting Peon's different titles 

w jaai aa.! ita*. aad laitiifHiiy rfNUnca ««r inMi. la ..brdWiica ta to rvuiisvlvania and thc thrco lowur countiCH or 

Um laaM rMaaMoa. aad act iWMa arrmaiac lu iba u«( of aar DcUwaro Hundmb, and the rcasous tlicrc wcro in 

•a4*i«taa4luML WMnnaMir baatb aad amic Ultva at Hrlawarv, 4. #• 1 • , . « 1 

Um xaib ui.<ur. itRt." (Mcn^d by all >4 ibMH.] uivor of a closcr uniou aud one government for the 

I la bto nNMh la «fM ewart dinct*! lu iba lahaUuato la Knmi, ba vliolc, euocu that the oouutics mentioned " are 

■Ma»«l«4 Ibra ta Mac la ai Iba u»kl court U> ba bald In Naw Ckstlau • 1 1.1 «■. • . 

•• an tb^ri«iv«u.aarvr)f. cranny atMiciainM,«rbkhtb*y had taibair hereby auncxcd to tfao proviiice <if PeiiUKylvania, 

k»d».bu>iP.iMMaKaad|«aMri«ii^i«umWaKiaa«»ui^ „ ^,{ the proiier territory thereof, and the pmhiIo 

•ad CMtSm am aiily th>aa aa bad a win< b'lil till* aad liKbt, bai alw ., • 11 1 1 1 .1 . * * T 

tbwwaayH aaalrdaratlata ricbl lalbawai#.w r»rfonbaa««|ulty. tllcnMU SllllU 1)0 gOVCrUeU by tllO SUniO laWS aild 

iaiitk»,.adn«««n«.Mr«iaiia." Uo aW r^» lu uka eujoy ihc Mimo privileges iu all rcsiiccts as the in- 

lM««lb«, «!•» aad bmk t^rr Iheir ln«n iili4«. la tra abal vuraai , , .'' * •» • • • . *•. . .. J-. 

tuuM laay ba f;>«ad ib»i«ia b«iba acvwiiawdaiiaR and apaiinc ut ur«. habitants of reniisylvaiiia HO or shall eiijoy. To 

wffyittiiauadincbaibfMidaaaL cuactcd that *' all peiBous wlio an Strangers Slid 



IbreigfMit th»t do now Inhabit tbii province and 
counties afomaid,'' and who promiM allegiance 
to the King of England, and obedience to the pro- 
prietarj and hb government, *' shall be held and re- 
puted freemen of the province and counticN afore- 
said, in an ample and Aill uiannor as any peraun 
H'siding tlierein;** other forci]*nors in the Aitiins 
uiNiii niiikinff appllfulltm and piiyinK liimty «iilll- 
int(N rtorllntr, to be iintiimlixtHi In tikt* niiiuiu'r. 
Tills nvit wiys IVnn, in a k<(tcr written itht>rlly 
ai\t>r¥runls, ** much ]i!iiM*d the }HMiplc. . . . Tiio 
Hwcdi*, fur thenii^>lvcs, dcputctt I^cy Cock to nc- 
quuint him that they would love, Ber\*c, and oU^y 
him with all they had, doclnring it was the best 
day they ever saw." An ** act of settlement'* a|»- 
pears to have been paA«cd at the mime lime, in 
which, owing to ** the fvwncw of the imaple," the 
numlier of representatives was rtHluciHl to three in 
the Council and nine in the Axseiiibly from each 
county, the meetings of tlic I>»gii!>liitHre tn licnnnu- 
ally only, unkw an emergency should occur in the 
opinion of Governor and Council. 

I'enn's "Great I^w,'* iMMcd as above recited, 
contained sixty-nine sections.' It repre^^nts the 
final shape in whlcli the proprietary's ** frame of 
government *' and code of ** laws agreed u|)on in 
Kngland " conjointly were laid before tho legisla- 
ture The vnrintionit from the original forms were 
numerous, »m\c of them im]K>ilant. The language 
of the revisitl iimIc is much iuipn>ved over the fiivt 
forms, lN>ih in dignity nn<l sUHtuineil fore«*. The 
pniuiililu and ilrnt mrt ion un« ahvnyK<|Uot«*<l with 
adiiiinition, and ihey nlmuM hnve their pliiit« hen«: 

**TUK URKAT I.AW| or, tni »miit or !.««« or tm« l*«o«iiif«of 

iMtrntRKR, \WL 

" Wktnmt, Ibo Rlorjr vt AlRtlRhljr Ood aaS Ik* aood of MMhln4 ta tiM 
WW Rati tud of gwTwniu^ol, ntd llwrvlriio icwwniiMht, !■ Itarlf, 
h • Tonrnililo unlliiRiiro of Cud ; and fMnMRiuvli rr It U |N-i»rl|wlljr 
dRRlrod ai<d lnlrndMl by tbo |ifu|idvur7 Md (iwvrrnor, Rnd Iho ttw— 
■lOR of Om I'rvvtiiM uf ]VbiM>5l*RtiU and Ivrrlliifltia Ibrrvaote 
brIoociliK, to aiRk* rimI Mt«i4lMi mm>H hwa rr alHill liwt |<«vwrTO 
troo ebnalUa and rlvll lllirrlj, In «in**'il«'B to M mM-brMUn, 
Ikwnllwua, and nii)iiM imiikM, wbrrvby t*ud may havo bla diM>, i'vwf 
hta do*, and tUm |wti|ilw lli^lr daw (r%m» l^raiiHy aiid o|t|«««4iin uf lb« niw 
Rlrfo Had tn»i|«Hr]r rihI llrrHlliMi»ii«-«i tif lh« u4hrr, mt Ihal lb* U<at rinI 
SniH**! fwOBdalkik hw; |w hdl l«>r lb«> |iir*riil rihI ftiliiiv ha|i|HHMa *4 
IwlblbofiiTfriiwrRnd lb* |«i>|il« uf iblR |itvthH'« rihI IrriUm !•<■ afvrR* 
OAld, and Ib^lr |««l*rttjr. Ito it i*««r/<«* vnat ImI by WIIImiu iVna, |irw 
prirlarjr aiid (wivnMir, by and with lh« aiUko rimI niuwnt mC tb* 
d»|iali«R of tbo frpuim uT Ibia |irw»l«r* and c«Miilti<« afurrMliI In a» 
RRmUy »h4, Rnd by iho autbwtllywf IIm rrmw. Oiri lb<w» fullualac 
cha|i(en and pmngn^b* ahail bo lb* tatra uf lVaa»ylvaiifai and Ibo Irtrl- 
lotfM Ibvrvwf : 

" I. AIntlably Ood b»ln| only Lord of rwnwirnrr, fRlhrr of llcbtaand 
■idrlla, and tlw aatbor aa wall aa ul^( of oil dlvlao fcnu«l«d|cr. faltb, 
and worablp, wbo only can oallKbloa tha mind and |wnwa<U and run* 
Tlnco Ibo nndorMandlng uf pvofilo la dao ratarrnc* Iw bla wrvnigniy 
ovor Ibo auuli of Mankind ; II to •nocf*^ by Ibo aulburity afwnaabl Ibal 

w* or at any ttaBo SmnaRT NTlat la Ikk I 

ackn«p«l*dgo wao AlaUchty Ood to bo iho 
and rairr of tbo vwrld, and ibal ytuftaKk hta or botwif ibUtiid la 
aana d anfR to U*o prarvaUy and Jwlly nndor tbo cItII i 
la anyoriaa bo ■ o lwltd or torjadlrtd far bla or brr 
■•RokMi or ffactlr^, nor thRll bo or abo ri Roy ilaio bo c««>|»Ua4 to 
aw^n# n t or nMlniala any rrllBbimR wwnbipi, flaro, or adataity *bo^ 
o«vr cvntmry Iw bt* or Krr mImI, b«l aball fivrly and faify ot^ bla a* 
bar ilirWiUn librriy In iImI m i^i vltbwal any inlrtia|-iiMa v§ i»Sar. 
IkfO : and If aay iviwn »liall al'Mo «« Jvilil* any i4b*r l^r bla or bar 
dlflairkl |»i*M»ifit aiul fiaiiha In n a«l«r ••# lrl>Rkk ambcballl* 
b«*ha*t M|«<Maaa iliduiWr wf lb* |««(r, aiid |« |<oaiab*d a<t*44laaty, 
HmI Iw Iba atwl Ibal li<*«ra«M, liirhah-n.Rlid alb»toni IM^ n«l ttMf la 
Mtidwr HHt IM a hT itikM |« m •• la ibU | iftiaia, l« II fwlbar aMNla»l by 
Ibo Rwlhoilly ornivMld, Ibal a^i ■■kIIor Im Iba tv*H a«an<|«la nf Ibo y<l»- 
lllto I hrl•llan^ aiHl fi.r Iba ra«a id Iba <rr«lh<n ttary SiM day af Ibo 
•arh, ralM Ibt l^nd'a |ioy. |<««>|>la aball al*laln fhini IbaIr cwniMMa 
loll and lalmr Ibal, nbriliw maalrra, |<arvHla. rblMran, urarr^aaia, Ibf 
aaiy lb*lialtrrdl»|iuaalb»aiavl««alorrodlbo*rH|4uraaaftmlbal bwfca, 
or 10 froqurnl awb aMH-iliifa wf rrllftiona aotablii abivad aa aay bnl 
Ball Ibrlr raa|MCllTo| 

I Tbora la a dUcrtpancy b^ra whicb ft ladlfllrall to nuka rWr. Tbo 
toil fidltma Haatrd: bnl Mr. Una, in bb nork cfvlnn iIm " buko uf 
York'a lani," ahoara Ibal tbo "Ufval Uw '* aa Bibi4fd cvutalaM wnly 
alsiy-ono aactWna, and Mr. llaaard'a rlaslAralliin la ptuiMNiMcad lu ba 
"rTklrnlly afivnawoab" la farl. It U aald In Cuaniil IVutwilliiKa of 
IMV, Ibal a arriuoa lark of aicrarttnnl naa dlaititaird Uiarrn |lia«'«i«no 
dl rw|<y <«f Una and Iba annJM iMirbnianl c«i4aa In Iba banda uf Iba 
Maaiar uf Iba Kulla. Mr. Linn alau elatina ibal Mr. Ilaaard la in rrrvr In 
rritard to Iba data of Iba paioa«a uf Iba "Art of Sattlanirni," ohicb vaa 
adu|itad nut la 16M, bat oa Marcb )«, 1CS3. 

The second artielu of the code rc«|uirvs that all 
oflitvra and iienmus " cumnitoftionatctl '* and in tlie 
service of tho Comnionwealth, and memlieni and 
deputies in Ai««i'iiilily, and ** ail that hart the riykt 
to r/trl «urh drputim nliall lie such as proft-M ami 
deelaris they Ulievc in Jei»us('hrii»t to be the Son 
of God and Saviour of the world,*' etc. This was 
not |}i>rha|M illiberal for IVnn s day, but under it 
not only atliei;»ts and infidels, but Ariansnnd S>- 
einians, were denied the right uf sulfnige. Swearing 
** by the nnmcofGod or Christ or Jesttu " was punish- 
able, uiHiU legal c«>nvielioii, by a Hue of live stiiill- 
ingy, or five duys* hard Inlior in the House of Cor- 
nnrlion on bread and wiiterdiet. Kverv otiiersort 
of swearing w»s piiiii}<liublu iiIm> with tine or ini- 
priminiiieiit, and ItluMplu'iiiy nml eunting ineum^l 
similar iteiiiihiert. (Miocene wonU one nhil ling tine 

or two lioun* ill (liehlm'kn, 

Muith'r wim nuide piiiii«luililo with death and 
miilim'ntiiin orprt»|ierly, to U> dividitl U'tween the 
sullerer's and the eriiiiiiinrs next of kin. The 
puiiinlimeiit for iiiaiixinughter was to lie graduatetl 
aeeortliug to the nature of the otfiiijie. For adul- 
tery the iH'nulty wiin public \i hipping and a year's 
imprHonnient ut hiinl lalMir; second otlt'oso 
waM iiiipriiM»uiiieut for life, an action for divttn^v 
aU) lying at the ii|ition of the aggrievttl hiirlioiHl 
or wife ; ineeitt, forfcitiin* of half om>*s entnte and 
a year's iinpriiMinnieiit ; mrond otienw, the life 
term ; Hmloiiiy, whipping, forfeiture of one-thtnl of 
estate, and fix mouthii in prinin ; life term f«>r 
second offense ; ni|ie, forfeiture one-third to in- 
jurctl |iarty or next friend, whipping, year's im- 
prisfinnieut, and life term for second utlen.'^* ; forni- 
cation, three months* lubur in lIou.'«c of Correction, 
and if |Nirties arc single, to marr\- one anotln'r 
aAcr ser\'ing their term ; if the nuin be mar- 
ried lie forfeits one-third his e»tate in addition to 
lying in priiion ; iiolygttmy, Iwnl labor for life in 
1 1 ouse of ( or reet ion. 

** Xt V. ItfuakanaMa ua l»«al ntnvtrtkMt, Sna of Sra abllllaca> ar S«« 
daya in worfc-lMtuaa tto braad and walrr; ai<«iad and oarb aabv-iMrol 
oSauaa, doublo |«>iMlly, * Anil ba ItaBAi-lMl funbrr, by Ibo aaib»rlty 
afwfvaibl, Ibal Ihay a bu do auffar awb oir««i uf driuhlac ol tbvlr buwwo 
riMll ba liaiila Iw Iba aanw fiunlabmanl nub Iba dtankanl.* Ifrinkia( 
baaltb, aa CuttductTa to baid drinklnc, la aotjoct Iw Sna tif Sva obUba««. 



■llafamfWi ma* thrM 
'toMl»bUl»iMh« mllt«it«ia,«lMa 
laprUMHMMt All IbtovM nqultid to wmk» tMotM nlia- 
ftcllwa;fcMlU«MUyto W iMlwlMa brmh «r lh« ^mmm, Mrf Mlb> 
CM«lMtoteM«l»r«rll. lUMiUf to — m I im wbtrli omi W wwrnltM 
ky Umw fMMis Md h fwtiMMd mmOImc (• aoiiMwil l»w MMl tiM kMrh*« 
MrttMto r^vMs by lM»riM»iMMl !• ««rh'lMMM •! yiM 
;-« n— 1» ; to tmtik^tmus *■• ■• «li«f*llMi at iMUt Mil • MMatk la 
I { wwalto bf wTTttuto ■■ mmim% VmaMjt ■* «U«n«hMi of 
Ih* riMut, M ah* vtib mmmH and l«lliw]r. 

- XXVI 1. ClMll»«CMto 4wte m4 Mcw|«»Bm «r ckallMff* * ib w < • 
■•Mllf •€ •«• »iMWitolwaa4lbiv««MHrtb»lB»Mfc'biMiM. Mtttoairf 
rtotoM t^ttot 'pfiar^ alM»^Mi«s MMk^ rav^ biUI-b^tt, rarb Icht* 
toe vllh Mcb llb^* mim IkmMiI m bf*KbM«r lb« prnt* ; yMMllj, to* 
4aj9 !• «Mfb-bMMh «r to* «r Iwvatj dillUBfi. UtMbllaK, Hr., •■• of 
i«* abUttafl^ «r •«• Aijri iB lb* «Hrt<bauM. KpiHwa «r wriltoa mJIUm 
iac«n«4 • to* of aoC liM ibM iwMtjr ■bUllaga ; difbllnff lancwit* 
•f «r towaidi tb* iHcWtncy, poMliy, Mt Im ibu Iwvniy ■bUlta^ 
iv* «r toa 4aj« la tb* vurb.bwaHw 

•■ XXXll. MUadvrw^ Kaadal-aMmcM^ uti •pnadcn of IbiM aawaan 
to b* tn«l«4 M |iMM bwfcwa; immmm ctaaMmaa, wuMlas, «r ralllag 
»ttb tbair !«•«"•• *!>•" «vavktoil "wa fall ptuor," aia. to ■• to lb* 
■ww* «r iWncihM far ibiw daya. 

- XXX I V. Tb# itotato ft« tb« MMMfacmMit •# BMrrtat* !• •• It 
^«gl»d abo«« la Um la«« aJuvtod la Kaslrtd, ' bat* (saiv.) 
b* tt Mlb«r «Mww«r ar «Mi»w, ibsll cwatiact aMrrbig^ aiacb 
••lirr uw jMT altor lb* <iri— ■ «f bk vlb vr bar baafasad.' 

•• XXXV L * ir aay iwmNi aball tell lato danjr aad parvrtj, aad ba 
■Mbto to aalatala ibf—ilwa aad cbildraa «llb tbair huaaal aadMVor, 
ar «b« aball dia aad laava paar arybaa^ apua c«ai|iUlat to Iha aval 
Jaadsa «f tba paaca af tba mM ceaaly. Iba mU Juatka ftadtnff Iba caan 
pUtoc to ba traa, aball awka |«y*viaiiia far Ibaai la aKb way m Ibay 
■ban mm cMivaaiaal Ull Iba anl cwaaty cwart, aad Ibaa eaia aball ba 
tobn far Ibalr autofartoMa aabrfMraca.* 

•• XXXVII., ato. 'To pravaai aiartb*a la fMle- bu aai^' Mmag baar 
•adaWaT baricyHwaH aball ba auM far awtabuva l«a pMtaha ptft Win* 
cbMlar ^^n i iMwIa— a baar aaa praay ; a baabal aiiM coatoia alsbC 
galWai^ Wiacbailar atHwan^ all wvicbta to ba a*vifdtt|Mla ml alslaaa 
•■•caa to tba poaad ; all acdiaarlM araal ba licaaaMl by Iba Uavanrar, 
mmt, to laaaia raaaaaabla accvaiaiMdatfaB. tnrrim aiaal aw< ba cbargad 
Muaa Ibaa alifeaca par baai far aacb niaal, lacimliuc aiaa to aad aiaall> 
b«««- ; faalMaa to pay awl arar t«w prat* prr alglit tvr Iwda, buwpa n a 
aalblas. bai Iba cbarga far a bona'a bay to ba alB|M-ara prr alicbl. 

<*XL. ^Tba day* af tba verb aial Iba aMMlba «f Iba yaar aball ba 
aUkd as la Ikrtplan^ aad aot by bralbra aaaira (aa ai* vulipuiy mml\ 
m tba im, ait aad. aad iblnl days af tba wavb, aad ftfai, aaewad, aad 
IbM aaialba uf Iba yaar, alc^ bcglaalag wilb iba day callad llaaday. 
«b falM XMrb.* 

. XLL to LXIX. aad tba aad uT Ibk cwda an aabatoatbilly 
I IkMa ibacwda af biva adapted la KagUad, wbkb bavaalnmdy 
baa* aaalyaad aa a pa w adlag pag*. Tbay ivlata to Iba adauablralhNi 
af Jaaika, Iba caarl^ laataaMatory bi», rrcMralbia, aad iba partly of 
alartfaaa Only a fa« addtlluaa and rbaagpw bava ba«a Baafa. aad Ibaaa 
riaply far tba adM af auta panpteally aad cWarar lalrrprvlaliaa.'* 

Ailer the meeting of tho Aivenibly, Penn fct 
out on Dccciulier 11th to go to vi«it Lunl Dulti- 
timore, with wlioni ho had an apiioiuhiient for the 
19lh. Tlie nit'otinK toolc [tiara at Wi'Ht Kivvr, 
wlicre ll^nn was courteously ami hiNtiiiinhly ontvr- 
laim<d. Nothing was acconiprMlivd, however, iu 
the way of settling the boundary dispute, beyond 
a general discussion of the subject. Baltimore 
contended for what his charter gave him ; Penn 
holding firm upon his purchase, the King's letter, 
and the phrase of tlie Calvert charter confining 
its operations to lands hitlierto uiioccu|.ied, a |iosi- 
tion in which Penn and tlus Virginian Claiborne 
tuoK oommon ground. Tlie issue of fact as to 
wliether tho IJelaware Hundreds were settled or 
unnettled in 1034, could not be deierroiiieil then 
antl there, e;eu if the ciMitetidiug |Nirtius should 
agree to rest their case upon that jioiut, as neither 
would do. The proprietaries finally parted, agree- 
ing to meet again in March, and each went home 
to write out his own views and his own account of 

the intenriew lo the Lords of the Oommittee of 
Plantations. On his wny to Chester, Psnn stopped 
to visit the flourishing settlement of Frienda In 
Anne Arundel and Tklbot CountieB, Maryland, 
reaching his destination on the 20tli. 

The year 1083 was a very busy one for William 
Penn. A great number of colonists arrived, build* 
ing was . very actively going on, divisioQ of 
land among purchaaen was a source of much 
care and perplexity, tho linca and bounds and 
streets uf tho new city required to be readjusted, 
the Council and AsHcmbly had to be newly elected 
and organised, with much important legislative 
business before tliem, and there were besides, the 
boundary question and interviews with Lord Bal- 
timore, Indian land treatiei with their tedious pre- 
liminary oouncils and pow-wows, and in addition 
to all this an extensive and exacting oorruHpond- 
enoc. Penn, however, was equal to it all, and 
maintained his health, spirits, and energy remark- 
ably well. lie even found time to make an exten- 
sive tour through his territories, visited the Indian 
tribes in friendship with them, curiously studied 
their maunen and customs^ and even picked up a 
smattering of their tongue. Penn was more and 
more pleased with his prt»vincc the more he saw of it, 
and was elated with the great work he had set in 
motion, even while he could not conceal from him- 
self that his new pruviiit« was going to prove diffi- 
cult for him to govern, and that his liberal exficti- 
diturcs in behalf of its settlement would eventually 
plunge him deep in fiecuniary embarrassments. 

Tlie Governor ap|iointcd new slieritis for the 
several counties, and ordered them to issue writs 
for a new election of members of tho Provincial 
Council and General Assembly. The "act of 
settlement," or frame of government proviniotially 
adopted by the first Legislature in its brief session 
at Upland, or Cliester, had arranged lor the ele<y 
tion of a Council of twelve iienons from each 
county, and a GtMicral Aiwembly to coiuiist of not 
uioru than two hundred frveiiieii. The fwople of 
the counties, however, thought that this would bo 
too heavy a drain uptm a scattered and as yet 
scanty |M)|Hilation, esfieeially at times when labor 
seemed to lie of more value tlian law-making, and 
acconlingly they simply went outside the charter 
and elected twelve members from each county, 
three of whom were designated to serve in the 
Provincial Council, the rest to act as members of 
the General Arai'mbly. 

The Legislature met for the first time in Phila- 
delphia, the (*ouncil and G<»vernor coming together 
on the 10th of March, 10i$3, the General Assembly 
two davs later. The members of the Council were : 


William Markham, Thomas Holme, La«se Cock, 
Christopher Taylor, Jaineji Harrison, William 
Biles, John Simcock, William Clayton, lUlph 
Withers. William Haige, John Moll, Edmund 


Cuitwall, Fnndi Wbitwcll, Juhn RiclwidMn, were dFtemiiwil thb (bovld ba done, in ipirr of 

John Hillhrd, WiUiua Clurk, Edward Bourhrin, Dr. Mon'a lUiiirnaioB about impnrliinrDt. Oalln 

and JofaD Itoada. Th« tncmbcn ortha Aovrrlily, Idlh, Jalin RirluiTil*oa was finpd Tor brinjc ' di*- 

ttom the tltrn lower cuuntin nn Iha IVlawnrci onkinl in Drink," and rrprm'rd. Tbv qiinliiiB 

wcro : StvCadle. — Juhn Ouin, Joliii Dathj, Val- of nlviiiir Onvminr aod Cuuoril aullmrilT tn pn- 

cntlne lIolllaKawortli, Oa^wrua Ili'niuiii, JiiIiD pan alt liiti' *«■ fiiiall; H'llti-d afllrnialiri'tjr. but 

DuluacC Janira Willlniiu, William (Iue4, IVirr Bii|ian'iitlv oiilr ■DrrvDiHilrrnlilv ililialp, Onlhe 

Alrleha. HfMlrirk William*. A>«(.— Jiihn Itriinta, lOlh, IJr' MohmiT ihc S.H-i.-t,r uf Five Tnulms 

Simoa Initia, ThaHMn IIiiiMit(l,jDhiiCurtiNlti4>prl wruu> lu lu-k mcfa au Intpr^-talluii nfihc bw 

Uodwfll, Wllliwn Wludimore, Jolm firinklut, aRniiiiil (Simiruiun aa applicalilc to frmnu a* 

Daniel Brawn, ltni>inl lliihvp. K»ms.—lMkn «<>tit.lh<'"i»c>n'<'<>n>i4enl«-'lh« Mr.& Mr>. Inlrr- 

WalMD, Aleiander DraiXT, William Ktftrhcr, est." Tliii wan (he fine uttpnnn uTa rorparalimi 

Keor^ Bflwman, Aleiander Moletton, Juhn Hill, in Penmj'lTBnia. and It wiu out on ibc lidc of hu- 

l{ol>eit Bracj, Juhn Kiptliaven, Comeltm Ver- maniir ur nturulitr, but iif tbc " musler anil niis- 

hoof. tre«' inlerceU," — ihe HH'iety did not are bow 

At the fint Tnecting of Ihe Council in I*hllailt.'l- wvprely i«rvanlii were [wniahed fur their Ti«t. » 

pliia, March 10. 1083, I'cnn took tlw chair and thnt the puKi^-hnieiit «aa nut ucb u to deprivelbe 

I of tlic eigbmn rvuncilun wtre pnwnt. eorporatiim ' ' 

Tlio •hcrifT* of tlie difr.-i 

rent couiitica 0' 



>cter llaucuiiibfui 

■ Kent. 

10 Hie tieiicnil Awoid.l; wire Ihe WkwioK! A 

and John Vino for 

bill for pinntinf; flax and hemp, for building ■ 

»u»«) «erc called in 

twenty-four by "iiit«ti fi-n lluu# of Corrcctirm in 

and made Ihdrmuma 

«rh euuulT. to biudcr ihe wltiiig ulxrvanu inb* 

Mher proviiico. and to prc™t runa-avf. a bill 

■Hie rule> were of iba 

•bnut pamn, ainul bumitic wuodi and uan> 


havo ollle n.arked and creel boun.l,, aU.ut fi-nc- 

iDg. alionin]; lliat wrABnla ami i^u-k pave tbc Ki-»Ku»di,.K.>ne 

ll.™ more eowim than anylliiii)! .1*. Tlw coun- 

at a U..K, an.1 faring 

try wiw m krp' aul fr.^ that it waa dittimlt to 


rclain iNi>plc in anv wirt nf U>nibt.v. nwl, wliere 

ben acreed upon a tin 

nincl<>eii-twcnti<lh*«t'll>e land wu nnincliwl and 

Mea Yot. in all ei- '"■- ''\:'\'.li';'" 

frcclunll >x>rt*orilork,itWD»iierm«ryt.>lt-nn! 

in iinjirnvcd nixl cultivaltd lnct» In Hive therniiw 

When tbctt nrore die iri 



rruni d»lriieli..n. Th.-« bill* and other mitten 

The qumlion of the poncr 

nundier of rejiTMcntalivea willioul inodilyiiix the which ibe CViunril now bepin lo ilividc imlf. Un 

charter at once aroee. when I'cnn niiiiwcrcil that the IDlh llie .''|mkcr aBd a cnmmilKC of Ibe Ai^ 

(licy niight "amend, aller.or add for I be l%il>lick iemlily re|inrlMl llie hill of gclllonmt (charter or 

rvhI, anil ihnt he wu reaily to ifltle miiHi Foumla- OaMilutiiin), wlili " diriTa anH'mlulc^t^~ whii-li 

liiinH ai nii)!ht be fur tlirir hapjiineM and the gnoil wtiv yichlnl lo Iht iIic (iuvemnr nml Cimnril, awl 

of ihcir IWi'ritin, areonlini.' tn j' (HiwcrK VMU'd ihIh-t nnu'iHlnH'nMi>ii)!-,ni4»l. Tlir I hike of York* 

hi him." Tlwu llio Aaninhly chow n S)mkiT, law ami (he Ciii diaiyiillnNrw Yi-rkaiul'IMa* 

■ml then wni an aiQounuMent of CiMincil till llio vare " wen- nlm emirah-rFd in ihia ciiniiniii« ; 

13(h. At llie HMilon of Council af ibnt day twith- Hiully.ontlio'JUlh, tlicrewaaamill-rcBcclH'lwfTn 

ing iieema to linira liecn done beyond runi|ielling the (iovemor and ibv two Houhw, ' anil then tbe 

Dr. Nic1iDkuMore,I>r«idcnt of the Society of Free quntiou licing B.-ked by tlio Gov* wlietlier iher 

Trailen, to aiqmr and Bpoluf^ic fur haviiiK aliiued wouki have iheuld charter or s new one. Iher unani- 

tiovemnr. Council, and General Amcnibly " in moiialy ilcirol llwra might be a new one, with Ihe 

conipnny iu ■ pilUiek houtc, ... a* ihiil tlier nmemlm" |>uit into ■ Law, «■ u pnal." Oiher 

have thia day broken Ihe charter, and Ihi'rcfure all hilti inlrodun-d at thii time looked lo re~ulatinx 

tliat you du will come to uulhiug A tlinl hundreda cnuiily courts, prutMnl billi of eichanffc. |iii»<»- 

in Eugland will eune you fur what you liuvedune aioni, "enilur'a wruck*," actn ofubliviun, ~ Sco<ild«.~ 

ft their children after Ihcm, an<l lliat ynu may aciiure of ipiodis, liiniia of courta in erimlnat hih*, 

hereafter be inipcacht for TrcoMn for wluit yuu marria)^ by mugiiilrate*. eieeutun ami adoiiuii- 

do." Dr. More'* apdogics were ample, aa became tmtun>, liiniiin^ llie credit jHililie-hoiMs mav ^ve 

■uch a dctcmiincd cunacrvalivc. Tlie next ilat'i to twenty ahilliiijp, protcetin;; landmarks, ear- 

noion «m occupied with imjirovenKnt of the marki, and cattle-brandi. .\Ui billi i«|uiring 

Tulu and augq^iuDa na to anwndiii); tlie cliurtcr. hogs to be rinp-d, curuuen lo be aiiix-ininl in each 

It waa obnoua that the freemen of the province county, regulating wagca of Hrvanti without in- 


dratart, UiUnHK ukI wnBwntBg kiwmI Juries. Tlw Oomaor and Ooandl mn In vUt owjr 

TVra nra nArrrd llkniiN > l«v of wpIkIiIi. •ml > ba oi11«d ounllnuoui •vadon, ilnra Iha obaTter R>- 

MllflllnK iIm' iHinUinwnt Tir nMiulniijtliUT, ami qulnil (hut Iha Oav»miir or hU dapuU iholl 

li w«» imlpnil thai lW«<iili<fl'hllni1i'l|ili!Hl'uniil]r alnva |in«hl« ia tlw IVivlnrliil Cuunrll, "and 

tie ilw anrltur. iiT llui'ka l.\>UDt)> a liw nixl viiip,iir tliat h< i>1ia11 at no tlnw tlioivin [ii-rKinn uij' act 

(lKi4wa|>luir,urN'i'«lVtlKBnMK»f Ki-nlllim' of SuUi whatmwvtr ihit •hall or may rcUlo ualu 

fanuflDduncDrn.aiMlorSuMcxa ■li«rorwlH!Bt, the jiuUcn, tnule. tnatuTj, or Hrctr of lh« pro- 

TIm \nj of Coaadhin wan lixcd at ibm *liilliu)ti, vinco and territurio* afurcwid, but by and witb 

aad Aainsbljuea two iliillinKi tiipence iht Mem, tlia advice and oirucat of lbs rrjrincial Council 

the tipMMM of gurcmmciit to b« nii-t liy a land- tlwrvof. " The Aa«mbl]', bawcver, did not niMt 

tax. 0» A|tfil 2, lOHd, " ibc Umt Charter of iq^ain until October 24lh, when, aftor a ma daya' 

ibit proTince «■* ihii night md, litcnnl, Kalcd kh-iou, derated to btMiaeai Ivgiatatkin and pro- 

and delivcml by j* Gov* tu f* iuhiUiiUiuu, and re- Tiding that counlrjr pniiluce could be taken ia 

Ik-u of curicucy, U ailjounied. Tba bualnew 

bcfure llw Cuuni'il ditriug lGH-1 WM nuuul^r of > 

ruutiuo character. The peo]>1e and oHIcinb wvro 

tou buaily occupied in uutHhxir irork — building, 

plautiog, Mrvi-jinK. Inyinj; olf ninoun and towU' 

■hipa atui tienliuji «ilh tndiaiu — to have liine to 

■pDie lor rvcurda ami di-bolc*. NiclHilna Jlore, 

of the Soeii'ly of Viai Tnulcra, wa* nuulo pnu* 

dent of CouuciL 

.^Lor..>T™,ic»i. «Ai..,.™.,,.,i»i „';"h """'■" ,S,"! .'■'''Ij';.'!*'' "■ S 

2O1I1 of Januuiy, III)i:l, Juliu Mull repnwulal 

crivrd by 7* hand* of Jaaiiu HarriMii and y* Nrw Cwthi Ouiiiity In tlv Umndl, Krancu Whit< 

■ilHukTritrhu wrciifili'mllu return y' old one w" wi'll, Ki'nl, nlid William Clarke, Kunex. Tin 

y* bivrty Ihankn uf y* wIhiId Iuiim', whh-li aiiKnl' ciininiittiv of tlip Avvnilily wen- ilniiHW Williaiiu^ 

iniily ibry dill." Tlu-n ua ihi' :i>l, aDiT iHiwiiiK uf .Nvw t^'aaileUiNmly ; IhiHHiy lliiJuip, Knit; and 

»i>nip«iin<'irUvf, iIk i-hu-f of wliiih waii lu prohiUt ]«ku Walaon, Sumcx. Tin iiFXt AMmUy nict 

the iu|wnntiua of Ii-Iihh, llw An'mbly ailjiiumcil at Ijevvt on tlw iA uf Jlarvli, but only ruutiiM 

*■ till Hirh tinw ae the Liovrnwr and t'nivimnal buuniM vaa traasucliil. I-jirly is the year IGU 

CuuBi-il ihall have ocnuion fur lliem." a number of the inlialiiluela of Kent Cuunty 

The new ebarter, (.'uulituliun, hill of Mtlle- refuwd to pny tituir taxe* to IVnn, and eiitreixul 

Blent, or bame of goTcrnmcnt wu mudeh'd ujiia diakiyal Kntimunt* aKuinut L'u nuvcrnnicDl, ahich 

the plan arigiually ihuiimhI by I'vnn. It n-uin- gave bim much cunceni. The Indent of tb* 

ot in the banda of Uovpituir ami Council the nvolt a[iiwar to ha John Itichanbion, Thonia* 

■ulhorily lo originate billi, but ia utbcr reapecta Ilnther and TlHimae Wilaun, vlio niado cum- 

il deviatnl niaterially from llic rumliliuiu uf llie plaint agnind the govemnuiil la tlie lienural 

old vhancr. The L'ouanl wat to coniiit uf three, Aioenibly. Francii Whitvi'll and John llilltard, 

and ihv UeLeral Aifenbly uf aix mcmhi-ra from who were luenilien uf tlio Council with John 

earh manly. The iiicnibers of Cuuncil aerved KiclmnlaHi, Here nho tmpiicalcil b llw nbvllion. 

••e, two, and three ynin rcapet-tivi'ly. A iinivi- To cunctliale llie diaalfvclol in the thrve lower 

aiun na biruiluccd looking tu inernuw uf ntirv- cuunUa of the IK'laware, the Ueneral Aawinlily 

avnlathai in pru|>ortian lu llw groalh uf )>o|iula- invt at New Cadle uii the lUlb uf .March, lun4, at 

■■■■n. Tlw whole Hcialativc body was lu be rnlk-d which Willinni I'enn waa pracnt. The miouM 

tlw Ueneral Aiwcnibly, and all hills becuniintt uf tbia Kwiun uf tlw Aaaemhiy cunlain ■ aiuKulnr 

arts were lo be cnlliil act* of aui'h Aiacnihly, and record aa illtvtralive uf tbe I'haracler and mctliiida 

the I.ower llouie was nut lo adjiium uniil it hod of I'eiin, and what bo imiitit by emting ihc ultice 

actiil u|i»n llw InuinvM Iwforu iL It wa*, mure- of |inicvnuikcr ur arbitntur, who might uaixl bc- 

uvcT, diMiudly iuiplitil in llw lanixiiat.'u uf the twivn lhv|v»|duit)dlliu cuun* awl mvv iheni the 

charier that suaie uf llw righls and |irvrugiilivi'* cX|vaiua anri Iwarl-liuniinga of Iili;inl<an. " An- 

i-njuy<il by l*rnn nmbr it wen lo cnM will) ,his dri'w Juhnaun, Jl, Ilanro (Hans) I'l-toncn. Drft. 

life; llwy were iMnnwiuiu to hia character and There being a liillcrunve depending betweru them, 

hia Ulwra fur the |>iuriace, auil not a 6iial Hirren- the (Jov* ft Counrill ailviivil them lu shake hands, 

d«r uf (Kvoen'a righla. Id return I'cnn con- and to lurgive One anutlwr; and Ordered that 

firninl ell in all thuir tibcriiva, and pk-dged him- they should Kntrr in bondi fur fifty iHiuntb apiece 

arlf (u inauru 10 all thv iiiluibilaotii of the province tor their guud obeuraiuv; W' ai-cunlinyly tliey 

ihc ijuict jiOMvSMon and jwaecablu eij^yinvnt of did. /( una aim Onltrtd thai M« JCrcvrdi ij Ceur^ 

tU'ir landa and erialca. ctnetruias Mot Aan'no* t/wuU t* tunl." This 


itmpl*, Mk«d twucd of tww lh« illfluraiKT) the pnaidrnt. Nlclinlu More, WitliBin Wrlrh, 

brtwMB Jm Juuvn and Han* I'ntorMin vera Willinm Wixxl, Itiilwrt Turnrt, •ml John K>\\v 

•iitlli<tl it ono »r tha niiwl lin|mw<lvt> oxiini[ili« of vera niiwlv |inivliii'iiil Juilipii G>t twi> iran ; Mark- 

pmrttnl rtliln a|it>t)i<1 tii jurb|>niilFnru llllt «■« Iihhi wiu Hi'n-tnn' nt IViuiicIl, nn>l Jnnirr> Ilarrt- 

ever klumn. wiu «iu ■IrirBnl iif llip Ihhhw anrl ninnor nt Wntn- 

William Fran hnJ lioni long jiirtrd fnila hU bury. Ik- vnilurko-l at an'l niltd fnnn I'hiliHli'l- 

fiimilj, and hia affiiin in KngUnd were nrit in phia Auguat I'J, I>i>l4. Kmltng frum im huard the 

a good ciindition. IIo had done much Gir hia tcmvI ere alic uilcit a final letter nr jianin;; to 

provitua, vhieh, at thia lime, hod a population of Lhird. Claypnole, Sirqeoek, Cbrii4u|divr Taylor, 

•eiren Ihoiuand. ][u bow tl)0U)^it it pxid fur him ami ,lanici Hnrrimii, in wliidi he cxpnwc* the 

to return fur a acaaiin to Eiij;lunil, c|ici-iii11y ai ileciieM itiiHlioii for ibwr fiiithrul friiiiila. and 

there waa tlio plaoi iu whieh bu miKht nuirv inrviy acnda tlieiii bb- proven pml blefriiiip. Thei' hu( 

hope to cRL>ct a auttlcmcnt of lite veiitjuu* botiiHl- nurny re(i]iun«>1>ilitieg upon their ilnHiiilera, and be 

ary dia|iutea with Lunl Baltimore, whoa: agcntt hoped they wonld do tlwir iliity. The letter con- 
bad invwU'd the iower eountiH>, liuilt a fort witliin rtiidnl nilli a rcrvcnl pnvir for iniilailvlphiii, 
Bva niiieaof Now Uialla, and were eullevtinK timet "Iha viiuin actllenieni of tlic pfwinre, mmnl 
■nil renta and di^puMcaainj; tenant* in that aeeliun. Iwfure thiw n-ert bom." l*enn arrived in En*;- 
Catvert biimcif liwl none to England in March, Imid on the :!d of Octiibi-r, and did o,A again 
and I'enn wiote to the Duke of York thai be >ec hia Tii),'in eily niid hia beloved pruvini'c until 
mraut to fi'tlow biui »> fiut nt lie could. Aceonl- Il)l>9. 

ingly. ho jirepareit Iu Irara the pn>rinre, mir|;iin- The procenlinKa of <\Hlni-il and AiwenililT lie- 

itinx the eliurrh diaripline of b<a eu-religi'iiuirieis twevii IIM'fand 1 <i!IU, while llwy nii^Hil flllarvenl 

and looking after the fiacal ayntcm of biacirii gov- pagi-o in a volumi-af aniul*,itMiy lieauMiwd npin 

emmeat in a pnetical and able way. The ketch a few paTagrajilM in a hialiMT auch ■« thia.' The 
" Endeavor," juat arrived from England with lei- 

ten nnd dia|ntchca, wax got ready to carry the J^ V!!r^\' "h^ "trf ill^f i"* 'i!Ti!r.1i!'i T^ "* ^" 

Uovemor back again. He comniiuiuned the I'ni- ^\,vL*^\l'K^\ij»\i^%ui\J^\^w\M..,^^r!, 

vinrial Council to art in liii- uteod while be wa* ^^m'^'T^kmi'^^'Za^^'J^u^'*,^,^^ *" 

■way, intrutting (he great aealtvTIiomat Lloyd, _,." " '' " ' ■*"""* 



tnuMMiUini wcrr, lu a nilf, not very importtint, trivial blckcringii a groat atnifCKle wm f(ning on 

ami iImp major ]wrt of tlie rrconi, mitnide of tlio lM*twtH*n the rt*)M\iieiitMtive« of the fWsomcn of the 

rr^sular routine of ap]Miiiitmentii» etc., i« taken up province and tlie »|N>nioni fur Pcnn*i porvonal in- 

with tlie qunrrvli of public ofKcen anionj^ tliem- tenvt* ami lii« proprietary prerogative. Thia 

tfcht* ami the eomplainta of the people apainst etmtiitt Instill loii}?, ami Pcnn*« friend* in the end, 

Penn and the government generally. A French without serving his iwliticnl intenvts niaterinlly, 

rhip with irrrtnilar |M|)erB was wized, oondenine«l, cuntrive<l to dciil his penwnnl interests a cruel blow, 

ami M»ld by onler of (*uun(*il under the KnglL«b by exoitiii}; the ]iefiple of tlie province to hoKtilo 

navigntion laws. There munt have been a grpat ftvlin*!)! n;^iini4 him, nml provoking llicm to with- 

many vc*h*Is on the c«mst and in the Inivn nt this luijd n^nts nml iHirchnm.<i«, nml riMhice hiit iuc*<mie 

tina* which couhl not give a go(Nl nccimnt of them- in every |MMHil»io wiiy. IVnu hiiiiiK>lf wnitc to 

sclvfn, and coniplaintK of piracy are loud nml fro- Lloyd, in lUMrt, thnt t\w ill fnnic the provimt» had 

ipU'nt, the cohiuinl giivcnuucntu lM«ing somctimoi girnxil on nctnumt of itn bickerings had h»<t it 

mvumtl of undue leniency in their deidiu^x with litltrn thouiMiud ininii;;rantjt, wlio wouhl hnvu 

the fnvlNNttent. Governor Fletcher, of New York, giuu* thither had itM nfliiira ap|N*ttre<l more settle<l, 

who was alK«> G«»vcnior of Pennsylvania duriufr but ns it was they went to N«»rth Carulinn iiiMnul. 
the Mi!(|ieni*i<in of Peiin's authority in Mny, 1(»!I3, In Febnuiry, 10M7, Penn took the excctitive 

wiw on friemlly terms with Kidd and others, and |)ower away from the CViuncil and intnisteil it to 

Xiehollit, t»ne of hilt Council, was coninKmlychnrgiHl a commixKion of live fienMiiis, — TIioiiuih IJoyd, 

with Mug agent of the seii*mverti. Governor Nichohis Mon*, Jameit (*hiy|MHilc, Hobcrt Turner, 

Markhnnrs alleptl itou-in-Inw, dnmett llrown, was nml dohu Kckly, uny thn<o to hnve |M>wer to aet. 

denii^l his wtit in the AKseiuhly and put in primm lie sent over nuiny iiuttructions to hiii iNsml, 

for Mtiling In a pirate's vefsd. Thn |MHiplo of nnioug oihem t(» com|iel the Council to their ehar- 

Im'Wcs o|ii<nIy denlt with Kidd, exehnn^in^ their ter nttendnmn) or di^milve them without furilwr 

provii«i«Mis for his (iuepMMls. Tem*ii, cidhnl Hluek- ado nnd eluMim* others, ** f(»r I will no nioru endure 

lii'anl. was often nbout the iK'lawans ami it wns tlieir most («lothtul uud dii<honurnlde attemltuuv.*' 

rharpnl that he and the (lovenior of North (-nru- The ciunmi:tf«ioiicrs wen* enjoinetl to ki>ep up the 

linaaudiaher oiKcials of that State were altogether di;;nity of their stiiliou, in Council and out, and 

too intimate. not to |H>nnit any tli:<onlers either in Council or 

PennV noticeable tact and skill as a peace- AiMeudily, nnd mitto aUow any |>arleys or con- 

uaker and t*imi|ioHer of {N'riMinal diffieulties were feriMUvs betwirn the two Jtoum'S, but curitiunly 

sndly mtsKHl nfker his de|>nrturc for Kn;;luud. iu^|M'ct the pnK'eedin>^ of Uuh. They were fur* 

Tlie AHfX'iubly and Couneil pit into a H>ri<ius thur in Pciin's name to dimivow all hiws isiiMHl 

s«|unbl»lf in c«>n.'«e<|Ui'nce of a dil)ereu<<<> itlMiut tiio siiu-e his hIkhmuv, and to cidl a nea* AMM-mbly to 

prenigiilivcs nnd divinity of the two iMsliei*. Chief rt'isixs, nKslify, and alter the laws. When this 

•lu»iie«' Niehohiit More, though an able nnd pmln connniwtion was n>(viveil, in Feiinmry, ItMM, Isitli 

ably upright nmn, was di«iittorial and arbitrary, Mori' and Clay|MMile were dead. Their plaix*s 

AS well aii 4|narn'lMiuie. lie wns mit a (junker, wen* supplie«l by ArtliurCtsik and John SinuNs-k, 

but he iiseil very plain lan^un^i* som<>tiuHi«, nnd nnd the new elections onlen*d ptve Siiniuel Itich- 

was fn'ci'iHikcn. Him the Asseuilily formally anlsou the apiNiiiitmcnt of nicmlK^r of (*ouncil 

ini|s*acb«Hl beftire Council on Juno Id, lUbo, for three yean*, while Thomas llooten, Thomas 

U)>on the gnmnd of various mnlproetices and Fitxwalter, IjiK<H;CiH>k, JanM-jt Fox, (iriflith Owen, 

mi'^lenutinory, cbii'tly tpchnicul, or growin;<^ out of and William Sail lierby were* cluisi'n memlN*rs of 

his blunt manners. AsM'mbly. The contests for privilege lietwcen 

Penn nt this time, UVides his grove concerns at Council and Arsembly wen* at once n>neae<l ; the 

e«Mirt. was busy Ksiking ndvr llie home interesis of Aiwembly sworo its memliers to divulge no pro- 

hi?* pmvimv on one si«liMind its external inten^sts cixMlings, nnd practicnlly made its sessions Hccret ; 

on the other, now shipping wine. Urr, seeds, nnd the Council assert«*d its ancient pn^nigatives ; in 

tnnn to Pennsylvania, anon publishing in Ijontlon short, the ipuirn'l was interminable except by 

nnniunts and dtveriptituis of tlio pmvineo nnd what would bo practicnlly revolution, for on one 

cxfn>r]ils tif iHters n>trivcd trom its linppy scitlen. side was a written charter and a system of iron* 

Tlu* [tntprietar}* wns never futigue«l even by the bound laws, on the other the |)o|mlar deturniina- 

niost minute dtiails in any nuitter in which he tion, growing stronger every day, to secure for the 

de<in<d to succeed, and his letters show thnt he freemen of the province and tlieir representative a 

nntiei|Kite<l and thought aliout ever}' thing. His larger share in the major coneenui of government 

suiier\'isi«in was nee«leil, for Council, Aw<*mbly, ami legislation. The commission, in lact, would 

ami t Sovernor sifni to have been eipiully incom- not work u|M)n trial, and l>efore the year was out 

peietit to do nn\thing iNvidtn (pmrnd an«l diiqign^e Peiui S4*ut over a Governor for the pnivince, an 

in n'gani tti privilegi*. In faet, underneath these old otHcer under the Commonwealth and Crom* 


well, and aon-in-Iiiir of that Gon. Lambert who a great rumor of terrible thingi in »tore for the 
At one time was Monk*! rival, — by name John pruvioce; the Iiuliuns and i*npMt« ha<l Ie&;»t]i<d 
Blackwell. to}rfilu>r; the Northern Imlians were civmin^ 
Oi»vcmor Blackwell had a troublesome career down the Hus«iu«>h»nna, and the lower countk* 
Ml office. For a peaceable, non-resistaut people, were alreti<ly niuKteriug to rei>i«t the inraton of 
the Pennsylvania settlen hnd as many donKtitic an urmy of nine thoiiMind men ttn their wny frum 
difficulties on their hands as ever any happy Maryland to tlcKtrov Philadelphia. Hhickwell 
family had. As soon as Blackwell was induttud wanted instant authority to levy a forrc for de- 
he was brought in collwion with Thomas Lloyd, femtc, but the <juakers took thinpi rather more 
who would not give up tlie great seal of tlie <piielly. They did not want an army ami tliev 
provini'e, and declined to affix it to any commii^ did not lK*lievo the rumon*. Clarke Nitid if any 
ri«»ns or d«M!Uineiitif of which he did not approve, such mIumiic of invasion had ever Ui'n enter- 
As thu misunderstanding grew dee|ier, the old tuined it hos mm* d'.tid. Peter Alrirlis Miid there 
iMiuc of prerogative came up again, ond it was wan mtthing to Iw Retin*d about. John i^imcitck 
declared that Blackwell was not Governor, for did n<»t see " hut what we arc as Mifi% kvopiog 
the rcnstm that, umler the charter, IVnn could |ieaeeahh*, nit tlioH* who have made all thi« •'trife." 
not create a (Joveruor, but only npiH^iuta Deputy- Griffith Joiiw said there was no eattao of danper 
(loveruor. An effort was made to ex|H.*l from the if they kept (|uiet. in fact, tlie Council mit 
Council a memlwr who had iiii«ii»tvd u|m)U this only ohjeetitl to a levy, but they lau;rli('d at 
view of the case; it failed, the Governor dis- itlaekwell's apprehcUMons. Markham Niid that 
solved the Counuil, and at the next . miMtiim the all MUeh talk had no etlU't but ti» M'an> the women 
jieople ruelecteil John KiehanUm, the olivniliug and ehildreu. The (loveriior found he i*«iuld do 
memberi whom, however, Blackwell refiiMtl to nothing, and ailjourn«'«l the (Niuncil. 
|M'rmit to lake his scat. From this thu <|uarrel Ni'\t enme news that Janiei* II. was ilethnmed 
went on nntJl wo find JJoyd an«l Blackwell re- and William of Gninge nnule king of Kn;;tand. 
moving and reap]Miinting officers, and the public The Couneil was cnlUil together, and the hone-t 
oflicent deelining to submit their rcconlt to the Quakers, not feeling fure whieh king they were 
Cuuneil and the ctmrts. Lloyd wub eleete«l mem- under, determine<l neither to eelebralc nor wear 
ber of Council frum Bucks County, and Black* mourning, but to wait eventjt, th.* C«iutieil anuiju 
well rcfusetl to let him take his scat, which ing lhem.<K-lvcs in the mean time by kee|>ing up 
bnHight on a violent controversy. The general their oUl feudn. Sllrew^bury's letter autMuneiug 
discuM<ion of privilego and prerogative in ctmnec- the new king's intention to make inimetliato war 
timi with thcM diff'erenees led Bradfonl, the ou the French king w»« laid Ufon* Couneil tM. 
printer, to print for general usu an itlition of the 1, KiHil, and wait aeetun|ianie«l with the usual 
** Fttrm of liovernment and thu Great ]«aw," so warning about del'enitive mentiun-ii and the neetl 
that everylNaly mi^ht see for hiniM'lf the right for commercial vei<!H'N to Niil in e<i»i|«iny ami 
and the wrong of thu nuitters in dispute. The under thu prnteetion of nmvoys. William and 
ex|ienm) of the publication, it is naid, wiui liorno Mary wen^ at oiiev fonnally pnK'laime*! in the 
by Josi'ph Growdon, a mcndK>r of Council. It pn>vinee, and a fre^h diiMMi«.«ii»n arriH.* in rc/ard 
was consitlered a dangerous and incendiary act, to the pn»|ier defensive nu'a>urei» and the ne<fs^i!y 
and liradftml was summoned before the 'C(»uncil for an armed militia. Thu (Quakers were utterly 
and closely interr.tgatcd, but he would not admit op|Hi!<ed to any itort of military prep:i nit ions. If 
that he had printetl the document, though he was they urmetl tliemselvev, it was urgeil, the Indians 
the only in^rmm in the pnivincc who eould have would at oiiee rise. ** As we are,'* said M-urihle 
done it. There wa» a Comicil quarrel over this Siinc<M*k, " wo are in no danger but from U-ars 
thing too, some men tpioting Peiin as favoring and wolves. We ore well ami in |Miiee ami 
publicity for the acts of Assembly, another pro- i|uiet. Let us keep oursi'lves iw). I know naught 
claiming his dread of the press, U'etiuse the char- but a {icaeeablu spirit au«l that will do well." 
tcr, in fact, nmde him n sort of intlcfHrmlent Griffith Jones, nion-over, showiil how murli the 
prince. The result was the Council broke up in thing wouhl ei«>t ami ht»w it w«.ulfl inere:L'*c 
confusion, and for some time could not get a taxation. Finally, after long diseuM>ii»tis, the 
quorum Uigether. The Assembly, meeting May (Quakers withdrew from active op|H)i>itiiin. and 
10th, was suddenly adjourne<l for the same reason, the pre|Kirations for defense wen» lef\ to ihe dl«- 
the )M)pular |nirty having disc(»vered that by a crt^tiou of the (iovernor. William IVnn hims(>If 
negative, non-resistance (Nilicy of this sort the Gov- was now in deep dif1ieuliie« and |mnly a fugitive 
eruor*s plans ond puriNwet were fmralyzcd. There in hitling. He wiu afraid to a(*t oi^enly any 
were no meetings of either Council or Assenddy longer lui the Governor of the proving. Ac- 
fnmi the latter part of May till the last of Au- eonlingly he nuule another change, and «hen 
gust. Then BlackwuII sprung ujion the Council Governor Blackwell ealled the Council togetlH-r 


«■ Jtt. 1, 1600, H wai to bifom them that h« thlevM and rohben, are the same couibm that 

had been lielieTed of hb oAoe. He teemed glad their majceties take Ibr their fortt, garriioBi, and 

to be free. •oldiers, etc., totecure their Icingdora and proTinoeA, 

The Coaneil, acting upon Penn*e inttructione and you as well as the rest of their subjeets.'* 

and commiMion on January 2, 1690, elected Tho- But the Quakers were not to be conTineed by any 

mas Lloyd president and 4ftf/arfoDeputy*Govemor. such Arguments. Fletcher had reduced the nuro- 

The lower Delaware counties were envious of the ber of Assemblymen, and when the Legiilature 

growth of Philadelphia, Bucks, and Chester. The met on May 16th, the first thing before the Assem« 

traditions and manners of the diflcrcnt sections biy was a propoiittion to raise money by taxatinn,^- 

had little similarity. Finally the bad feeling grew the first tax levi(>d in Pennsylvania and Delaware, 

«A strong as to lead to «ecciiiii«in, which is more -—and an act was imncd levying a penny a pound 

fully treatcti in a succeeding chapter. The IX'la- on property for the support of the government, 

ware counties (or ** territoricii," as they were The Hum thus rniniHl amounted toieven hundred and 

called) held a leiinrate Council, elected their own sixty jioundm sixteen shillings. Thus far Fletcher 

judges, and finally com|)elled Penn, in 101) 1, much succee<lc(l, only to fail, however, when he attempted 

against his will, to divi<le the government, which to secure the imsaage of a law providing for organ* 

he did by continuing Lloyd as Deputy-Governor izing the militia. The AsHemhly did pass an act 

of the province, and ap]M»inting Msrk ham Deputy- prov tiling for the c«lucHtion of childrru, and also 

(Sovernor of the territories. George Keith sIko one for the cmtiiblishnient of a |Mi«t-oflii'e. A giMnl 

had at this time la'gun to agltntu in behiilf of his deal of pmetirni hw^nl leKli«lafii>n wns done .also, 

st^hinnu prolwlily uuiUt Murk ham's Inthu'mM*, for he wns 

The French ami Indlsn iHMtllilles on the IV<m* an active, enerKetU* man, nml knew the town, the 

tier, the a|Hilhy ami noU'resintanin* of the (junken, |HHiple, and their wants laHter than any other 

and the amlilgtmus position of Penn, lurking In |ierson could do. 

cvdirealment, with an indictment hanging over his In the winter of 1603, Penn was acquitted by 
head, were made the pretexts for takiug the gov- the king of all charges against him nnd ret^torcd 
emnuMit of Penn*s province aa'ay from him. His to favor, his government being confirmed to him 
intimate relations with the dethroned king, and anew by letters patent granted in August. 1694. 
the fact that his province, as well as the Delaware Penn would prolmbly have returned to his pro- 
Hundredit, had been James' private pro|ierty, and vince immediately after his exoneration, but his 
were still govemi-d to some extent by " the Duke wife was ill, and died in Februnry, l(i94. This 
of York's laws,'* probably had much to lUt with' groat allliction nnd the disonlerc<l state of his 
prom]»ting this extreme numiture. Governor lien, finances dctniniMl him in England several years 
janiin Fletcher, of New York, was made " Captain- longer. After his government was restored to 
General" of Pennsylvania on Oi*tober 24, ](>92, him, hu old friend and de|>uty, Thomas Lloyd, 
by royal patent. He came to Philadelphia April having died, Penn once mora ap|)ointed his cousin, 
26, 1693, had his letters patent nad in the mar- William Murkham, to be iX'puty- Governor, with 
kct-plnee, and offered the test oaths to the mem* John Goo<lson and Sanmel Cttr|ienter for assist- 
ben of the Council. Thomas Lloyd rofused to ants. These commissions reached Markham on 
take them, but Markham, Andrew Itobcsou, Wil* March 25, 1<)05. 

liam Turner, William Sulway, and Ija»se CiMrk all In the mean time Governor Fletcher, with his 

subsi^ribed. Fletcher made Markham his Lieu- deputy (this same Murk hum ), had U'cn encounter- 

tennnt-tiovernor, to pnviile over Council in the ing the oM difficult ios with (AMincil and Assembly 

ca|ilain-gencral s alNK>nc«i in New York. Hero- during 1691 '9*V The dread of Fniich nnd Imli- 

unilinl the Di'lnwnro lIundnHls to the provlntHt, nns still )irevuiU'<l, but It was nt»t sufficient to 

Init did not suctH*etl In harmonlxiiig affairs In his induce the (Quakers of the province to favor a 

new government. The Council and he fell out mllUaty r^jiiufi lndee«l. Tammany and his bunds 

alNWt the election of representatives to the Assem- of Dclawares had given the lx*st priNif of their 

bIy. When the Legislature met, Fletcher de- luicific intentions . by coming into Philadelphia 

manded men and money to aid New York in and entreating the Governor and Council to 

carrying on the war with the French and Indians, interfere to prevent the Five Nations from forcing 

The Assembly refused to comply unless the vote them into the fight with the French and Hurons. 

of suppliei* was preceded by a re«lress of griev- They did ncit want to have anything to do with 

anccs. Fletcher tried to reason with them. *' I the war. but to live as they had been living in 

would have you consider," he said in his speech to concord and quiet with their neighbors the 

the Assembly, '* the walls about your gardens and Friends. There is no evidence that the league of 

orehards, your doors and locks of your houses, amity, implied or written, had ever been seriously 

mastiff dogs and such other things as you make broken The Indians would sometimes be druuk 

use of to defend your goods and property against and disorderly, and sometimes would steal a pig 


or a mJt, bat that wtt all. Ai TammaBjr laid In realiaed), propoting out of tho reeoipls from t**e 

this conferonce with Fletcher and Markham,** Wo lerj to pay Markham £300, contribute £250 

and the Christiani of thii rirer have alwayi had a towards the maintcnanee of goreroment, and at- 

ftee roadway to one another, and though tome- lign the Mirplumge to the payment of debts of the 

times a tree has fallen across the road, yet we government. But the nemlwrs accompanied tbi* 

have still removed it again and kept the path bill with another, anew act of settlement, in which 

clear, iind we design to continue the did friendship the Assembly secured to itself the privilegef which 

that has been between us and you." Fletcher they had sought to obtain from Penn in rain. It 

promised to protect the Delawares from the was, ns has justly been rumarkcd, a s|ieciesof*'l<ig- 

Senecnsand Onondagas, and told tliem it was to n>lling." It had long been practiced with succcm by 

their interest to remain quiet and at peace. When Parliament upon thv itii|)ecuniuus nionnrclMof Kng> 

the Legislature met (May 22, 1()94), Fletcher, who land, and in these nio<Ji'm timci> has been nnlunil 

had just returned fVom Allmny, triH his licst to to a scieiiee by nearly all lcgij«liiti%'e bo«lics. Mark- 

get a voto of men and money, or either, for dt*- ham, however, refu!H-«l the bait He declined to 

feosive purposes. He even suggestcil that they give his aNK>nt tolioth billn; the .\i*tcnibly npfu^ed 

could quiet their scruples by raii>ing money simply to divorce thoni, and the Deputy- Governor, in imi- 

to feed the hungry and clothe the naked, but this tation of Fletcher's tmuimary nieth<id, at onct^lis- 

roundnbout way did not commend ItKiOf to solved tlieni in the very teeth of tho charter he ikss 

(Quaker simplicity niid stmightforwnnliuiM. A ri^fuxiiig to su|H>rM.'<lc. 

tax of a penny |N«r |MMind was laid lo eoni|M>nKitlo A Her MiirUiiini'ii Hrst fiiilure to walk in Fleteb* 
Thomas liloyil and Wiltliini Miirkhiiin for 1 heir er's fiNiinteiM, \w niqiennn to hnve t|i«|NMtMi| with 
|Nisl M«rvins, the surplus to ctiiipiliutu n niiiil to lie Intlh (Nnuiell nnd A rn'mhly fur an entire year, 
disburiHHl by (iovornor nnd C-ouncil, but an ne- guverniiig (ho provintr as nulled hhiirelf. niili the 
count of the way it went was to Ihs submitted to aid ut* s<inie few letten from Penn, nmde more in- 
the next General Aeseuddy. Further than this fre<|tK>nl by the war with France. On the 25th 
the Assembly would not go. Fletcher wanted the of tieptemljcr, KiiXi, however, he sumuMined a new 
money to be presented to the king, to he appn»- Council, Philadelphia Iniing reprawntvd in it by 
priated as he chose for the aid of New York and Edward Sliip|)cn, Anthony Morris, David Ll«»yd, 
tho defense of Albany. He objectid likewise to and Patrick l(obin:K)n, the latter IxMng i>ecretary. 
the As8cnd)ly naming tax collectors in the act, The home govemmeiit, thmugli a letter from 
but the AKseiiibly asserted its uiidoubte«I right to (^ueen Mary (the king Ikmu;; on the eoiitinent). it 
c<mtr(d the disjMwition of money rait>e<l by tnxa- apfienred, coni|iluine«l of the pniviuce for violuiing 
tion, nnd thereuixm the Governor diivolved it. the laws rc^gulntlng trade nnd plautati<aii« (pnilm- 
In June, IGil'i, aller Markham was well settk'd in biy in dealing with the Went Indies). The Coim- 
his place as Penn*s Deputy-Governor, there were cil advised the Governor to send out writs of elec- 
agnin wild rumors of French designs uimn the col- tion and convene a new As^H'mbly on the 2<>tli of 
onies and of squadrons already at sea to assail October. He complied, and as sotm as the A&dcmbly 
them, and this was so far credited that a watch and met a contest began with the Governor. Mark- 
lookout statitm was maiutainud for several months ham urged that the queen's letter should be at 
at Cape Hcnloiwn. In the latter (wrt of this same tcndeil to, nnking for supplies for definiie, and aL<c 
month Markham informed the Council that Gov- culle<l their attention to William Penn s pKil;:* 
ernor Fletcher hndmndca requisition u|i4in him for tliiit, t\lien he ngiiinc<l his government, the inter- 
ninetyonu men and otficx'rs, or tlio fumln for main- crtts of Knt^liind should not U* negltcte«l. The As- 
(atning that numlHT for the defense of New York, senilily replied with u remouiitraun* agniuiit tlie 
This matter was prowic«l by Fletcher, but the Conn- thivenior's sjM't'eh and a intition for tlie rentora- 
oil devidett that it was t<x> weighty a lahimiis to lie tion of the provincial charter as it was U'forv (he 
transacted without con»ulting the Geucnd Aniem- government wiis eonunittetl toGuvernor Fletcher's 
bIy, which would not nieet before the itccond week truvt. That Governor was still asking for m<>ncy 
ofSeptombi*r. Markham suggi-stcd an earlier day and relief, and Miirkham entreatcti that a tax 
formecting, but the Council thought the securing of might be levied, and, if conscience nee<Icd to be 
the cro|)0 a more importont busini-ss than any pnqio- quieted in the matter, the money could be appr^ 
sition that the ex-captain-genend had to lay before priated for (he purchase of food and raiment for 
them. When the Assembly did meet, in ^September, those nations of Indians that had lately sutlercd so 
it at once revealed the cause of the continual di:*- much by the French. This propcw ition became 
contents which had vexed the province, aud gave tho basis of a compromise, the Assembly agn-«ing 
Deputy-Governor Markham tho op|x>rtunity to to vote a tax ofone penny per iNiund,pruvi«leil the 
prove that he was an honest man. It voted a tax Governor convened a new Assembly, with a full 
of a penny |)er [lound and six shillings per capita numberof representatives according to theohlchar^ 
(from which probably £1500 would have been ter, to meet March 10, 1607, to serve in Provincial 


Goiiadl and AmeaMj, Aeoording to charter, until mtralty Court and th« provincial gntemment wai 

tba lord proprietary's pleamira eould be known given immediate proniinenoe. OliI. Quarry waa 

about tbe matter ; if he diiapproved, the act waa invited to attend the next day's Council moeting, 

to be void. Markhani yielded, his Council draw and it was resolved that a proclamation should 1m 

up the supply bill and a new charter or frame of forthwith published discouraging pimcy and illegal 

government, and buth bills became laws. trade. Quarry's charge against Peiin's govern* 

Markham's new Constitution, ad<»|)l«d Novem- nient was that tlio justices of Philadelphia Court 

her 7, ItilKl, was ciHivhed u|Min the pro|MMiiiun hud issuiHi a writ of rvpleviu, ami sent the sheriff 

lhat**llie former franu« of government, m(Micli*«l by (ClayiMNile) to seixo gixNls wliieh were in the cus- 

act of settlement and charter of lilH?rties, is not tody of the iimrahal of the Adinimlty Court, at 

deemed in all rrs|iects suitably ai*eiminiiKlate«l to New Castle, having been li>gally siixed in the name 

our present circumstances." The Council wiu to c»f the crown ; that the jiisttcHM had been oiltrnsive 

consist of two re|>resi'utativcs from each ctnuity, and inmilent to Judgu (Quarry, chsllengiiig his 

the Assembly uf four ; elwtions to take plnce on comtiiissiou and clHiiiiing tlmt their jurisdiction 

the loth of March each year, and the General As- wits co-exteiistve with his nnd their authority to 

sembly to meet on the lOth of Mhv each year. uuUnisc I'uUy as gn>at as bis to bind ; that the 

Tlie Markhum charter goes into details in regard sliertir miido a pn'tence ut keeping ci*rtuiii pirates 

to theoatlis or affirmations of offieiuls of all ehisHes, in ctistmly, wltilu in fact they weru at largo every 

jurors, w itntvMii, etc. ; it iH*tii the \wy of Council- diiy. This KhI to a long cimlerence, and it bud the 

men and nK^uda^rs of ^Vssembly, nnd is on the result that tbu Awciiibly to bo calle«l would come 

whole a clear and more sntiiifuctoryfrunieof gov- preinired lo agitato the qucstitm ol constitutional 

ernmcnt tluin tbe one which it su|>erM'<led, while aniendmrnt, us well as thut of piracy and illicit 

not var}'ing in many substantive featun's from trade. It was decided to call the old AsM>mbly to 

that instrument. Tbe Assembly secured at least meet on January 25th, a new election U-ing 

ooe-hnlf what tlie framers of the province had so onlercd in New Cant le County, which hud ueglected 

long been fighting for, to wit: That the repre- t4i choose repress utatives for the lust Assembly, 

sentatives of the freemen, when met in AiMi*mi)ly, At the time nuiued the A»>sead)ly came together. 

^uil /kiiv pourr to prepare oud propof^e lo the iioih The sherilfof New Custic Couuty returniil, in an- 

trnor uud t oHucit ail »urh bllU as iheif or the major swer to the (Jovernor s writ, that llicbard 1 lalli well 

pt*rt of Ihrm *kttti at autf-limr sre utrtf/u/to Itf jHimnil and UoiM*rt Fri'tich weru elected meiiilM'rs of the 

im/o Aiir ieilhtH the 0uid proviurt tiud IvrrUorirn,*' Council, and J«ihn lieuly, Ailuiu lVlenh»n, Wil- 

This was a great victory for the |)opuhir citure. liam (Juest, and Wtlliuiu Houston memlienof As- 

AnotlkT e«iuttlly ini|iortant |Hiint gained was a i*eiiibly. The writ for this election is iutercstnig 

clauae declaring tlie General Assembly indissoluble from its unusual fi rm : 

for the lime for which its niemUm were elected, ..t„ r. iuihw^i. j.. m«.i.i««..„d Rum f^kh. .r N«.nM«i., 

and giving it imwer to sit upon its own adjourn- iiiriuw«i i •*»! y«Mi • wrti (;/r y« i4Mi»ijr wr N«wcarti«>, i«* ramrii iiwir 

nienis and committees, and lo contiuue its seixiions ,i, V*«.u i^.^^.« .nd iiir«.i t^y »»*• i.i»w .mIi • .ui. i» 

in order to pmiMise and preiiare bills, n*dress s»m", •»»» r J««i"""»« "^ •'•»»' wng w »iurh •ii«»Hinmi»a lu iiiw» 

grievances, ami im|aiicii crimiiiuis. ,i,i„i, ,„y„.|j „i,ii,„i i« Kiv«iiwm wrtit^ iMwmMiMiiuMur uar XmI 

Tliere is not much more to say aUait the history 'k^ •" •*'• *•"•«•<■« «»«« ■• •*i»«^^<««i»« ••' r »•■»» A—mtiy i»a 

^ ,. . I ,1%, <« I t I ,, I .• • I nwiM'* not hM Itll lltoS|«{ii|i), urn fuU ruiialtkpnitlHM wT IIm t'liiMlltnlUiii 

of this iH>riiNl. Xhe UUoniul Ke<.iinlri funiiKh a •H.i,« rr«m.ur ii..v«ru<Ni»ui «dH.ii Mr. tii* iNi.iMM..rtiiMi 

barn*n tale of new rouils |N*titioiietl for and laid •••• *•" *•" i» %-ry Ji.*i, .hJ .i-rti «trr.* i* mvwAwiiiMjt mmu 

out ; hniA, and pnrautious taken iigaiiiHt them nnd a b«ii«r •lUriMi «r ibi« tiavaniuii m «ui «!«• ruu nii»rMiiMH lu .ii. 

pitliarati«iiis to mwt tlieiii ; tax-bills, otc. William u^uiytK n «.• loss-non.** "**' **"■* 

IVnn sailcti froniCowesou Si*pteiubi>r H, liitM), for ' 

his pn>vinee. He had arrangi<d his Knglish alfairs ; Borne of the New Castle fieople complained that 

be bnmght his second wife and his diiughter and they did iioi have any sufficient notice of thiselec- 

infants with him; probably he ex|)ccted this time tion Penn said the sheritl should bo punished for 

at least to remain in the province for gootl and all. his neglect, but in the mean time there would be 

lie reached Philadelphia Decemlier 1st, nnd took no busiuevs beforu the present session except what 

lodgings with Roliert Wade. The city of bis love was named in the writ, in which ho hojicd all 

was «juiet, sad, gloomy. It was just beginning to would concur, without making the New Custle case 

react after liaving Imxii frightfully ruvugiHl by an a prccetleul for the future, tlommitti'cs of Coun- 

epidemic of yellow fever, atteiidetl with gniit iiior* cil nnd Ai«H;mbly were apiMiiutcd to consider the 

tality, and the |iet>ple who»urvived werewibvr and subject of the two pro|KMcd bills, which, after scv- 

i|uict enough to suit tlie tastes of tbe most cxacliug eral coiifervnces and some debate, were iMissed. 

tjuaker. The Assciubly did not like the clause forbid- 

The fint Council attended by Penn met «>n I)e- ding inule with Madagascar and Natal ; these 

ccmber 21, 10SI9, and tlie i«»ue between the Ad- places, it was explained, had become retreats and 



ndriD^plMct of the plratct, and trade with them y* reit" To the ma^stralcf at Kcw Owtle he 

WM acoordingly Ibrbiddeu for three yeark Pcun wrote that lie had iufurmaliiin that piraica or per- 

then diMoWed the AsBembly, allcr iniorniinp them auns »us|icctod of piracy had '* lately laudi-d below, 

that he intended to call the next Gem'ral Amviu- on this an<l t'other tide the River, A that tome 

biy according to charter at the usual annual tea- hover altuut New Cuntle. full of Gold. Thi-«e are 

■ion. Penn had not »i)^iRc<l to the Aisomhly to diiiiro vuu to um* your utnioKt Kudi*avor and 

whether or not he approvml of tlio charter );mnt«'d J>ili^t•ll(•e in diM'ovcrinff and app'liviidiii}; nil wvh 

by Mnrkham in ]<)!)U. Nor did bo ever formnlly pmmii its you tiiay know or lii*nr«»f tbiit may l>e ao 

approve it, for the charter (innlly f^rantnl by Penn piiitiKftiil, acvonliiig to my Pmcliinmtion." A 

in 1701 appeared as if it were tin amend nii'Ut to or sitiiilnr letter whk sent to Neberoiuh flivM and 

sulMtitute for the charter of l(JH:t. Ponn ap|iar- J4tnntlian Ibiiley. 

eutly was not on very goiNl terms with Mnrkham Riroh, eolUftor of eustomsat XewCnMle, wrote 

at this time, or else the bitter's ill health (be died to IVini uiidor dntc of May 2^, 1 7<)i). compkiitiini; 

in 1704 after a long illncM) no brngersuifervil him of ve^ielM bavin;; gone down from ami come up to 

to take an active |Nirt in gi»vemment affnint.' Pbiladelpbin without rjiortiiig to hiui. Penn 

Penn showed biiiiself determinvtl at thiittiniQ to aiiMventl be \uis M>rry that mnKteni were so Inek- 

brenk up the piracy in the Delaware. He even ing in rentiei't. Tber*was a bill now kfon* tlio 

went a little into the deteeiive and |irivalo iii(|uiry Ai«i*cnibly to make the olti'iiiH* |i«'mil. Jbit be 

busineiMi himM'If. Hu wrtite to Luke Walmm: tbinkn a euptoins eoUeetor ou^bt to have a iMint, if 

** Thy Sou*s Wife has madu Allidavit to-day before be wanted to m-ciire the enliirivMient of the biiis, 

mo of what iibei>aw A knows of Geo. Thomson bav- wbieb were all on his side. "Thou ain^t not ei* 

ing Kast India goods by him about y* time Kidd's peel that any at I'liilailelpbia, 40 militi distant 

Ship came to yo' Capes : Thy .S)n doubtleM knows from you, can putt Laws in esecutiun at N. Cuttle, 

much more of the busiiieMi; I de»ire therefore thee without any care or vigilance of offici-rs tben>, if 

would cause him to make atiiduvit before thee of so there nec«led none in the place, ei'iM.viully fince 

M'hat be knows cither of Georges Goo<ls or any of no place in the River or Bay yiebls y* pn«|iect y* 

is at New Cuttle of seeing 2U niili*s one way and a 

I w«i»«. In hb » Atimu uf itiifaMirii.i.te," Myi Umi MMrkbMNi »M doxeu tlic Other, aiiv Vi-w*el coining either up or 

b«iit»»iiixt«*)r»ni«.raic«iKriih..-«iiMiMiiti..iv«n.)if.iita. UMkia down." IVuH eoiifeMK-s lie tbbikii thr iMirlieit- 

Hiiiil Iv ■ iHlaUkr, lu It MiHiM nwilkvlitui iiiily fMrt>>l1«« wlifii li« •li««l, . iiii i*i* 

AttiMiiinH.i>»«M»i«.kfii«irMtiii>"«>i.iKMiik-nMii,">ii.i »i«im<iiwii mt carc lie had taken of the in(en-ii(ii of llu* king 

r»>Hi.iiii4i..». ii.*i.Ki.*.»i«^i<.iivip.^^.u.iip.«i...-M^^^^^^ u,nj 1,1^ iniimtliale ofliirrs denrvnl a Utter re- 

«M mil^ao- III* kH«>«lnl|tii i»r aRiiIra mttn Inn*iiU«| |iim|||uim . , • i !• 

itivfH bim wiMiM imvij « niiH'ii .aii-r nmii. iio Ml •»tiiM«,a.i«H(iii.-r, tuni"than »ueli tivty expreN«ioii!4 as tlloU HllIgS 

...iiin-h. i.uicr..^kbii.irrn..ii<^ «ut iu thy Ixtlew lM>th to niVK'lf and of one \u v* 

drvuni«iano-« nHihn-iinff iiim wiih Om H^»ll'^ wiiu. mihv lira Frvncii niemwrs of Coiiiieil. llircb IS reminde«l that he 

AJwi«i l^4•.lUl..a.w»rntl..m.w.,f«^ u. jj^g ft.rp.ttin the rei-pcTl due to the proprietarv's 

•itU iii«>-kUMniai>«itttht>ivuw«m:MM*wr.\vrryaiiirnw.-ri>in|>rULia station aiul eoiiduet, aiid that lie idiould not muke 

Iu liilU.IH|4ila, aihl eulirtit.| giMrrjr fwniiiUiua-tl MMin« lk«ii une* tUmt 1*a..*. « tfnO:.-.,* ..\, .....M.iiat* ..I' l.i^ •.•..••.. ».m.:» • tl..^ 

ti.«ir c«..n.....-i.i «. . r.n>. M ih..> r..«ki ,c« • I *hT.i ih.y ' *"" " *""»"' y^> «*-e.iiiiit of Iiim pi<|iie against the 

•hMMS il b r*rtalii iImI MnrkhoiH •ulh.nal mm* •< Uhw iii»n («Im CoII ctor at IMlillulelpbia, B niHtter wUll ubirh llO 

kati tbi>ir |».-krU fitll nr KuM) Iw l« iimM vrry bnlxHiljr. Una uT ,|„l|lw.- I,,,, I iK.r MiiiitiHl iilivliiilii# tit •!•. •• /^/ 

Av-ty** Nfii. ItltinliiKhani !•> N^HMs li«l ii.OMMr,| bU Moiiry tw Mark. "^'"'"r I lorHaUUll |lll\inillg lo ilo. M 

lianra kt^fiiuR. ami iiw ««« aikmni by Mimiit I'layiK-ii* Iu «iiik ib« tfinii' Muflt fit Iff huinr tirritir it ; vhui niMrn (*tirty 

■lir»talMMiiuHH-r In riNliBljr uT Milriml*, aiMl III «lMli*r Iu Imvi* bUiiMM | ,\ .^ .... f L .tt ..^ .,'tt . 1/ »• 'it. tl r r f 

Sr*. A...4l.rr |-.*.N «i.,i rf ....;.i«..k.« «llh A.rr, «aa 4.«h^ f'*J'"''' ""' ' "f^^ff Jt^l»'ff My*tlf uU "«'* Iht**' ^i' ./«**• 

HhiWH. iiMHiin'riir iliK AaM>niM)- 1^•||| Kriii In iMm, »(iil iIh>m waix-ib^i iirr iu ^ Wi^ "/' f'y Unfit rtttuitiinif ii'Vm/ i'nfuftl tu 

wn aivtHiiil lif lit* tKkilloiM tt< lb* tilralr*. IVim ba.l bliw arn»l««| In / ,,. ........... V. - 4i - ^ I' t . L ii 

limi f.* ha.iHtf i..»K. r »Hb A»riy. It* «a. «.i.l I.. Il.^.« |.. |, /'"' *»^ .;«'»«r, Juf r/»W« ^minl fHlAMUm* fhlH lirrrf 

trM by tb« I'iarl ut Ik^MauHMii, Outriiiwr ur .Sow Yiirk. TbU hwh la |l|«rr ^ PrtmrifT A iS»V^ uf l^-n^itftthin** Jlut 

UMially MalaFiiiNl-ur IwiliiK iMvn MarklMiH'aauli-lli-biW, Ika biMlMinlur it ... . . . 1 . .. *.! \f If i .1 

bb .laimblrf. -M^ \»u tln.«ii." IVIIII-. U-mr I.. Markba... .Iat»| P**»>" W"'* »"l """^ ^>"« ^^^ R'*'*"" >♦*• '»• « |H*l- 

tlMb January. ll1(r».l7<ki,UKHM>rallyaii|'|«iMnl furrr»rl»lilni. llbaa HcHllt hc SUVS llC licars tllOt the Collcetor tldk.H of 

fulluwa: "rt^lii .Matkbiuu,— Wbrit |«wiwi(li tbirato-tbiylli-aiwnrrwJ lo *.• i * i ■ • i i i 

U U.uikl Ur Iby Ml h. bw atM*uM Ik- briiiic lb«. Into Irwubr*. Ii ia all anting lloniC, ailU mtlKUIg llC kUOWS Uot wliat CiHO- 

tb« IV>rtl«>ii I bfltrr* h* baa wUb Iky tUnKbtrr. WImI iboa ba.i 1 way phliuts "/ holtt thoU tcitl be fftnt!oUM iu that 
TVBlim l«iB«yib«Ki luwt K>^t byibbGuvrrn"<. I Ibluk II alraitcH .ffuM •jtjri ti 'ma i' t i #i 

tlHMi akuuiai< waka • ihiibttiiy in MndiMit tby K»ecuif »itb ihyaiif P«"" ««» * *houUI ttnle foo, irAicA, trhen I tloT, HUiy 

far hb a|.|a<nfnnr«. Mnwbl amrtltar b. buund. no iimd will laki. Iby proCe ioHtl eilOtwh to make thce tetnt'tbh 1*f it at (I rflV 

lh>ii>l ft>r Iby own LilV, only ri>r • rwuular arvuniy. Tbi««i ktiuwiirt ' r* .i t j i t al- 'm t ii m 

il b ronlmry lo lh« fMrm of atl iH.II|C«ll..iM. A 1 rairn..! but laka U hani MIICV. JJ thoH UHUvMhmU Uot thi*, l/ fkHfl br tX* 

lb<Ni ahouM tei jai nawlllinii lo trniiin. m. nmi.Ii fur Iby own imW ptnuufl to thrt lit OHf Hrxt MrttlHU, itlirn I »m mutT 
•a nvll •albal uf lb* liw«trnui*aiMl l«'r Ilia ItuvlaiiMl "f Iby tiiily I'blM . r • •• n.i • ■ i* ii • • 

fhrtu lbt«a law n.4 roiM-rriwxl Willi. I «i|>«<l a luofv aii|M^<a aiiawar «< /^'M'Te. 1 IllM letter, tuU ot eolliK'IOIIM |HiWer, 

tban thiai ImM yH kIttm and raiimin lliy aS^ll— Mii««n.-W. I'."- ^.,j^ pallMlM V llleailt for (JliarrV oulte n» lllllell SS 
\l^nm»Arrkifm,\.\»\,) i II ' ..ill i i 

Ihifibitt aaya lb* piralM wriv hrR«-ly ralnCrt-ml aHar Iba |irara of K.ra- ISirell. 1 Villi Sellt lIlC Wliolc eornv|ii»nileUee tO the 

»yk. niHi ibry «•!.. b.rb.r on lb. iiriaw««, b«a«- Uw'y «^i«M rw^iy L„,jj, yf Xnule, nuil wlieu Biix-b dii-d rbortlv after 

lM|H«a on tb« nnaniKil, rarlAc guakrn. Thay am-kMl tba t>iwn wT a ■* i • i • , • • 

L»wf«, nnti caplurfti Hwny vraaib uS lh« IMawara cw|aw. Th«« ta Wnrds, 1 CUU hllllSOll ap|<Ointe<l hiS SlleCl-f«M>r^rO 

T^yj^'S^i'lV^Jl^^^'^r'^l^^^'^r^'^^"^'''^ '«"».. »n order, as be said, lo prutci-t His Mojestv s 

rounl of Iba liirAvrtlTa nicaua amiiloyaU by him fur Iba an t i ^ waaluB of.' ,' I'l 

ibM* iriiute |4uiHirr«ra. lutercsti, — m Other words, implying that those 


iDtoraU wcra Dot lenrcd by either Birch or foranaildraMtotlieproprteUry.' Thii addnsM wm 

QttuvT. in twcnt/Hine artidea, enibracing the subntiiuce of 

At the MMion of the AMembly and Council, in what the A«einbly oonoeived should be entertainod 
October, 1700, at New Cniille* tliere was a j^neral in any new charter. It wai made up of niiecifie 
revii^kin uf lawt, and a tax bill wa« immmnI to raine deniuiidri fur political privilcKes and territorial con- 
two thouMml iMNindn. One hundrotl and four ociwioni«, and, a« Gordon oUiervca, wai ** the germ 
acta were |ia«wd at tliie ■cwion of the General Aa- of a long niul bitter controveray." The |)olitieal 
fvfubly, the niott of them being mod ilicnt ions of privilegCM demanded were that in caw the propric- 
esirting law», or actn of h»cal character and minor tary lell the province, due care should lie taken to 
ini|iortance. The iKirchase of hind from Indians luive him represented by |M*nons of integrity and 
without confent of the proprietary was forbidden ; considerahlv Icnown estate, with full power to deal 
better iHtivision was made for the |Mior. Dueling with lumls and titles, that an ample protective 
and challenging to combat visititl with three charter should lie granietl, that all pnifierty i|ues- 
ro<»ntlti«* impriiNinment ; Uiund servants forbidden lions hIumiKI U; settletl in the courts, ami no longer 
to lie Mdd witlHHit their consent and that of two a Howe* 1 to go lieloro (.lovernor and Council, and 
nulgil»lmt«'^ and at the expiration tif tlit*ir term of that the JusiIih's shouhl liivnmt and n*gulHle onii* 
srrvitv Wen* tu have eKithi^H and impleuients given uiiries ami drinkliigdiouses. The nut of the artU 
them. An act n^laling lo nmds gave the n^gula- cles wen> In h>len>niif to the land ipuiition, and the 
tiiiu of ciiuniy nuids to cminly ju»ti(H>s, an<l the fnHHlom of the demantki pruvokitl the Ciovernor, 
king's highway and public nsids to the Ci(»vcrnur who said, on hearing the articles nnid, that if he 
and Council; incKisures were to be regulated, had freely expret«r(ctl his ineliimti<Hi to indulge 
com-fivld fences to be made pig-tight and live Icet them, *' they wens altogether as free in their crav- 
high, of rails or logs; wlien such tenix'S were not ings," and there were several of the articles which 
pntvidetl, the deliu<|uent to lie liable to all damages ci>uld not concern them **as a House of Uepre- 
fmni stock. The counties were to pmvide railed sentativcs conven'd on ufliiirs of Ciov'm't." In 
bridges over stn^ams at their own exiiense, and to fact, tiie Assenddy demanded (1 ) that the pnijirie* 
apimint overseers of highways and viewers «»f tary sliouhl ivase to exercise* the right of reviewing 
li^Mx's. A health bill was also iNu<sed, providing and altering the lan«l contnictit made in his name 
«|uaranline f«»r vej^els with disease alioanl. by the IX'puty-lrovernor, and that the latter 

A new Assembly was enlle«l t«> meet on the 15th sliouM bave|Miwer ton*medyallshortugesan<l over* 

of 8c|itendH'r, ITUl. The pniprietary told them nieusurcs; (2) that the charter should tiectire all 

he wouhl have lM.>en glad to tlefer the tiession titles and clear all Indian purcluwes; (3; that 

to tlie ur^ual time, but he was sununoned away tlu^re shouhl be no more delay in continuing lands 

to EnglamI by news s^-riously thn*atening his and and granting |Nitents, and the ten in the hundred 

their interests. A ctunbined efiiirt was nmking in should be allowed a<«agrcct| u|H>n; (4) notur>'eyor, 

ParlianK'Ut to obtain an act for annexing the lev- ■I'cn'tary, or other jierMon to take any extra fcu« 

eral pmprietary governments to the cmwn A lieyond the law's allowance ; (r*) the ancient land 

bill for that |Mir|NRH* had imsmtl a sixiind n*ading n*e<inls, maile iM'fore IVnn*s miming, should U* 

in the House of lionls, and it was alMilulely *' hslgitl in Hueh bandM as y' Asf4i>nddy shall Judge 

nm^>*ary for IVnu to Iw on the S|Mit lo pn*vent to lie most mife;*' (.11) n |Mitent olFuv should lie 

tin* MK^i-eMi iif these schemes. When the Aiw^ndily cnnUi'«l, like thai of •lumniea ; (7) that the original 

nai. iVnn lohl them he itinteui plated the voya>.6 tenus for laying out I'hiludelphia were clogge<l 

with gniit n'luctance, ** having promisi>il myM.'lf with n>nts and n'servations contrary to the dcvign 

the t^uietne^s of a wilderness/* but, finding he uf the lin^t gnint, and these should lie eased; (M) 

c«iuid best serve them on the other side of the ** that the Uind lying back of that part of the 

water, ** neitlier tlie nideness of the season nor (he town alniidy built renuun for common, and that 

tender circumstances of my family can tiverrule no leases 1k^ (Jnintcd, for the future, to make In- 

my intention to undertake it." At the lirst n'gu- closun*s to the damage of the Publiek, until such 

lartK-ysiou of the Assembly since his nlurn (April, time us the n's|H'iiive uwnera shall be ready to 

17nO; IVnn had aihln'ssed them on the subject of build or Improve thereon, and that the Islandt 

n*fonning the charter and laws. Some laws and tllats near the Town lie left to the Inluibitunts 

were oltMilete, he said, some hurtful, some imfH'r- of this town to get their winter tliNlder;'* (!l; that 

fivt and neetling improvement, new ones to be the sinnits of the town should be n^gtilated and 

nude also. bounded, the ends on lX>laware and ticliuylkill to 

All this, however, was simply preliminary. The be unlimited and Ictl free, and free public landing- 

Asienddy made a rRmonst ranee and iietitions of , , , . - ... ^ ... .# .w- * .^ ^ *. .. 

the |ieopIe or rhiladeipnm which had been pre- uim roiMumivu. iw i«« b«a miI r»iw lakM. it «u iiicNta by Arthur 

Mined to ( Sovernor Markham in A pril, 1 097. and *^** ""^ «■• b«i.4frj .nd ti.iri«». b«di..R ciii»m «f lu pi- •• ivwi 

again brought liefore reun, were nwde the occasion wucus. 


pUcet b« ednlrmad >t lb* Blua Aoebw Tmm countlei from FenTwrlnBta. Rnallj the Aaen- 

and the Psnnjr PoC-HouM ; (10) thg devAt of biy rta dinlTcd on' Oct. 2)*, 1701, tb< GoTcraor 

•nfiiojrmtiil fma ths Duka at Yurk fur the Inwer haiinf; ■<Kiin) an ict to «tiibti*b oourl* of judin- 

countici ihould bo recorddl ip Ihi'lr court!, BTul all turn for Ilia punitltmnit of pHtj UmnTi fur 

litidi not dlipOMd oftticn bo lettfd at Iha old nlB minor Bttaphnii-nti ) fur prmntini; cUndwIina 

ofa buahel ofKlieil the hundred acrca; (II) New miRuga; fur iirvVEnlinit fira in town*; fur pre- 

Cutla iliould rweiio the ooa thuUMml lerc* of vcniing awiiie frvm rtinnin;; at lacp; for the 

CDDinion land proiDiKd to it. and innk-lali llirie dntruetinn of blnckbirdi and crom, and apiiiid 

to bo conflrmrd to Dwnon of front loti aL low-waler Belling rum to the Iniliant. Peon aI*o (iinied lb* therentof abuihelof <Thpatpcrlol:(l2} Charter of PrivilfKea, "wilh a Warrant M ASi 

all the bajminbettbould boluJ out fur commun*, the Great Seal to it, <r^ Taa dol'ivered with it to 

except Mch ■■ «en almily graiiteil; (HI that all Tliimia* Slnrr. KoriHVof ihriaid Seal. and maMer 

palcDla hrralW to be giunu.'d Ia the lerrilurin of the Itolla, ti> Ih' S-alnl anil Rrciinh^l." 

ahnukl be on thn nnw ciimlitioii' aa thu ■'Mrniiila Tliu dinrliT iif rrivil<-).i-<. afti-r a ■]ii'tflr pre- 

nr Kniil* m-ni iiUniiH-d, niiil lliat |ii»|di> ■liiaild ainbh', Ik-kIim liv iiHitlriiiliiir IVii'luiii iif I'lniH-liiii'a 

)>av« lllwrly In \mj ii|i ilit-lr ■|uU-n'iiU, a> ti-rm-rlj and 1il-<ny of r.'ll|il..»* |m.r.T>l.<» aiHl <r.>F*hi|> la 

|iriiiiilHil. Kiii|>h> Ipniai, a* hiul Ihtii dmiF III the earlli'f furia 

I'l-iin Inrumioit the Aawinhly iliat their adilnia of i^ivcriinii'iii ; It (xwidwl ri>r an Am'niblj of 

waa mIeIjt on jirujierly, and chielly io r^talliw to luuf inemliun rnini each counli', to be elected bf 
private eunlracla betwen hini and inilivldiiala, 
whi-rcas he l»d tscuinniended them to cuneider 
Iheir privilegn, (he bulwark of propettj. He 
would never HiBi-r anir Awembljr to intcrnieddle 
bi hi* properly. The Awenibly retorted that thej 
were of opinion they had privilei^a uiffipienl a* 
Enj^tiiihnieD. and wouhl Icnre the rot to Provi- 
draee. A> to the kini;'* letter dcnundinf a mb- 
eiily, Ihe country wai too niueh ■Imitcncd of laM 
by the ncceaiury payment uf tlieir ilcbU and 
tuira; other cutiinivadid not eceni to have dune 
anything, and they rouat, thercfure, beg to be ex- 

T"' O „.!„ JJ ^A. mi » t.. l«.ol>,„ omc » 

Peiin now made anawer to the addreM, article rEKHsTLVixii ISSS 
by aitirlei ha would appoint lueh deputka ai ha 

had cnnlhlence In, and lie hoped they would be of |b« A«emeB each year on Orlober lit, and meet 
hnnnt eliaincter, uncxcrptiunahlc, bihI n|iabhi uf In Oeaeral Aiwnibly Octuhcr Uih, at Philadel- 
duiiii; wliat waa ii),>lit by pru)>rivtai7 aiHl pivvinirc; phla. The Aan'inlily to rhiaa* il* own Rpeakcr 
he waa williau (o jcrant a now cbanrr, and to and nfflnnt, jiiditi- llie ipiulincaiW and ctnniun dT 
d^K'niv with ildaya in Kninitnti |ial(«la ; fcra liu lia nwii iiH'inU'rM, lit ii]i»ii iu nwii adJimrnnH'ala, 
wiu williniE nhuuli) be ti'jcnlnlnl by law, hut hii)Kil ajijiirfitf oininiliii'M, pRjun- hillii in ur tn imm Inia 
kowiNiliI nut beexjiTln) to pay llii'in; the ciutoly lawr, ImjH'Hi'h itiiiiinuln uml rvdn** icricvanmi, 
of llie nCunlii wu u niucli hii bipinis* ai the "and lOudllinve all other |H>vcr>Bnd privllep'a of 
AiH'nihly'a ; if thu Janiaim iwtcnl law wciuld ini- an AmMiibly, aecunlinK (" the riKhti of the Tree- 
prove thinga hewaawillin;; tohnvt ititijiiptol; the bom iiiliirrlii of F^ij^land. ami aa ii unial in any 
cbiini fur town Iota KB* crnmcoua; ihcrcDcnralioni of the King'* PknlntHHi* in America." Tbe 
in the city were hi* own, nut ihe pro|ivny of the freemen uT each ruunty, on the elertiuo day Kir 
itihabitantt; iniprovcmenli of bed of »troeW con- A»«nihlynicn, were to lelect Iwu prrwin* fi>r fhiiilT 
ceded ; license propuailion coni:cde<l ; the iln-ds fur and two fiir coroner, ilie (iuvemur to cnrnminrina 
Delaware cmintira were recorded by Kphraim a ihcriir anil a cumner, each to acrre fiv three 
Herman ; the oilier prujiiMliuDa, in aubiitiinee, ao yc*n, fruui tlic |vrMma •» rhuM'n fur hini to «-tert 
far aa tliey were important, wen nvj,'alired or from. If llic viilrn iKi.'lvclei) to nominate candi- 
referred for reviaion. date* for lluw! oltiim. llic couiilj JuMicn thuuU 
In the courw uf the diMUuions the repnwnU- renH-dy the defect. " FoKriklg. that (he Lawa uf 
tiTca of the luwer cuuntie* Inuk oHL-nac and with- Ihia tiovrni* >hnll be in tliii rlile. Tu'. [Ity Ihe 
drew from the Anaembly ; thiy ubjeMcd to havinR Govemour with tlie Oiiiaeiit and A]>prulKIiun of 
tlie Ancmbly coufimi and re-enact llie lawa pawed the rreetnen in (ivneial Awenihly nHtt] and ibBJI 
Bt New Ciitle.iincelhcy rejj-Brded these ai already be, anerConnmiatiim hy lheU'n'emour,(utthwi[h 
permanent and nubliihcd. Thi* wa> only pre- Itecorded in the Kulli olGtv. and kept at Pbiladia, 
liminary to the final Bepanition of the Delaware nnlea the Ua*r. and AjiMmbly ihall agree to 


■pliohit laother placa." ~ FipUf, all prtniiiula to numbtr at mnulirm. Tb* Cwpdl m nanlDalnl 

hanlbcMme privil*C(inr witiKMWiil niuiiKl u by I'enn Diniibtal of EilwHTd BhlpfiM. John 

tbi-tramurn; i!iini|i!Hinl>H(u pniHTty not to Iw <iu«t,Snniuul Cvpaator, William CUrkctliama* 

Want anrwhvn but lu muru ufJHUllce, unlrai Slurjr, Uriltiih Own, ['hiorai I'cnibrrton, Paniuel 

u|iiin appi-al lawrully pravkliil fur; do liniuiw fiir Pinucy, Oleb PuM-y, and Jubn DIuiuton, any four 

onliniriM. Ac, tu In inanlnl but u[iihi rwinn- ofthrmtobea 

'nUllon of iIh! ('•iiinty Juoliif*. irliu i 
auppntwHi houHi rurdiaonler and niiaroiidiict; 
Miiiiile waa nnt lu wtirk ivchrat iif |iru|>e>ty nor 
alHtl ita nvular iliwrat tu leg»\ bvin; n>i liirii'ilure 
■■re(Iatnli>pni|>HrlBiy innHiWiiupnwufaix'UrtiW.'' 
The cbnrlcr vai nit to be bidcihIhI or allirml iu 
any vay but by ciiiiwnl of tbc UuTFrniir aiul mx- 
aavcMln. nf lh« Aawrably, awl lb« lint i 

(IT abinit Niivciuber 1, ITOl, AVJItiam P«in. 
wilb hw *iRi llannab, hi* daugbtor I^ilia, anil 
' bin infant wn John, cnibarkn] on buard Ilia ship 
"Dalnmliny " Ttir En)[land. Prno cuniiUMinn«l 
Anilrew llamiltnn, fijrinvriy Ouircrniir of KaM 
anJ Wwt Kew Jracy, lo ba hi* Ututcnanl-Guv- 
vruiir; aiai b« maik Junwi Lujian pnrrlnrial 
111 cVtk of Cuuncil. Whilo (bu atiip 

piaramrrtuit librrty or «iiu>riciit«, "ahall Iw lu.'|it linipiHil Juwn tlw riwr tlio proprinary «ru<c lii> 

and ninMnvilhuut any allvnlliw, liiviidaldy fui^ letter iif inatnutiiin* !•> I^ngaii, fnioi wbicli cxtracu 

rrvr." Tlia AasniiUly, by lbi> chnttvr, at iaiit liavo Iwi-n jiirpii ali-ivu. Ami ao IVnn ihuwiI 

tacuml ahal h bad boon rasloiHlini; fijr ever liiiHi away frmu rbu |>tiivtiin) ba had matul, iwvvr lu 

nlurri lu il RKain. lie dint im Iho fltlth 

>,^ of July, ITln (O. H.}, in Iha wvrnly- 

I f<ainb yvar (if Ilia ajte. Th« fuiK-ral toiik 

I plaiv AuKiut fith, in (In burlat-nnHinil 

at JiinlanV Quaker nii'ling-biiuK, in 

lliivkincbanuhirv, rbvn hit flnt wifa 

anil ai'Vi-ral uf liii family vera alrouly 

AIIlt I'enn'a de|)artuT0 fhmi tbc Dvla- 
warv tlio |iRMn)dinp{a uf Um Uuri'miir, 
(.'uuncil, aiid AMcmldy iif the |>niviii(v 

j l«'nmi-iiHinutuniiuianddn«ry, A iim- 
i4anl ntnijntb) vaa guinK ua, but it hwl 

I III! variatKiiiK. TIh! nnw Wuia urn: 1k- 
iuK all llie time fuUKlit out, over ihu aaiiia 
I'liniiliar gruunil anil by lliv Mme punki. 
Tlie inli'ivala uf (he rniau, tbo iatvrrM* 

miiliiiuul and iixnwaiit idub, aod jil 
niilhiiiKwaaacttlial. TboUuveriHirn wiru 
lb« lint wwinn at U|>lnn<l, — llip parlumniWry of Inlvriur iiiulal, tlie \Kti\ih vvivd and tvnipluiii 
|>rivtlt](eururiKinalin)(billa,«bi('bHiuill«inhcn'nt inB.llie I'sniui wuiilcil iiiunay, tlig cruwn watiUil 
in txrrf pruprrly nmiUluti-d k-jrialativu buly. au|ipli» and iimiiry, wait )i-aluu* aiiit Hilicituiia 
l^iiH, in fact,cuuv«iknlcii!i7(liint[ bulllw nmriciD abuut pn-niKHlivv. vvtrythinK ■Mnml tu bv at 
uf aiTw Bit ■li<inii|{c, the toa-n l•■l^ and ilia t|ui^. udd* aiiil uuta. yvt ilia culuuy grvw and pr<a)«rul 
Tinith Tu MiH'dit* tlw cuanyanva nf imk-iil*. amuiiiittly. Ths variuua and <iuullii-tin)[ inti-rol* 
lilkssaod lamlicnwta Iti-.iivaliil a iiauiUMiiin uf did nut ilirfurb a |>n^le win areni iKmi-fully 
pr»|a^y, cuaMMinj! uf (^linnl Sbi|i)a'n, {irilKlh rni)iiBtt tlw tVuilo uf tlicir iabuia un a kimlly Nil 
(hiiii, ThHBu Stiiry, ami Junua l>i)piii, wilb in a fivtii I'liiuitv, alnMi4 untaxiil aSil aliiiurt 
|innT III K">"t '•'■i' ■"■' '*'"'■ ■■"' ""''"' ('''*'■■ un|{i>wnHil, anil iiNmihialiun Huwvd in liks ■ 
Tlwimi-harlrrdiilavay wilbHHvb-rtivvCiHtni'il, ntvady nuiuuliiin tide. 

awl thr l>iAibnliv]aiiiivTwaav('Mrdrxi-hiHV>4y in Un July IU, li' adranve iifuffidnl iiiKlruv 
iIh- AiwMilily. Ilal IViih iiminibMiiMHl a Cunlu-il IkHU, IJrntruanMhivpniur Andraw Haiiiilluii and 
umlrr hu «KU Mnti l» nuamil anil awinl bin iir hit I'uunii) unblnl Anno uf DL-uiiiark tu hv [>r<>- 
(biwtT iir iiFUlrnant In all tlw publb- alfainxif llw daliiHil (IikCT uf G(wt llritain, priiiniuUy U- 
prurii'm. TltcUaiiti-il ibHaiiHiiHiiMHUi) wvmlu I'suwi <tar hail Iwvu di-rlund vilh Kranti) and 
h")il ihvir flaa* at tbr Uuvrrnur'a idfuun-, the ti|iaili, aial llw u« of ibe nonn-iKll'* name «■■ 
DrfailT-tiun'nuir lu baw tha pmiiT to a|i|aiiut lun-vrMiry iu I'allin)! uiil tho uiiliiia luT dvliiiiL-. 
Mn iiim lliFK waa a vnFaiU7. to BuwiuaU' a I'hii dili-niiiiuliun tu Inviilie tlM ruluuy in luili- 
pnvhWul uf Cuumil, ami ovio tu iucn'aw tlw torj miiuun-a at one* prvvoki-d tho jiawlvi-nil't- 


Ilkrwin nrined U ^ 

Quiikan of (hat caintT, Bucki Mul L'Uwcr hul are (ilpuin;; hi juvenile lul«. 

thing* nil tbrir own wi)'. A* mri* aa ]l).~i:l ire SnJ aMimnti i-f the pint- 

imi ci<nini>Hi> <.r Tb.>>nu lUxter. a n>M<^nI ./ 
New Anuttnlnm. IliJIaml iiid En|{1aDil nre 
iIhii at war. ami it aaa Itaxtrr'a |ilan lu inllape 
the Dulrh riiwl* mih) tLiwiw and then uke rrfnj.'C 
ill llie liarl>iin> 'if ihv Knulvli M'Uk-m. kIiu |in>lix'lnl 
him fti.iii hw IhiK-li iiumHn. thlien fUhmd 
Ihe i'Xnm)du nf ItaxtiT.aml thu omliininuraRhin 
van mHi that arlo uf |iirarf cmhl be nmiMaiicil 
with nUiiiulv iniiiUBil^. Tlie Dutch Tctaltalnl xn 
ihp Kii).-li>li ami •■KthI llirir |><n* if iJam of 
n-lii)p' fur ibiiiw vhif hul iiliiwlrml ilw Eui):ti*h- 
Till- nv'ion "■■"111 I'>nic Mnml aiHl ihr >l><in« iiT 
(lit Kiwt lllvir liiinllr Lhiiric •.■ iofntol viih 
■UL or ■■Hll.AUKi.i-iiii IX not. tliivc n<libi-n iliat Uiili tin I^ii)!li»h anil llie IXiich 

llwnlilon ilied April 2i», ITtiS, and <aa nxy '„^ ,|h.,„. w„(v««iiI rawl a r..«-e. a |«n 
«nd«l,iHi I'; 2, 1. 01. hy Julm ht-ani, ^ „uirh «« alwai.' nn pianl. Y«.*t# ««• ktpt 
PeqB'« iww Guicfwir. llo failed ii> pnxMiring |,|»i„a ohm-tlHi ciut k.viiinB • viiiiUntwatchliw 
tlM mum of llio nynrnMlMKia of the hiwur ,,in„.,,a„J *.».„■ hiiaUi««eiv iulli.led .« th.« 
CDunUia to the A«-nil.1y. aiienutmit "«m more ,.,,,, „,|i.„| ,,„rte.-ii.«i in «»)>lr>.«u chanieteni : 
compl'-f'r •<"'■ ""l itnlaliiig the repRwoted ,„,, ;, ^„ ,^,|j. ,u.^ ,|„^. ^.^„, ^„ rf^H, 
cuUDtiua by hii mWlioiU of pma-Jure. H,r..r«..l that the Xew Xrt herli«(Hl«* •erP wiiin-ed 

of tliG i-xiiwr* pnnirni liy ihw fm-huntm. 
Hi-tii)t Ibiw driven Inmi llir Himeiif a |<nifila1de 

ocfiiiiatiiin, 1I117 nvre fiinwl to liiHl a new Mil in 

UIIAl'TKH X. i< douUhw iliiL' t<> ll>i< iiiterra]i(i.« ilini 'we fi»l 
Ihi'in a frw _viiin< InliT |iiT|ii'lraliii;; (heir uutnigi'4 

rHUTK* AXB rMtVATtKR*. al'Mi); ilir 01814 iif IK-taiiHre. 

Ih-lam-arp briiiK tlim ■ liart oT n-nnaylvania. it 

Ahoho the many hanlihipi *Ilh cbich our i». iliiTkT'irc lo tlie r^conlii and arvhivii uf the 

E>r«fMlbeia had tu contend in tlie earlf eulonial Inlivr i^nlr thai we iiiuit hidt dir iiiKmnaliiia awl 

peiiiid were the jacuniiiti* and deprHlatiinw of linlit M[i<iai ihia vDlgFrl. The catliut aiiiKTUWire 

piralva, l^bonlera and (vlvatecn. A> auon u of |HmUi> nlT lUe oumt of Ih'lawnre. uf rhii-h iia 

tbrx lUnaednl in buiUliuK their quiet lillli)tn«B- hnvo any dHiniie kmiKlolpi unu about ll>n.i, 

ahi pi along llio coait, ami. thnni|[h tlicir thrift ami Iml f<irlhi'liri>ilwoynin> tlipy nrrennliip^nivirc, 

energy, entahlithnl tlieintelvci in cnniGinalde ami lali'liiil ihcnH'lvvi «iih ucca.-Ninal willi('% 

huinei ready tn ilart uut in life in llic New \V't»rM. nrciaiiianiiil by im );reat dumniie. In IH"-', Wnr- 

they fell an eoay proy lu |ii ml ei, allured liy the eviT. ibi'yMiildvlily lircanie linUhraml monauila- 

nimr-irlalde and frUKal aiiiwaraniHi uf llwir liunie- ri<Hia. nml tln'ir iHwiitr rxhiliili'Mu wcrv ia> fn.ign<-M 

■teaiU Tbcy >ulll-r<^l nut «iily at the liiimli' uf iwl dcTwInliii;! a> IimIiiihuhI ilieBlimlfn oTtbe 

(Irangen and Girvigncn, Iwt rrc|uenlly ailriii- giiveriinH'nl in Kiiglnuil. Iteming it IniH ■•• deal 

luren would go out fruiii tlu'ir ■■» iilit. diiv|>- itiih lliriii niildly at Unt, JatHr* II. iimr<l aa 

piMnml or diwatbScil villi Aiiwriran wnl, aud, in onkr iwiuiring (liccii)i>aialnullKiTili>«luuvrvtfy 

culluiion with friend* who reniaimnl un ahure. prrcaalii'n to rlii-ck llir abuan aixl wnt a fleet to 

wuiild make teguUr attacki an tin haUtalimu uf aiil Ihcni In tlie work ; but he aulh-iriai) Ibr jrar- 

Iheir Girmer fricndii. A viM i|unntily u[ niaicrial don of any pirate «hii, bavinu bi-rQ raplurvd 

ia iu exiilenco bearin); on Uiii jiliaic of oJunial within' twelve ntoiitlui nf llie ibili- .if the iiulnii^ 

life, tu In fuuiiil cliirlly in llie of wit* ti»n* (Atigiial 21, |i-"Tl. uliould i;ivi.- H-curiiy lu 

IH-Mca Iwfura Ihu Cuuticili uf ilia (luwniirf, Iho kri'p (Ih- |>ciicc iu tlir laliirv. 

regulation jauKdintbecoloiiiiiurlliviuiilrurtiiini Thia laal |ir<>ri>i->n of I be orrliT bed an cHi-rt 


UnU vm liltlt tiprctcd or iliH kn dctlrcd, Th« «oropl«iniiig of certain mmon which had rMchcd 

cohmial «• Aevn uted thtir aewly-acquired premga- England, to tha afleot that the enkmitta had not 

tlve of paidon for the mott venal purpoMa. and only hcen Ux in their, oppoeilion to the piratei 

the nMMt notorioua pirate*, who were aide to pur- but had even harbored and protected them. The 

chape tiMrir immunitj, went free and uniiioleetcd. Council MihRiitted thii to a committee for invciti- 

while th«Ne whcee boocr had not been sufRcient to gation, and it wai reported that them nimori were 

•atiefV the avarice of tlie otBcen suffered the full witliout ftiundation, that Mveral of the crew of a 

penally uf ilie law. Moreover, ther were extremely pirate sliip commanded by Avery (one of the meet 

cart*ki« in the lo}«al finiccMee which the 1cm fortu- famous pirate captains) had been imprisoned and 

nate freelxN»tori were c«»nt|iellcil to umlcnca, and esca|)cti tu New York, but beyond this tliere 

many were ctmvictcd unjuotly, thruugli a dvsira of cuuld lie no cause for complaint 

tlniM? in |Miwvr to sei*m xealous in their enforcement IXtritig the two yeara folloa ing, the audacity and 

<if the King's commands. Rut eonipUiiits soon im|Hidi*nco of the pirates continued to ineresse. 

reached the ears of tlnise in I^mdon, and a secimd On a Svptonibcr afternoon in 1098 there ap|)eared 

letter was written, this one addresse<t to William off the cape at the eastern extremity of ^$«l»sex 

IVun himself and dated IVtolier 13, 1087. The Ci»unty a siuall sloop, which, ahhiHigh it had been 

King requested his servants in the colonics to noticed by the inhabitants, was not suspected of 

n*m«ily the abuses named, mentioning particularly having evil designs upon the village. Early the 

the unfair trials^ lie went further, however, and next mtiriiing, however, it suddenly bore down 

removt^ from them all original authority in the Ufion licwintown and landed Hfly men well armed 

case of captured pirates, who were IteDceforth to and tlitiriiughly e<|uip|)ed fwr sacking the place. 

be imprisitned until His Majesty's will should be They pluiulered almost every house, using force to 

known. In additiim to this, Sir Rttbert Holmes secure an entraiu'c, and battoring to pieces every 

was apiNunted a commisiiioncr whouc duty it was chest and Inix, after they had once obtaine<l ad« 

to dii*ide in what easi*s panhm should 1m> granted mittance All money or VHlual»l<*M of whatever 

in pursimnee of the Brut letter of instructions. In naturo were rarriitl oflT, and «me of the towni>nien 

Nov(*mlMT tl.o Privy Council met, |iubltslted an rcumrkiHl. in his plaintive wail iK'forc the Guver- 

oftlcr against pirates, and placed Sir Robert nor's Ct>uncil, that tliey were left with V*carco 

Holmes in command of a stiuadnm to be sent out anything in the place to cover or wear." They 

for the defi*nse of the colonies, and as a reward for killed a number of sheep and litigs and forcoti a 

hb services he was granted all property which numbcrof the chief men of the town to awist them 

might be taken from pirates within thn*e years of in carrying their boi»ty on boani, and even t<iok the 

tin* date of his commiMiou. Early in the follow- villugo car|M*nter priitoner. After having thus 

ing year the King iAimnl a ntynl pnt(*laniation terrifnnl and runiitl the |Hi>ple (hey i|uieily saileil 

rimdemuing the pira(«*s In the uumt severe terms out into the Imy and luy at anehnr witlutut ft-ar of 

and urging their hai>ly extir|ialinn, eoniumnding U'ing attacked until a small brig apiHniriHl and 

that thtwc who, in contempt of Hill Majesty's orders, leniptetl them to «)ller cIiumj. Thu imrticulars of 

continue their abominable practices, be pursUiKl this i»ccurreuce were rc|M»rt(Hl to the CiMincil by 

** until they and every one^of them be utterly four of the prominent citizens of Lewistown— Luke 

destroyed and condemned." Watson, John Hill, Thomas Oldnmn, Jonathan 

Through these precautions tlie outrages per- Raily-who explained the dangers to which the 

pctrated by the rovers of the sea were almost town was exftoscd and asked tor greater protection, 

entirely aludished, and for a few years the inhabit- The Council investigated the matter further, and it 

ants along the coast were able to manage their was learned that the sloi»p had lK>en taken from 

aflairs in |ieace and contentment. Still, there was John Re<lw<MNl, of Philadelphia, as he was coming 

always muse for anxiety, and in the ctimmission outof(*inufpuxou Inlet, by a pil^ate named Can<M»t, 

creating RenjaminFlelcherGovernor of IVnunylva- who ahuudomMl his own vessel for a fleeter one. 

nia, in 10U3, he was given autlH»rity to raise forces Many other crimes of similar nature were traci*tl to 

to pn>t«Tt the cohmists against pirati^s- Ijtter in Can(N>t and his pirato ship, mu) the Council at 

the same year the (Sovernor n'conimcndiMl the once em|M»weretl the Ueutenaut*Uuvernor to mus- 

rtection of a fort on tlie Delaware River near New ter such forces os sliould lie reiiuired to defiiid the 

Castle for the security and defense of trade and coast towns and pursue their enemies. The expense 

the inhabitants, to which the Cbuncil readily required for thb work was ordered to be raised 

assented. by provincial tax, but the daring Canoot made 

When once the surveillance was relaxed, how- good his eMi*a|io. Nevertheless, several convictitms 

ever, pirates again made their apiH*arance. At a of other pirates soon f«iHi»wed these new prudential 

meeting of the Cimncil iK'hl at IMiiladelphia In meaMinii, onu of the nitMt noteworthy la'ing that 

10U7, the ( loveriHir, William Marklmm, pn«M*nti*<l uf Ihivhl Mvans, who wiis aecumdof iK^hmging to 

a letter ftrvm IVnii, who was then in I^mdon Avery's en*w. This conviction « as due largely to 


the cflbrtt of Robert BmmI, who indottrioutly penple of New Castle had neglected to fend vepre- 

•Might to eecure any evidence attaionble against sentativcs to the last mcetiug of the AsMroblj, 

men suspected of piracy. On one occasion, how- which wuuld have licen the proper place to discuss 

eter, his seal carried him too far, and he was sum- matters concerning the goud and safety of the 

moned before the Council for having advised the government. B<«idcs, the ( 'oundl did not regard 

English authorities that Pennsylvania had become the pras|ierity of the cuh*ny as sufficiently great to 

the greatest refuge for pirates in America* and that warrant a large expenditure, and they had learned 

the officers refused to wise them, even when an that in the neiglilioring and more flourishing ci*lo> 

opportunity pn'sentcd itsi'lf. Although ^^nead nies of Maryland and Virginia, wncns extensive 

pnmiptly denied having written vuoh rc|M»ns, it fortificationK litul liecn eni*ti*d ami »hipii-ot-»ar 

a|i|iears that they were not altogetiicr uuwarrnnt- were contiiinully plyiug, the pirates ximtinued in 

able, or, at U*ast, the precautions taken were not their nofttriouM wurk, apiwrently uncuusHrious of 

such MS would be in accord with more m<Nlc'rn idoas the prcxence of any op|N»itii>n. In fact, the pirates 

of gimnling priwmers. The aucs of Kol)ert would not infrtH|ueutly attack tl»c men ttt-war liith 

Braudingimm and William Stanton will furnish a vigor grcntcr than UKual. ai.d st-emed to find 

an apt illustration These two men were ini' special delight in munlering 11 i« Majii^ty's marines, 

prisoned in the county jail of Philadelphia under OmsiMpiently, with the exemption of one or two 

suspicion of piracy, and the Lieutenant-Governor new luws on the statute IiooUk, the eitizt-iis of New 

having heard that they were allowed too great CiMtle 9iH*ure<l very little rcdn'ss or Nitii«ihction. 
liberty, demanded an explanation from tlicsherifT In April, 17(K). the fnm«iu« Capt. Ki«id honi>red 

That functionary admitted that the prisoneni were the |M'<»ple of IMnwnre with a brief vi»it. He 

allowed to stroll about tho town, but never without diaibileM ctm.«idered that the ii|ioilH to Ik* pithertti 

his leave and a kce|icr, and adiloil, by way of from an attack on the townx would not reimy tlie 

apology, that he thought this ntight lie allowed in trouble rei|uiHite, and therefore did not nuile^t th«-m. 

" hot weather." Notwithstanding, the stern Lieu- He had, earlier in liii* career, made many attacks 

tenant'Governor was not to \k moved by humani- on the colouintM, and Captninit Kid«l and Avery 

tarian «cruplus, the sheriff was instructed to keep were the only men exempted from the privilege of 

his pristmers in close confinement thereafter. pardon in the instruciionn M*nt from l^mdnn »mm 

About the same time the Council delivered a time previou»Iy. Although on tlii« ocia^on be 

severe re|irinmnd to one of the Admiralty judges, satisfied himM.'lf with anch'>ring at some di^tnnee 

Quarry, who had on his own account apprt* from the coast, his vint wan neverthclcMi the means 

hemknl two pirates and sent them to Went JcrM'yi of involving a numlHr of the inhabitants in MTious 

hi* only excuse being that ho was extcuHivcly eu* dilliculty. Kidd had juM rctunml from the l-juit 

gagi*<l in tradiv and acted purely in iielf*ih<fcni*u. Indies, where he hail Urn eminently nucccimliil in 

Toward the close of the year lOfH), the inhabit- hi« depn*<lution!<. timl bmught back a ve rel l!ea\tly 

ants of tho county of New Castle, pn-sented a and richly fn-lghtnl with the choices>t priMluct» of 

|ietition to the Council setting forth their griev- the luiM. The im|)ortationof tlu'se gixMls into the 

ances, from which many points of interest regarding coloines was strictly prohibit<-d, but in direct 

the pirates may be gleaned. They mention the antagonism to the«« laws, Wm. Orr, Cieorge 

plundering of Lewistown in the preceding yean Tlioni|»t>on, I'eter Lewin ami tw<» others, all n->i- 

and aliHi the capture of the briguutine "Sweep- dents of Lewistown. b<Mirde<l Kidd's vcveel and 

stakes," belonging to Col. Webb, a former Governor purclui!H-<l a large (pmntity of hin plunder. They 

of Providence. This vesiiel, already laden and were fuccetiitful in eluding the vigilance «if Low man. 

preimred for a voyage .to England, was lying off the eidlector at Ixnvi»towu, and had cin-aily 

the town of New Ctwtle. On the night previous manngetl to diH|KN<c of their giKKln U'fore any iu- 

to the day set for her departure she wits attacktM foritinlion reacliiil the curs of the authorities, 

by thirteen pirate shi|iH. and carried off, with cn*w IVnu, who wtis at the time iMith proprietor and 

and cargo. The |H'titiim went on to mention the (fovernor, immetliatcly on the di!>o>very of the 

unfortunate situation of tho town, the inability of fncti*, mrurnl their iippreheuMon as a«*c<-MM»ri«i* to 

the citiz4*ns to protect themm^lvcs from tlicKC on- the pinite:< and promoten< of ilh-gnl trade. Thi^e 

sluughts,and finally, the innufficiency of the fortifi- caK's attracted so much attention that onre more 

cations. But despite all this, ihey met with littlo the colonists received in«tructiou^ from England 

sympathy. The board laid all the blame for tho regarding the suppression of piracy. This led 

delay in the constructiou of a fortress at the feet of Penu to call a special meeting of the Amci biy to 

tho inhabitants themselv(<(i, they having long iiinco prepare a bill against pirat«i>. He aI<io np|«r»intiil 

sccukmI |N*nniiwion to buihl it. As for a militia, a conimittet* of Council ci>niii)*ting of KiUnnl 

they conMhleriHl this a matter to U^ nmsidcred by Hhip|M'n. Diivid Lloyd. Phineuit I'cinlNrlon, Wm. 

a general AwHMnbly, nnil they refuM'd to grunt even It'Mlney and Cuhb fumM-y, who, in coujunciion 

a hearing t4i their n(|Ufst for such aid, sinou the with an Ai«enddy committue, wvru to draw up a 


Mil. «imI after dehntlnff for three wveki It wae of B<M'on, taken on lib way homewen] (\nnn North 

finallr pawecL Thb law was undoubtedly the Camlina; MoiMly.of Pcnmiylvania;Bnd Youn^, of 

niiwt ftrinj^ent that had yet been enacted. It waa London, who wai cajiturvd within ni^ht of laud aa 

Ibllowrd by a proclamation re«|uiruig all ftrangers ho wut miling fiir the coaat of Humex C iunty. 

traTeling in the eidony to nhow paiMea. which could Ciiatniu and six other privateera 0|icnt their 

only lie Memivd after the identity of the pemon had entire time failing between Egg Harbor ami 8in< 

been cptabliahed beyond a doubt. All inn-kceiieni no|»uxent, and uavigiition between th(M» fiointa was 

m-ere m|uirrd to gi%'c notice to a magiittrato ininie* mmni n'ndere«l no daugcrourt tliat it became necea- 

dtately up(»n the arrival of a stranger, or in case sary to ap|ieal ngain to Kngland for as4ii»tanoe. 

tlK*iv hap|H*ned to he no majrintrate near by, ** two The (tovcriior of remiMvlvania called a joint 

houiN*kee|icrs of the neighborhood" were to l>e Miwionof tlivC«>u»vil and AMienibly, and prmentMl 

mitified. £%*en the fcrr}'nien on the DelHware in writing liiii viewn on the new Mourves of |icril. 

River avre not |)erniitt«d to trani<|M»rt a strnniser The uiiMrortiiiU'S with which the fieople were now 

or fUii|Hcious chHrncter, and were forccil to give lieaet excveihMl anything they luid experienced in 

security, pledging theniselven to abide by thin pnn the pnatt. The coast of what is now Delaware, 

viition. The CiMincil also treated New Cattle with furni-hed the theatre for the most violent of these 

kwK severity, paying for bunts and lii|Uors si'Ut to exceMHf. Navigation beciime almost impractimble, 

that t(»wn when it was reimrte*! that French pirates and the bruveiit snilors dnntl not kiivo or appnmch 

lhn*aleii4<«] the ti»wn. The iHilouii«ts had at luMt the i*tmi<t and tnuU* wtin, as a nattinil conncHiiience, 

thoroughly nwakentni to the enorniiiy of the brought to a completu HtantUill. Tiio (lovcnior 

oirenM<H ominiitte«| arouml tlieni, niid the jtiiiuirdy slated his o|iini«iu t'l Ik« tlint, while tliolawit- were 

by which llH*y were iiurnHinde«l. They nceonlingly ipiiie rigiil emiiigh to suppn*M( the evil, the otKivrs 

demaude«l apprupriati* legislation. The ni*asur«H thnoigli whom tiiey were enfurccil were not sotH- 

alM»ve nM*ntioui>il were MMin ftiUowe«l by an onler ciently numenaH to pro|H*rly carry them into 

making it the duty of the magistrates of Sunicx exinrutiou, iind he warmly ap{H*nled to iIk* Ai«scmbly 

Oriinty to keep a ciHUttant watch on the ca|)e m>ar t(» iiien*aM> the numlHT, and grant money supplies 

Lt*»iiitown, and aswMUiasany vesM*l should ap|H'ar f«ir any action that it might be neecHnnry to take 

titf the ca|iea, which, on any reajmniible grouitdK, at once. The AMHi'uddy, however, were slow in 

might seem to ap|H*nr sunpicitaix in its movements, levying a new tax. and remoHHtrateil with the 

tlM'y were forthwith to rvyt*Tt t(» the slieriir «if the tiovernor, chiirging him with licing den*lict in his 

otunty with an aci*urat(* deM-ripliou t»f the ven^el. «luty for nut having n*|M>rte<l the matter to the 

TIh! sheritT of SusM'x was to forwani this informa- ailmiral licfnru they came t<» their pn*sc>nt dephir« 

lion to tlie sheriH* of Kent diuntv, ami it was to able condition ; UHireitver, thev insinuatc«i that the 

inss by special messenger from sheriH* to sherilf taxes had not iK'vu applini as economicidly or as 

thnmghcveryciMinty, until it reached the Governor wim;ly as might have been |)OMiblo. These c«mi- 

at Philadelphia, who directe<l what action should plnints they forwnrdtHl to the Lieutenant-Governor, 

lie taken. The sheriffs were em|N>wcred to use John Kvnns. who in turn submittetl them to the 

horses for the messengers, and to avoid delay, the Council. To this the Lieutenant-Governor prepareil 

magistrates were to attend to these di."patclieii in an ehiUirate reply, in which he showed that the 

the ah^encc of the sheriH*, and any ex|H;nses only lio|)e of ri'lief rented in what the colonists were 

arising were to be paid by a pmvineial tax, levied williog to do for themselves. Governor iSeymour, 

for the purfiose of Maryland, the vi<'e-adniiral of the pn»vince. 

These several laws, i>nM'lamations ami onleni had no forces at his c<mimnnd which ho ciHild scmuI 

grcwnioresalutary in the results priNlui»*<l by them, to the aM*i«tance of his neighlNirs, nor was there 

than any that had pn-<*eded. During the first any n'lUMm to sup|KMte that aid might lie ex|Mx*te4l 

eight yt*ars of thu eightwnth Ci'Utur)', the ctmst of from tlielioveniorsof any of the adjoining cob mies. 

Delaware remaine<l unmohvte*! by the pirates, A detuiUHl explanation of the msnner in wbieh 

while the fieople, undijtturU>«l by their ohi opprcs- the funds were disiNiMil of was also incf»r|iorated 

Min, increasetl and prtiB«|icriMl In 170M, however, in the rcsiMimn;, and after again picturing the 

the tmublcs were omv more rcnewe<l. The char- si'riousnesH uf the situation, a second ap|M>Hl was 

acter of the water thieves had slightly, although nuidetothe mendKTsof the AwM'mbly. The letter 

mtt nmlerially, change«l, but the burden was, if elieitiMl fnun the AsstMuhly by thi* was Inis«>«I on a 

anything, more difficult to bi*ar. The dangers now new line of argument. While adnutting that the 

to In* guanlcd apdnsi were chiefly fmm Frt*neh jurisilietion tif the proprietary extcmle«l over a wide 

privalirrs, but the Dutch, !<|aiuish and other stnMch of territory, they aiMtertiHl that the legij<la- 

uati«»ns were also engai;ed in itimilar (HTU|Mttii»ns. tive |K)Wers of the AMsembly were limitinl to that 

In the year just mentione«l, the nuu*ters of three |M»rtion of the province lM»uuded by the Delaware 

vciM'ls were taken by a privateer of great Uildner a Uiver, and *'g(H*s no further down than twelve 

named Castrau. Tliey were Captains Philips, miles on this side New Ca«tle." Moreover, tliey 



eitfd decitium In th« Eii]|[lish Court of Kxchoqucr, 
by which they attemiited to prove that all authtirity 
on the high teaa was in abeiilute puMeaiiun of the 
crown, and the colonial offieen had no power to 
encroach thereon. In their opiui«in, the only 
proper courM to be pumucd by the Governor was 
to communicate with the vicc-adininil. who was 
not Oovcrni>r Seymour, a« he had rtatinl, but liiird 
C'onilniry, Governor of the JerM^ys. who had always 
willin};ly fsrantnl them all the aM»iHtnnce In his 
power. This controventy lietween the Governor 
and tlie Aiwcinhly continued for three months, and 
was not tcriiiinnted until it had rcsulti'd in causing 
an irrcmv<liablo breach bctAci>n the contending 
imrtics, and precipitated the retirement of Governor 
Kvaus. The ini|iort<ini*e of this di^|Hitu is of chii'f 
intenut in so far as it widened the bnrtich U'lween 
the province and the countii<s (imipriKing Dclnwarr* 
New CsHtie, SuMi*x and Kent wcrOi on uccouiit of 
their situation, more directly contrrncd in tliii«o 
c«ii\;en ions ihnn tlioiH} nituatcd north of (hem. 
The continual rtH*urreni*e of tluiH} (puirrels pro- 
duced n«> other uH'ect than an irritability betwe(.*n 
the ciKiiitics on the coast and thuse in the interior, 
anil they may bo cnnMidercd an importiint factor 
in the eveuts which brought about the final se|iara- 

'Hie unsettled condition of affairs which existed 
during the cIohc of Governor Kvans* adminiKtra- 
tiou was only made worxo by a pngcctod war 
againHt Canada by the Knglisli. Taking advantaxo 
of this, the pirates and privateers were more fre- 
quent than onlinarily in their visits, and at this 
time (1708~*.>) records are to be fuunil of many 
attacks on iMitli licwistowii and New CWtle. Petin's 
secretary, James liogan, wrote to him in June, 
170H, that the **c(awts lK>gin to be intolenibly in- 
ftvte*!." and has ** lK*come a nest <if privat<-er«." 
He reported that in four days thn'e vessels had 
Ihmmi burnt and sunk in the river or otl' the eafies 
Three French men-of-war were statione<l at Tort 
Koynl, one of tilly, one of forty-five and a tliini 
of twenty-itix gunn, with onters fnmi the King to 
ply ahmg the c«iai«t. They had brought over one 
hundreil families with wliicli to M*ttle a Kreiicli 
coliiny, and whatever lMH>ly they giUheriil in their 
cruiMii. from the Hritish wdoniKis, was umhI for the 
sup|M>rtof the new M'ltlemcnt. liogaii hutiHirt>u*ly 
coHiplained that *' we have now four Kngli»h men- 
of-war OH these eoiii<t«, but they very exactly 
olwerve thu late practice of the navy, that is, care- 
fully to ke<'p out of the enemy's way. They 
always tw the privateem. hut afwayn itiiuietliing 
hnp|H UN timt they caiiuot fight them*.' The con- 
dition of altiiirs was at this time such that iid vices 
were Hcnt to Kiigliiud ti> M*nd no vewels direct to 
the Delaware, but first to Maryland, until it is 
learned whether it wouhl lie tafe to enter the l»av. 
Lewi«towu was again plundered in 170«J, thb time 

by about one hundred men tent oo shore by a 
French privateer. Adilitional troubles were caused 
by these attacks, owing to the refusal of the 
Quaker* to bear arms, even in defense, which 
naturally caused the other inhabitants much dis- 

Fortunately, Governor Evans* Bucce«si»r, Gov- 
ernor Charles G«Hikin, was not long in ingratiating 
himself with the {Hiiple. and soon succx-edi-d in 
Inducing the AMsendily to grant a liberal sum for 
the protection of the ctia>t. Almcwt immediately 
after the Assembly had taken this acti<in, tidings 
were received tlmt the Queen had di:^iiatched a 
number of men-of-war to assist in the work of 
saving her colonies from the grasp of pirates and 

\ * 


privateem. The c«»-ofierHtion of tla-se two drees 
proved for a time an ett'ectuai blow to the plunder- 
ing incursions and thieving attacks which theenrly 
settlers of IMaware ctmtinuallv sutfert-d. and for 
iKMirlv a dtrade the coast was undirturlKnl nud free 
fnim hostile invimions. 

In 1717 wc again find the pirates forcing 
their objectionable presentv U|ion the attention of 
the ndonifts Ttie renewal of their pre«latory 
atrocities n<'c<i«i>itiitetl the (*tmcttiM-nt of further 
nieaMinK of deft-UM*. On the recommerKlntiMn of 
1/ieiitemui I •Governor Kcilh. the <.*ouncii willingly 
coneurn<<l in pulilinhin/ a pnN-himation with a view 
of diminishing (he numlN'r(»f their oM tonnentor*. 
A templing reward wus oHere<| to any iiers«iu who 
should furnish theltoveniororany mngistrate with 
information leading to the conviction of any pirate 


orolliar pcnon who had inlerfered with the people bind them and Mt them adrift in a boat Onee 

in the peaceful panuit of their affain. Rewardi freed, the eaptlvof haetily put out, and althoufrh 

trere ahm offered for the capture of accemorica and Oroenwaj made a desperate attempt to overtake 

•uepicious characters, and the Governor promised them, they esceped unhurt, and at length reached 

to exert himtelf to the utmost to secure the panhm the hospitable shorn of the Delaware, where they 

of pirat«<« wIn) would surn*ndcr thenwlvcs or their put in for n*fb|C0i After hearing the story, Gov- 

acc«m>plicvs. The proclamation had hardly l)cen eruor Keith ordcri'd an lnvcnl(»ry to be taken of 

Wuecl, when fl%*e |M rates fnmi the sl< Nip ** Will inm's whatever was found on their vessel. Captain 

Kndcavw,** apiieanil before the Couucil, surren- lianiy was <lvputis«>d for this work, and re|iorted 

dervd themselves, and demanded the {Nirdou oflered the nloop well etpiipfted with piwder, shot, guns, 

by the pniclaniation. The prisxncra were Jnhn pistols, muskets, blunderbusses, cutlasses snd other 

ColliMtn, Hance Dollar, John Itciinalds, Ik'njaniin niatcrials and implements necessary for the oi>eon 

Hutchins and John Bell. 6trangi*ly eiHHigh, enenunters in which Green way had been engaged, 

instead of remanding the pHstmers to jail, uutil as well as a numerous collection of articles pn>> 

they Wfre proved worthy of immunity, they were miseuously gathered fn>m his vietims. Whatever 

ordcftd not to lie pnweeutvtl until it might lio was perishable was imme<liately sold ami used for 

learned that the crimes which they had ncknowl* the pmtection of the fieoplo againKt pirates, while 

etiged were such as to exemiit ihcm from the theniit was hehl subject to the onlcr of the Admir- 

beiH*Hls of tlie proclamation. 8uch evidence was alty Courts, and the men were suitably rewnnlvtl. 

never procured, and the pirates were cousc«|ueutly Other cases were continually reiMirtinl, and tho 

D'lt prusecutcvl. depri'ilatiun4 again began to excite much alarm. 

In July, 1718, particulars reache«l the Council It was re|iorte«l that the famous pirate Teach. aUi 

of far more seri<ius piratical work A number of known as Ulackbetml, was in the vicinity, and the 

mariner* now appeared before the Governor and Governor at once iiwuod a warrant for his arn*st, 

a»ked hu prutection. They had been employed in but the rumor proved to be without foundation, 

the merchant scrvi«'e, but had recently csca|ied It nevertheless hecame necessary to take special 

from a pirate ship in which they had been held measures for the protection of the kiwer counties, 

captives. When summoned to ap|iear before the Ca|>tnins Kayniond and Naylor were sent out with 

Council, they gave their names as UichnnI Apple- two sloo|is to dear the cu|ics of the pirates, and 

tun, John Rohesim, William Williams, John Ford, did their work very ell'cctually, while uisny 

IWiijamin Hodgc». John Harfield, James Mathews, prosecutions against the pirates were oooducUHl in 

Samuel Barrow, Gregory Margoveram, Kenold the courts. 

Glorence, Walter Vincent and Timothy Hnnling. After these attacks a respite was secured from 
Appleton acted as spokesman, and narrated the the piratical invaders, but it was more to the 
trials and suflerings they underwent before they gradual increase of the po{iulation than to the 
escaped, making an intt'resting and thrilling story Governor's proclamations that the termination of 
of adventure. They had sailed from Jniiuiica early the excessi's was due. As long as the pirates were 
in the year in a ship fitted out for working wre<*ks. leniently dealt with, and allowed to go free on 
iK'ath soon deprive«l them of their captain, and little more than their own promises of futuro 
tlM*y nM*t with little luck in tli«*ir cxjKHlition. re|ientauce, they amuvcfl themselves by hiMidwink- 
Mceting with another shMip, they willingly liMtened ing the oHicials, and without any scruples of con- 
to the imiM»rtuniti4i« of its captniii, one (treenwny, science continual in their old trade They either 
to mutiny, and place tlieniselvi*s under his com- nMfngnged in it by tjiking an active |mrt them- 
mand. They toi»k Ciiptnin ttnvnwiiy on board selves, or else kept their former comradi*s thoroughly 
thf ir t'wn sloop, which was the U'tter of tlin two, informe«l of whatever action was taken again-t 
and put their own master on the other. Greeiiway them, and furnished them with advice as to the 
had also brought his crew with him, and the best time to p4iunce U|)on tlieir prey. Thcanthori* 
arrangement had scanrly lieen completed when tics finally dl^ctivercd that they must deal sum- 
they infornHtl their new aiHMK'iiitcs that they were marily with the culprits, and promptly hung them 
pirat«is and had no other ohjtvt in view in making as thc^y were eonviet4*d. After the first ipiartcr of 
tin* cliaugi* than to secure athlitiomil nH*n to iisMst tho eight«i*nlh century the visits inmi tho pirates 
them in their n»blM*rie!t. The iiieii thus lN*tnive<l. were few and desiiltorv. but more tnuibh* was 

• s • 

were fon<i*d to serve their pinite maKlers in npiteof suflercti at tho hands i<f tho privateers. In 17:12 

all protests, lliis lasted several months lN>'ore an the pirates wero evidently reapfa'aring, as the 

opfMirtunity was prei*entv«l to esca|H*. Their shsip (\uincil was obliged to furnish extra clothes during 

hatl attacked an English vessel. an4l Greenwny and tho winter for some who were lodged in gaol, but 

several of his ohi crew boarde«l it to secure the that they had lost the lioldneai which characterixcd 

lnMity. Those of the old crew who remained on their former exploits is quite clear, 

buanl were drunk, and it was an easy matter to By 1739 tho privateers had begun to make their 


raids at re)n>l<^f iDtcrrnU on tho cooit, and the and earnestly requested the people to exert them- 

Aaicmblr of the lower eounties to<)k tho matter in selves to the utniiint in niaintaininj; as manr 

hand. Tlio Governor was empowered to apiwiini privnteeri as ptiHjdble and pn>nil'«iti;; hi* |M*nM>nal 

two well ipinliHed iMrsons or otHeers to ktvp a nMtirttaiun* whenever it would avail thi* l«*iii«t. .As 

constant watch at I^ewiHtown. Kai'h Inhidiitant was to 1h» exinfiiil, the Kretioh and S|mnii>h 

WHS rei|ulnHl to ket'phimself arnufl with a niuitkel, n*talin(eil, and the Amorienn cimf*t'i«wnrrnnl t%ith 

cartritl;;udMix, twelve eharp's of iniii|M)W4U*r and iIhmii, the |NHipli< fiifhTin;; the iumdis and ^i''*''* <>f 

Imll, three flints, and a wurin nn«l primiu^-wire, their enciiiiii*, lut woll as lo«in;; tli<>ir pn»|K>rty. 

and every one was instructe«l to yield alMolute Theste uuini^'s aKi«uiiK*<l their won<t form on the 

olKHlienee to the cunimnnds of tho ofKeen* in everv- iV'hiwnre diiriii;; the KUiunivr of 1747. It hemnie 

thin*; {wrtninin}; to the wnteh or deren.<H>, under neei'«iiiiry late in June to phuv vf!*<*el!< liearing 

fienalty of a fine of five shillin}^. The otficcm f lap* of truce under ri«!id rentrictiMua iM^fniv they 

ealUnl toprther all the inhahitniits onee a month eiMihl ctinie up the Ihiv, in onlcr to ;;uAnl n^^in^t 

liet ween the Ist of April and litt of OetolnT, and every |Nii*.<<il)iliiy of nurpriiM*. Tiiois wen* ni>t 

onee every three niiuithii during; the reiiminin^ |H'nuittiil t«i eomluet any nhip up the Ilelnwure 

|H'riiMl, fi»r the puriMM* of drilling them ami exiim> Uiver or Hay without a |NTmii fmm the('»uneil, 

iniiiK their arum and aiumunilion. The firin;; of and any KJiipeoiuin;; up without olh'yin;; the n*;;u* 

three ^uiis iiueee!<Mively and the JH-atin;; of a drum liitiou>« fixe<l wim Kuljeet t(» enpture. liut it was 

was tho si^Muil for enlliii^ the fHHiple to;;etlier in iHi|)«w»<«ilile to kiH'p the pri^'ateen* out of the wny. 

the nuirket*plaee with their nuMkeln. ready to On July I'ith a eoiu|Ktny uf nlHMit fifteen or 

defend the town at the etunnuind of the olHeers. twenty men, either Kreneh or S|KinianU. htndr«i 

The (Quakers were exempted hy «|MH*ial provision, near New C:i.'«tle and pluiiderc«l th» h<iu<ies «f 

as were aUo all |)er>oiis under tifUrn and over Jauie;K Hurt and Kdmund Li^tton, i*:irryin;; ofT 

sixty-three. l'ilot« were pndiiliited from hoanliu;; niiic*t of their pro|K'rty and >*l]tve!i. Altout one 

an inward InmuuI vei^'l without a |KTmit from the oVI<K*k in the iitU*ni<N>n the |itirty came on >*lii»rc 

Governor, to prevent their |Mtot!4ihie aA<*itff nnec) to an in an o|K*n Uiat and himieil alMiut tour miles n)i«»ve 

enemy or pinitc In the province*, the ap|Haninee liomliay lliMik, near IJi^tou'i* lioui««*. Thi*y mn t«i 

of privateers in tho hay hrou;;lit t»n the old trtiuhle a pluee where \\U dau;:liter and a ne;rp* ;;irl wero 

with the (^uakei-s, whoc<MitrolK-d a nuijoiiiy in the enihiiiu;; and H'i/ir.;; the iie;;r«';«4, iMiiind her ami 

A-MHemhly. In 1740, (loveruor Thouui^ ur);e<l pother in the hout; they then went up to l«i<tt»n 

them eontinually to decreu^.' the d:in';er« of navi* arnuHl with pnii<, eiitia>'<is nnd pi.'«tol.«. and admit- 

pitin^ in the jK'hiware, and a hm;; eontrover!«y tin;; they wen* priviite«-n*, denuiudtil his ne;;nAii, 

resulte<l. The (lovernor wai< ;;rea'Iy enni;;e<l, and money and key;*. lie ipiiekly ounplieil, nnd ther 

in a mcs.'ia^^t* to the A!<:K'mhly indi^rnnntly it4ke4l went throuirh the place, takiu;; clotli(>:(, lK*ildin*/, 

them: " If your priiieiplei* will ni»t allow you to funiitun* and uliat«-ver eln* they dix-vivenHK as 

pays a bill for eHtahlii^hiu;^ a militia, if they will well n.<« a ne^n> woman and twoeliildn>n. Iluviu;; 

not allow you to t!:'eure the navipilion of the river put tlicM* in the Imuii, they plaeeil their pi!>t«>U 

by buildin«; a fort, if they will n-.»t aMow you to a;7ain:<'t LiMon'M linui^t and eom|M*l!fd him to lead 

pn) vide aruM for the defen-MMif thtf inlmlMtant.<«. if them to Ilarl'x plautatimi, alHuit a half a iiiilu 

they will not allow you tontine nu'n fori li.'<Miije.'«tyV di:4taiit. Hart miw theui e.imiu-^ and el«H<Hl Wu 

serviiv.amlon IlisMajeftty'rialUrtionateapplieutiim Iiouh* ttml Inilted the i|iHir.<«. Tliey tirM eluiMiI a 

to you for di>ttre)«:4iu^ an in.'tolent enemy, if ihey ne;4ni ^irl until they enu;;lit her, and then ealliHl 

will n(»t nHi»w you to nii^' and appni|iriute money out t«» Hart that unles.-* he admitt«-<l them they 

to tho nnes reeommendeil by Uiit Maje;«ty, i.-* it a would fin* the hou^. lie still refu<H*<l and tht-y 

calumny to »ay that yiiurprineijdes are im*on!«i.'<teiit ctimuiemvd to iHtmbanl the hnu<H\ A bullet 

with the endn of government at a time when His ^truek liiM wife in the hip, and ^ihe blnliMi profu!««4y 

Majtvty is obli;re«l to have ri-eounHS to arms, not that he tiurreiulenil and ojiened the diNirs. He 

(Mily to protect the trade of (treat Uiilain and itA wan H'curely bound and the maniudent then plun- 

domiiiiiaM, but likewi^e to obtain nHln'!*.i for the di're<l the hout*e, lakiu;: away iIm' iie;;n», all the 

injuries done to liirt Hubjeet 4?*' Hut with the ix- \\4n1rin;; apjM'al, poiue piid buitoiiii and othiT 

eeption id' raining seven Hiuall eompanii'i*, there was Mriielei*, Viibutl in all at ab'iul m'veMiy |«Mind«. 

liothiii}; Ibrther done at the tune. They foreeil Hurl to n'turn uilli them to t,i*ti*nV, 

The warn in whieh tho mother e<iuntry iNTume and after pufkiu); up all the ItiNtty piilh-nd at 

involviil ithortly after this ^ave an im|ietu.<4 to l)oth phu-ej they set out n;;ain fi»r their Uiat. 

privateering ex|HMlitions on Isith fidcit. (ieorgell. LiMon and Hart at onee iiifirme<l Me!t.*r!*. Jehu 

iMued a s|H*eiul pnielnuHttion. pniyiu); hirt nubjoets Curtis ami John Finney of the affair, and the 

to lit out privateerrt for action apiin!>t hi:i enemies, )>artieular!< nere dl^puelxil to l*n>ident An. bony 

which was read thn>ugliout the Hriti»h Kuipire. Palmer and the Council. SiSevend meniben^ of 

Guvcrn<»r Thomas announced it iu Pennsylvania, the «Va«cmbly of the pruviucc wvrc ■ummoned, 


ineluiliog Mcisn. John Kimey, th« Speaker, led through iho capct. In Scfiteiuber th« watch 
Tboniai I.x«eh, Joee|ih Trotter, Jarne* Morriii and at I^winttmn wat kept buty for several weeka ex- 
Oswald Pvele. A cimferi'ncv wan held lietwit^n |HM*ttiiK an attack, and on one day they reported 
thv»e nienilieri and the I'ouneil and meiinunw neeea* two ii|fMi|iii pntthiK up the buy, each attendetl by a 
mryfordefeudin)ftlieinhnhitant«wert» taken under pilot. HoinctiniCH, however, even the well>inten- 
dbKtmiHin. A« the Aiwi*ml>ly etmt rolled the fiindii, tiiHied ptluttf wero deecive«l by the falao colon 
the Couni'il wan {MiwerloM to take any ntep incur- of the privateer, and by the British nea- 
rin;; ex|H*nflc withtiut their anieut, and they had men on iMwrd, aonio of whom were alwnyn ready 
been fumnionc«l to utate what mentureii thev were to turn traitor for money. Several ctuot of this 
willing to take. But the MrruplM of the ( junkera sort eaiue under the notice of the Council. In one 
a^fain proved a stumbling bliK'k. The menilten instance they learned of the imriietilars tliri»ugh 
of the AKHrmhly at Hmt n'fuHfl to net lit nllt ai<M'rt- the de|Kii*iuiin of William Kelly, late in 1747. 
ing that an they were then with«»ut nutliority fnmi Kelly had lurn taken fnuu the iiUm»p ** KlixidN'th," 
tlH-ir Ai*M'nibly, it wouKI l>e um'lrmcto net in tlicir tiff the eotni of North C'iinilinii,l»y a Fniieh privn* 
private enpiu'ity,nnd on Mng preiifed by the mem* ti<«T, ** .Mnrlhel Vtnlroit," Cnptnin Lehny. The 
iii'rii of the Council, only gave the viigut'^l nollonn vtiMtel wim of nlNiut ninety or ii liumliitl guuM, and 
of what they might U* willing to do, The priva- lifter Kflly's rupture, iiMik hIx Kugliith priAii«. one 
Ufm einitinuf«l in their work i\ ithout meeting with a sliMip, alMiut IllUvn KnigueM olf tlio eii|Hii of 1 K'la- 
»u(fieient opiMmition to inetinveniencu them in the ware, ami two i«hi|M in iK'luware Jhiy, eommanded 
lea»t. One uf them miuinetl a C*aite May pilot- ny|)ectively by Captains ]#ako and Oswald Kvi-s. 
boot and sent it up the bay as far as Bombay The privateer put into Ca|)e Mtiy, and hoiiite<I the 
Iluok, plundering several of the botft plantations Kuglinh colors. There were £nglii*hmen, Irish- 
in tlie hiwer c<»uniies on its tri|). men and Scotchmen in the crew, nud when they were 

(iovemor Reading, of New Jertiey, was re- met by I'ilot Willinm Flower, the captain m-nt one 
<juesti'd to give the New JenHiy pilotn instnictions of the KngliKhmcn to give instructions. The pilot 
iiiniiliar to those iM^uinl in I*rnn;<ylvania rc'iavting wiiHuulunilly deceiveil, and otK*ye«l hiit instruct ionn, 
the licen>ie required by ve!^*li« iHiiriug tings of takini; them into Cii|ie llenht{H'n. Kelly informed 
truce, and aceiaints of the truublcK were m1s4) tMiit him ihatthe vckm*! was a privateer, but it whs then too 
to the proprietaries, with a re«|uc0t for nj<i>i>ttinci'. Intc, in the mind of the pilot; but neverllielcKS he 
In the mean time the enemy continuctl phinderiug promise<l to take the »>hip tu» neiir to the shore thnt 
the colonists. The |inrty i»lio had roblMnl Hurt and Kelly might nmke hi:* ciHtifK* by nwimming to hind. 
Liiiton, in sailing out of the buy, met a valuable Wneii coming around townnlsCiiiM; IIenlo|H>n they 
shi|i ImhuhI for I'liilndelphia from AntiguH, and were lioardcd by nnotlier pilot, Luke ShieUls, who 
carried her otl*. The Council continued to ni*k as- provetl to be i|uite a ditlen'Ut character He nnd 
sii^tance from the A!<semblyuf the province, as it Flower were jointly plnceil in eimimniid of the pri- 
was f(4ired that at any mtuneiit the enemy might vateer, but he n>fuM><l to go near enough t«» shore 
Hiil up to Phiholelphia nnd sack the town. In to U*t Kelly eseaiH'. dechiring that he pni|MM>(>il to 
iheir messages to the .\sM>mbly they picture«l the tiike the vcfsel when* she conhl ciiptun* the nuist 
elfcii of such an event in the ni<««t vivi«l nuuiner, prlMi*, nimv thnt was the pur|NHo for which she 
n*minding them of the ruin and bhMKlxIml thnt had come, nnd no |)eri>istencu on the part of Kelly 
wiHild follow; but the .\N<embly was not ensily iinild induce him to diVist from this. It would 
moved. They adniitti*d that the enemy hnd U'cn therefore ap|)enr that to the venality of their own 
latld nnd ruthless in its actions, but thought it pilots the colonists could attribute nuich of their 
wouhl ** be difficult, if not im|NiPHible, to prt>vent ann«»yanee by the privateers. The pilots were no 
such a«*ci«lents.'* The length of the river nnd Iwy d«>ubt doubly rewnnleil for lending the ve>sels clear 
they eonsideriHl ample gunmnlec ngnin.Ht the de- of all op|Misiti(m to those |)oints most likely tocou- 
»trtKii«m of IMiihidelphin, nnd they reminthni the tain a pri/o, nnd leust apt to Ih' defended. 
Council tluit their ctnitinuing to sprend nbn»a«l re- During the suninuT of 1747 these attacks con- 
ports of the '* dcfenselei<s condition of the tinunl, keeping the inhahitnnts in the lower c«nin- 
pntvince,'* by sending mciisnges to the Aivembly, ties in a constant stnte of drt>ad and terror, (hie 
wiNihl have a great teuilency to induee the enemy or two incidents iK'curre<l to show the barbaroua 
to attack them. cruelty of these 8coundn*ls, who s*inred no man*a 

But no numsures which the Assembly or Conn- f(>elings and led nothing iH'liiml which it was {mmi- 

ctl or proprietaries tottk c(hi hi prevent the pi h>ls i*ible to carry ofK John Ari.'i, a Pliilndelphia pilot, 

fn»m n*fusing iu ctini a fee by objeeting to conduct was etmiing up the bny 4ine evening, having taken 

v«itM:ls into the bny, whether they were enemies or a ship la^youd flic c*a|M>s, when he was hnil«d by 

DoC These pihtts were, in fnct, more willing to some one on iNuinl a pilot-hont. when alaiut ten 

serve the enemy than the British, since the former miles Ik4ow R4\ily Islniid. A iMHtt msin <>amo 

were always willing to pay a larger sum for being alongside, and a uuiiiIrt of S|Mininrds came on 


board, and, with little eeremony, took hli rini; iViiin Rowland, Haniucl Rowlniid, Jr.» William Rf>«l«nd. 

b'ui fln|{cr, his bueklct and over three |NHind« in Hinwin Ivlwiirdu, Ji>liii Rnily, John Maul, John 

nionoy. They aUni carriiNl ufl* hm dotlHii, all (he Adanu*, all |iilnti« at licwintown. Tlu*y aliHi n*- 

fiiod un iMHird, and all the miU lN»ion)(in)r to tim f|iit<iit(*d (hut infliicn<v nii^ht In* hruii};ht tolN'nroii 

ImmK. Thvy led him winie mouldy hrcntl and the CSovernor of New JerM*y to |>n*vent the Jerm>y 

fiUMny watc*r, and then rvtireil, firing; at him an {mIoIji from carryin;( i.n the i*ahie alm.'K.ii lt4»th of 

they left. It was a curious c<»inehlenee that near* their re<]iui*ti< were ei>m|»lie<l with, hut the rewtric- 

ly every one wlio re|N)rt(Hl having 8uflerc«l at the tion^ in New Jen*ey retuaini*d Ioimc and ini»|KTn* 

hands of (he |»riva(eerii re|Mirted I hat while a ma- tivc. As upriuf; api»niaehe«l the |>rivAt«'en> renp- 

jortty of their aiMiiilants were uitualiy forei};nent {Nared, and forth n<emonthK their imi'Miintattttrk« 

(Spuni«h or FnMich). yet there wax always some remlereil niitttiTM worM* tliiiu they lind li-vnonnny 

one in the |mrly who umtl ^timnI Kii);lii(h. It was previoun iK<etii*ioii. Am enrly ai th« I'lih of Mny, 

eonehidiHl fnim ths that then* were many of the (*iiptain l*)niiiiiiK <invn wnnehiiwHl ulfCitM* lifii* 

cHiloniNis, or |M«rha|iit llrllinh Miilorit, who were act* Iii|n'Ii liy a I'Vcneh priviilnT, iiMiitiiinif f.iurin^n 

\n)t wllhlhe enemy,— a thet whh'h miuhl nUo luive eiirrliiue aiiil ^Ixiifu liwivi'l tfuuM. and Hith a vn-^k 

aemuiited f«ir (lie niieeeF^ihil manner in wlilehllu'ir ofotiehiini|i'e(liindi*cvenlv*llvem«'n. IIUKrhiM»iM«r, 

ex|NMliiionii mmally («Tn»tniite«| TIuih* eoHHhIly the" I'ieriiix," Ha.« hulfu Hitli lirfitd iin<l Imiiiin 

and (rai(orourt pri»e«*ei|inKi« were earrieil on to an eorn, anti nl\cr the |*riviitc«T hiid niptiireil him 

alanniii}; extent, lis the ex|ierirneu of the i«liip they tiNilc the liread on iMuinl their i>wn Imnt and 

** Mury," of liimtlon, will ilhiHtnite. The eapliiin, (hn>w the Indian corn owrlxMinl. They thi-n 

Iternanl Martin, wiu jusit entering; the iX'lawarc plaeiil alxiut ten Frenehmenou lM>anl tlu-H'ho«»nt*r 

ca|ie«(, when he wait hnile<l by a privuteer of ten and saihil up th-t bay, litoppin'^ to attack ahri^ran* 

guns. He managed to elude her, however, but tine. While the men wrri.'lhNinling thist the M|ie!( 

was niet by a pil<»t-lN»al, which he knew, as well us guve way, and (*a|>tain itrivn wil« \v\\ in ehar;n? of 

the eaptuin, %vho had oileo taken him up the bay. bis iMmt and matlu hiii ei*cxt|M> An actMtint of this 

Martin allowetl her to mine ahmgside and threw wum sworn to bcf«»re John Finny, l):ivid liii.*h, 

him a rofie, seeing no one on board except three or Jamiti Armitage ami Wm. l*atti'r!«<m,orNt*w(';L'>tle 

four Kuglii4hmen. Hut suddenly alxuit thirty Hve Couuty,andiH<iit to the 0»u licit. On tirMihcCmncil 

Frenchmen and S|ianiardsMpmiigfi'om the hutchvH, made another attemt»t to i>ii'un* :Lv>i^tnmv from 

where they had been eoneealeil, and l>oitrdod the the Asdembly, but for a reply that ImmI)* <piii*tly 

ship,' driving the crew Ite fore them at the |iointji slate<l that they did "not see what pnidciiff or 

of their piHtoln. Martin oHlred emiie re!«ii»ta!iix\ ]Mdicy could l>c <l<>iie in the preit^nt cimT;;cncy. 

but they at once o|H*ned fire«m him, wounding him To s<*iid a vessel in pun>uit of a privattrr HipinKH-d 

in the cheek, iu the arm and side and then kniN*ke<l to lie at the ciiih*!*, a lute example may nrnvimv us 

him down. They to<»k eommand of tlie V(vih>I, that the privativrs might ami very pmluibly wuiihl 

eruiiM*<l off the eti|)eN for a few dayn and then |>laivd lie <Hit of reach U'Con* any ve]«>H'l could get thither. 

Captain Martin and ncven men on the pilotdMuU Ami to ktvp a vcmm'I ci*iii«iHiitly at iMireii|N'« to 

ami abandoned them. giuint our (Miii*t niiMt Ih« intriMluctivc ofancxtn'ii!^* 

As the winter of 17(7 approiU'luNl, Ihestreimof t«Mi luuivy, as we eonn>ive, for the pMvimv to 

wiMither put a chirk U|N)n the privateering o|N'ni- U-ar.'* Ami im» they diil nothing. AUmt the 

tioiis for a brief s^niK«m. Moi»t of them sought ithel* mi«hlle of May His Majci^ty's i»io<ip, the "Otter,** 

ter in the Wiyt Indies, but rejiorts continually arrived under Captain Ballet, with iiittnieti«>ii<( 

reached the IX'lawarc that a great raid was InMng from t he .Vd mi rally tocruise olftbe Delaware en|ie!4 

planned fur the o|M*uing of spring. The IMiiladel- and protect the coMKt fnuii the |>rivateer^. Oti hi;* 

phiaiH were e^iiecially alarroeil at this. AiwKria* voyage, however, he had cne<»untcreil one of the 

tioiis were formed to defend the city, and applica- enemy in a four houn«' engagement and wan m> 

tiou wiu made to M'cure cannon to lie plaei'd at much dlMibkHl that it reipiireiinonie time to make 

pro|N>r pliux'S along the river. Ibit the AiMembly the neivi^ary n'|Hiirs. In the mean time the out- 

remaiiUHTl inexorable. Sevenil companies were rage« e«intinued. TowanI the end «»f .May a priva- 

formed within the pn*vince and the lower namties teer captured the i*liN>p "Three Hrot hers'* off t lie 

and the cumitriiction tif batiericM was U'gun at dif* cu\ti». They tiMik oH' nil but the captain, Oenrge 

ferent |ioints on the river. IWteous, his wife and S4»n and an old man, and 

In April, 174^, the pihits of Sussex County sent put on lioard three Frenchmen. They Ktcercd for 

in a {H'titioii to the Council, asking them to refieal the eu|ie0, uccom|Ninie<l by the privateer, but were 

the onlcrs inxued as to pilots e«>nducting inwani M'lNinitiHl frutu her in a sti>rm. I'orte<»U]*. hii« son, 

liound veMiH'lii, in onler to enable earn a aiul the ohl man nianage«l to secure the Freueli* 

legitimate living in coni|ietiti«>n with the traitors men, and put into licwii^town for a pilot, bringing 

who refused to oliey the proi'lamntioiiH. This was the three pristiucrs up the bay with them. Sum 

signed by William Field, Luke Shield, Samuel afterwards New Castle was threatened with de- 


■inMtkNi hj tiM arrival of a Spanbh privateer were once mora dWpeivfil. At WllmiaitCoB prep- 
brig of liiurtecti iniM and one humlntl and •ixly arationi to meet tlien wera madi by tlie erection 
■mu She bml anrliorvd ufl* Elicnburir, about ten of a bonilnpitMif niafcaxine and Imttcrj on the 
niiica bcluw New Cattle, giving an Kuglimh pria- rwlu of Christiana. In a note to Preiii<lent Ptel- 
eorr, Gem^ Pnictor, an opportunity to e#i*apo by nier, nf the CiHincil, fmni David Buah, John 
•vimming to »liore. He pnK^ceded to New Cattle, McKinly and Charlea i)u«h» tlioy itate that the 
and informed tlieautliuriiiva that the captain of the battery had been viewed by many, and the uni- 
brig. Duo Vincent I^uini, had eiitentl tlie river with verwil opinion was that it equaled, if not eieecded, 
the intention of enfituring the hirp* rliip tlion ly* ** any on the rtmtinent fi»r mrength ami beauty.** 
ing near New Cnntle, ami afterwanhi plundiT and Hut to tlie two nien-of-ttar» tlie ** Hector** and 
lUvtniytlie town, lie had nlnwdy Ufu eniiKiiig ** Otter," wait really due the credit of finally cleai^ 
oir tlie ea|ieii ami had ea|»iun'd nevenil vtweU and iiig the Imy and miM^a of Delaware of the priva* 
a |iilot*liuat. but was nuwiu iHimuit orian!t*rprvy. ttvm. Tluy itiptunHl a nuniUT and diMililed 
Tlic privatevreanK* up under KugliMhcidunt, within otlicrp, no that U^fore the cUim* of the year 17A6 
gun-t»lMiC of Nftv CVij<tle, but tlio |H««iplc were pn*- tlium; that reiuaineil unhurt had MMight nMire boa* 
parcti ami o|t('Ufd fire fmni several guiiA. Lu|m'X pitable regitiiw and the |icople were onee UMire re* 
6ndiug that hw recf|iiion wtrtihl lie rather warm if licved from the htrnin incident u|Mm tlie aInioMt 
he vi*iiturc<l nennT, i»lip|H*d iiii« cablet an«l dropiied coiitinu«>ua prtvcuce of their cueniitm fiir two yearn, 
down the river, huuuiiug aa he left, and hointing Thin wai the liiitt of the atteni|>li*, either of piratea 
tlie S|iani«h coloni in place of the Kn};li«h. But or privatcen, to make any e«*iicerted attack on 
tliit %tm mit tin* lant that watlieanl from I^i|)ez. lX;lnware, practically bkH'kadiiig the iiM»uthof tlie 
Captain Nathaniel Ambler re|Mirtf«l i>ltortly nftt>r> Imy. At rare intervals th«>n'iifter tliey wmild 
wanU irnvtiiig with the S|iauianl, that nvultitl ap|ian*nily upriug out of tlu* ImMim of the wuvui 
nM»r%* favorably for the Intlcr tlinu bin New Cnxtle and nwivp down lai an uiiitu.o|K*tiing vii»m*l ; Imt 
exi^ttlitiiin. i>n May -'>th Ambler waK aiichon-d they no longer aetitl with their f«»rmer audacity, 
off Iteedy lolaml, in coni|i:iny with three U4H«ton and mrarct-ly ever cuiiie within reach orvhore. At 
•loo|i«, which bad lieen driven iu by the privutei>r». bite at 17M8 we learn of •famet Me Alpine being 
Late in tlie evening three ImhiIh, fn>m the SiKHiieh convicted of piracy on the Delaware, but with 
privateer, ap|inmebe<l tlieiu ami raptunnl nil fi)ur thin the curtain fallt on tlii« romantic and inter- 
thii>|w, Ktrififung the crew and tnkiug otfall their ettiug phiue of the hittory of IX'lawarc. 
chtthm, only leaving each cajitain a |«iir of 
brwvlHt. Captain Janut While al!>o had an en- _______^ 

oMinter wi*h Di»n l4i»|iex*i nH>n, nUiut thirty of 
wlmm lioiinlc«l hit ti'lMnmer otl* the high land of 

lloniliny Hook, with piiitoln and cutliiA^K'M, plun- CHAPTEli XI. 

derv«l her ami took the captain ami hit hh'u on iMHinI 

the privatier. The hmg ILit of ouini)«ct of ihit DOt'XDARY DisrUTEa and arrrLKiiBiiT. 

clmiacter wat daily incrcnM<d by re|iort>* of olliert 

naire <biring and impudent. Alwut the let of The 8ute of Delaware to^lay couM not well be 

JuiK\ Abniiiam WiltlNiiik, a pilt»t of ljewii>town, made the mibject of a boundary cimtroverty, with 

wat ap|Miinted to coiiimand an intelli<!eniv iMMt ita ttiff, i^ratght linca <« the nMith ami wett, ita 

He plied up anddoan tlie river and bay from tlie abort, regular curve on the north, and Delaware 

capit to I'hiludel|>bia. reiKirtiug tlie torce and River and liay and the ocean on tlie eaut, to mark 

ni«*vemenit of all privativrt within tight. At ita te]Niration from any gnii>ping neighliort. It 

New Ca»th! there wan, to 1k>»u re, a fort, Imt there liet lietwi>cn latitude .'M"* 2K' and :{U® 47' N. 

weiv only four guiit to Im> miMnl in the wlntle and longitude 74* fiti' and 7ri* 4(i' \V. Tliit it in- 

town. Tbit numlH*r wat iiicniiM-«l by four nix- dee«l ilelinite enough, but the dii>tHiie« and coiiteittt 

|MNindem fnini riiihMlelphia, where they could ill between the tevcnil claimnntt«»f the territor}*, and 

liei»|uintL The defeiiM'leMi ctniditiiai of the const tlie letters, documcntt and deiMwiiitMit that arf«« 

can tiK'refore lie well umk*r»t«Nid, and it it not to out of the iMMindariee (»f the territory upon Dela* 

be womlered at that the privateeni eiitertuincd no ware, formt the ttory of a long and bitter ti niggle, 

fvar of whatever op|Mi»ition might be oflernl. which, on Mime occatioiit, did not fall abort of 

In July a whole tieet ap|ieare«l offilie tiHitliem bbMNlrthed. If any |ialliating ntiwuw are to be 

cum^t of tlie American cok»nie«, under the leader- eought, we can only trace the origin of thewtroubki 

tbip of IXm l*e<lro, and for a time iiavigntioii wat to the numerous duinget in the proprietorship of 

eonipktvly at a Ktundstill. A |iart of the lirili^h the diK|Hite«l ground, which t«Hik place m> fre«|U«ntly 

wittiMlrou in New KiiglamI wnsM'nt down and call- for nearly a irutury atWr Hudson t advent. In 
luntl several of the privateers, and mauiied them to liK)9, and to deeply entangled had tlie chiiiiit and 
oi>|ium; their old allies, and in this way the robbcra countcrclaimt become, that a eecond century was 


drawing rapMly to a c!om Iwforoii pnctflc amni^e* the peniotula, nr rhcrmocae, lying in the pmrt of 

nient wm finallr ngrccd u[ion. In its checkcrc«l AmcrtGn lictwcen the ocean on the eiutt and the 

pewage from the hancli of the abfiriginoa to the Chciia|iettlie on the wont, dividetl fnnii the ra^idue 

Dutch, tlien to the Kwedcs, and once more to the thcntif hj a rij^ht Iiih*. drawn from the pninH»n- 

Dutch, then to the Duke of York niMl finally to tury or h<*ndlaud mlU>d Watkin« Point, situate 

Penn. it waa wore than likely that the title to this upon the Imy aforesaid, near tlie river Wighco 

valued pnipcrty should not remain indisputable, on the wiwt unto the main oofnu un the en^t, and 

8urvuying was reudcrc<l doubly difKcultUy the un- between that liouutlary on the stMith unto that 

explored condition of the country, and inaccunicics |Nirt of the lUiy of iX'lawsro on tlic north ahich 

in this quarter ftirnUlicfl a fnipicut iMiurcc of lictli under tho f«>rlk>th dt'grec of north latitude, 

c<»niroveniy. jlut, alMive all, wlu'U grnnt« and from tlio iiiuinoctial, vihvrc Nc«' En^luml w ter> 

titles were tf>iiuc«I bv authoritit's tlin.'c tlM»ui*nnd niiiuitixl, ami nil the tract of that land within the 

niilMdistant, without fueility for receiving any other meU-s umlerwritten — (that is torn') imNiing fn»ni 

infoniuition except the te:»(imony of the upplinint, the miid liay called iVlawaru Bay, in a ri;;ht line 

it wiui not impntlmble that a i<ingle strip of land by the ile;{ree iifori'stuid, unto the true meridian of 

might lie granted to two or even a greater nundHT the fiivt fountain of the river of PotoniMc, thence 

of iielitionem. ' vergin;r tonnnh the wiuth unto the farther Imnk t»f 

The Kcul of the Dutch in settling their newly- the ouid river, and lollowing the Mime on tlie «re»t 

discovered territories, which cxtende«l fniin Dela- and south unto a ei'rtain plni*e etdliHl Cin«piaek, 

ware Bay alnustt to Cu|h; CakX, naturally exeite<l situate near the mouth of the imid river, where it 

the British, who were intere»tc<l in the Plymouth distemlMigui's into the aforestiitl bay «ir Che!«n|ietike, 

and Virginia charters. As early as U\'l\ they and tltem*e by the ^bort^1•t line unto the afnroaid 

oimpbiinetl to James I. of the eneroaeli meats of promontory or place calle<l Wat kins Point. **^ 

the Dutch. At this early {HTiml it was a simple TlteiK'iiti«iiiof I>i»rtl B:dtimon%in eompliuncewith 

protect of the British again:*t the title of the witich the grant hail Urn i.oj'Ued, H.*t forth that 

Dutch to the New Netherlands, which include<l iIk' territory was "not then cultivale<l and plantitl. 

New York, New Jcrsi^y and Delaware. The mat- though in some {inrts therc«»f inhabitiil by a cer- 

ter HIM brought to the attention of the StatesCien- tiiin barbarous |MMiple having no knowL-d^e 4»f 

eral of Holland, but on the d4*ath of King James Almighty (hnI," uml it was this deelatati«»n which 

the aflair was still badly complicatcil. Tmler was atterwunU made an im|)«irtant farti»r in the 

ChaiKu 1. the dispute continuc<l. The New Net h- vtrugLde. Tliesi* limiti* includifl not only the prrs- 

erlaiids had now come under the nuimigement of cut .^tnte of Mtiryland, but all of IK-lawarv and a 

the Dutch West India Cum|inny, but now, in their |>iirl of Pennsylvania ami Vir^'iiiia. The ivmi»a- 

turn, they were much annoyetl by the ImiKI en- ntnimv came tir^t fnmi the bu^t tpuirter, but that 

croachnients of the Knglish. One of their largi>>t controversy iIih'm not U*aru|s>n the matter in hand 

Tessi>ls was RMxe<l ; they placed the nuuter in the with suflieicnt imiNtrt to warnuit our entering 

hands of the States-General, who decidtnl to u|Hm detail.". 

firmly maintain the rights of the (*om|i:iiiy. The The iirrival of the Sweth-s in the IMaware, in 
Knglish were equally (MiHitive in their determina- lli.'ix, nuirks iinotlier e|)ocli in the imrnitive. We 
tion to realist the Dutch nggret>siuns, and the triable have mhii in the chapter on the .^u(ili!>h >«tt!e- 
over the boundaries gave rise to intense feeling on nientt that L%selinx, fli!•;;u^ted at his tre:itment by 
both sides. The addition of new purcluif^ers, who the Dutcii, had entered the MTvicv nf .*^we«len, ami 
might l>e i)OM*iblc disputants, had no tendency to with Peter Miiiuit had su|ierintcmKil the exinili- 
unnivel the entangkil claims. CnNlyn and Hhsnu* tion of Uy\}<. <>piM»sition was at omv elicited 
mart had Isaight a Ktrip of land from the natives from the Dutch thniu;:h William Kiel), Dirti-tor-« 
in lO'iO, extending thirty-two milra inland frnm Ctfuerni of the New Netherlands, but .Minuit |ter- 

Ca|)e lIeido|ien, and two miles in Im-ndtli. I>e sipte«l, and the erii-tion of Fort Chri.-tina gxive 
Vries startcil a small colony near the ('a|ie in I O^n, definite sha|ie to his plans Two ye:ir:* later the 
and in the same year new purcluiMi's were made first JCn'^li^li settlements on the Delaware were 
from the Imlians on the caj<t side of the Bay. liegiin by the purclm.«e of lamlon Isith ndcs of the 
The year 1032, however, stands out as a prominent bay by Captain Turner, the agi'Ut for New Haven.' 
landmark in the history of the disputes, fur it wa^ The pureluiM's of the Kn^-ii.<«h iiintinuiil for several 
then that the tainous charter was granttnl to I^ord years, and their |Nis.<«essi«ins ^ton nggregati-«l a cim- 
'Baitiinon*, on which he aflerwanls baseil his siilenible <|uantity <if land, althi>ii;;li they weiv 
claims to the laml <m'the we:*t side of the river f<ircc<l to contend with the attacks lif the Dutch 
Delaware. It was graiite<l on June 20. 1(».'12, and nntl Swetlw.' It can now lie reatlily hiu that by 
cimtained the following tenns : " We (Charles I.mIo iti.« ri».r Wis».o, »«. i,* «.i.,r *, lUt t^m hM-a m iw i\<w. 
ffive, urant and ctinlirni unto Cccilius, Baron of »•"'"•• *""' ^ <«"i'»»*»i »• »• "» j'whh-. ik.»i.i. 
Baltimore, hu heirs and assigns, all that part of >ur^b«ui -m^Mj yi n«« \^k," vu.i.p.3>s. 


the Middle of Um MrmtMnth eoitary Um terri- StayvcHUit in 1658 to adjuit the diflbicncei with 
toty Boir knoim at Belemire wee rabject to numy the New Haven uwnen of pmpertjr on the BeU- 
(•wneie, enrh trriox to interfere with end prevent were, by appointing three new comniiasionera to 
the advance of the othcn. In 1650 the firrt im- meet a like number to be named br the United 
purtant eunfiprence over the b«iundarie« wa« eim- Colonies. The negotiationa had hardly Iteou begun, 
vrnetl at llartf«inlt tor the |iur|NMC of nettling the however, before the Dutch agent* dibni|itly de> 
di«|Niiea Ixiwt'eii the Dutch and tlie Kngliith of |Mrtv<l without any instruc*tioiit Oimu their Gov- 
New Haven, wlm had |HirpUnMHl land on tlie ermir, leaving the niatti^r in itn old iiha|H«. An 
IMawan*. Tin* nnvilug wan i*h1I«<«I at the MigKi*** epUtolary att(*ni|H to iiune to an agretniM'Ut wan 
ti«in iif the «<iMnn)liiiti<HH'ni of iIm* UnliiHl i^ilouiiii, then U^gun by a letter fnini 8tuyve«nHt to the 
aiHl Htuyvtwint willingly aMt(«nti<il. The iH*gotia* New Knglnnd coniniiMtionem, but tlivy held that 
tiimii were at fimt eiuiductml iu writing ; but thii tlie nelsun* of the vchmcI at New Auwtcnlam had 
nM>th«id |Nvvcd irkiwuie, and oHwunicd m ninch liceu too great an aH'mut for them to consider any 
time that a new |dan wat toim ndo|a««l. Each of further arraogemeut with the I)ut4'h It was they, 
the |iartiea involved apfiointed two commtifctioiien liowever, who re«»|ieued the diM.*U8iiifm a year later 
to reprwent them, the four to fimu a board of by writing to Governor John Killing, tlie newly- 
arliiiniti«ia to Mttle the ditf|Mitc«l (|Uuitioiii. Stuy- arriviil Swcdinh agent, but again without rreult. 
venant apiMtiuted I'lmtign George llaxtcrp ami The aHiiir ha«l now been brought to higher author- 
('ajitain Tliimuu Willett, while the New Knglaiid itiva and c«irrei*|Mmdonce wiw eoiiduetitl lietween 
eotuniiiMMinen neU-etetl KynMin IlradHtreet and Kiiglntid and Uollnnd relative to the Mubjeet of 
Thomae Tiviice. Their delilK*mtiiiiiii, however, iMuiiulnriM tm the IMnware, and thii* was e«iiinliy 
nimltetl In no definite c«melui<ion. The New barren of ntiului. In IO'm John t4l(l|ierandThom- 
Knglamlen• awertnl that the Ihiteh had encroncheil as Munstm applied to the eourt of New Haven for 
on their hiiul, and that they hnd in eiuiite<|uenee the proteetioii of two niagistrati's and also a supply 
sulli'red damages to the extent of .i'lOOO. Stuy- of guns and ammunition, to take with them in an 
veitant deu.i-«l this, but stattnl that as iheiie attempt to settle on their land in the Delaware, 
alleged invasimis of Kiig>iiih riglitrt had oeeurred The etmrt agreed to thi:«. but the diseoumging 
during the administratitHi of (ioveruor Kieft, he re^Mirts which were brought from the Di'lawnre at 
wan unablo t«i deal with the miitler iutelligeiitly. this time dum|K>iied the nnlor of the new colohiHts, 
Ihiih |Nirti(«s at length agnn^l to refer the defii*ion although soniu were still willing to make a start, 
to Kngland and liolland. and in the menu lime hut uoihiiig ruuie of the ex|NMlitioti. 
agn<ei| to lairnue their IniercKts on, the DehiHnru The eapiura of Fort C-iioimir by the Duleh In 
witlumt luierferlng with oue another.' Tito New 1(I.m prnelieiilly sellhtl ihe ilispui(*s U'tween the 
Haven fn'ople siaM«Hl out siM»n nl^erwnrtls wllli a Dutch and Swnli*s, leaving the former nmiplete 
new eiiltiuy to MHth* on their lands in the lX>lu- imiKters of the situation. The htsti>ry of the col- 
ware, but, toueJiing at New Aiiii>tenhim on their oiiy under Ihe Dutch has already been treate«l 
voyages tlM\v were all plai<ed umler arn*st. They at length. Theseverity of Alriclis'ailminiHtration 
ittfiisted that they had mi intention of settling at New Amstel drove six soldiers to desert from 
ehwwliere than on tlH*ir own land, which wiu their the Dutch service and seek refuge in Maryland. 
privih*ge, acconling to the agreement of the arbi* At a meeting of the Council uf New Amstel in 
trat«»n. The l>ifvetoMteneral thought that they ll>t~>U it was decidtMl to request (tovernor Kendall, 
had come with a view to extending tlieir territory, of Mar)'laiid, to return the deiH>rters. The Dutch 
ami ivfusctl to let them pnK<ee<l, and the tnaible now began to fear that the Kiiglish would encroach 
over tlie liounilarii<s was once more opened betwi-eu Ufiou them fnmi a new (luarter, as they had hith- 
•the Knglish and tlie Dutch. erto lH<eii dt/mg from New Haven. A letter was 
In the same year, Kiol, an attempt was made to d*is|Mitched to Colouel Utie, the leading magistrate 
reach an agreement aliout tlie extent of the lands of Maryland and a mcuilH'r of tlie ((overnor's 
held by the Swetlcs and Dutch on the Delaware. Council, ret|uestiiig that it lie forwanled to the 
Tlie Swedes had suddenly exhibitcil an exceed- Governor. i!oloiiel Utie consi*uted, but at the 
ingly bfdd spirit, committing many acts of violence same time iiifurnietl the mcMK>iiger that the Gov- 
Ufiun the Dutch with the evident purptise (»f dis- eriior and Council of Mtirylaod had already issued 
]ii»isessing them of the whole river. IWiiig iinsue- instructions in January onlering him to *' re|)air to 
ccMiful at this, tliey eiulcavoriHl to purcliam* hind the pretende«l Goveriitir of a jHtiple iieate<I on the 
fnmi the Indians, who refiiMtl to sell, but gave the lX>lawaru lUiy ami inform theui that they werer 
Ihitchall ihelandfMm liomlmy llmik loi'hristina seatetl within his hmUliip'rt pMvincr with his no- 
Cievk.' Amilher unsuccessful atlem|it was mrde by ti(*e.*' ' He furtherstnteil that Isinl llaltimort* had 

onlere«l the hiiul within the limits of hi« charter of 

I n«tar>r« • a»mh -r rtHMHvUMh.'* h*> i»»-i«. vinrwn-. - m*- 1 U:ii to be resurvcved.with a view to as»uminir deHu- 

•orcUtectMa** *• UMwf7 uf Um X«« XHWrlMK'* v«A U P- IM. * MiMahwu't *« IIMwry «r MaryUMS." p. tX 


ite jurifdictloB over the whole. The receipt of this hy Alrichs, Ikekmnn, Alexander D'Hiiiotomhi, 
intelligence produced great conttenmtion at New John Willicntnon, John Crato, Hendricit Kipp and 
Anieiel, and Sttiyvi'sant writes that in a short time G. Van Swcrigen, the tecretarj of the Oiuncil. 
** fifty pemoiit, including ■evenil faniilieii, removed They coraphiinc>d that the citiiens of tlie Delaware 
to Maryland and Virginia/' leaving scarcely thirty has been entict-d into Mar}'land by alluring pn-ni- 
families in the (own, while other pln(*es were day ii^es, some of whom had thu«teiK'n|icd service which 
by day growing worse anil worse. This was the they were hound t(» render, and others had left 
flntt claim entcrc<l by liunl Ihtltimoro to the terri* lieltiiid them heavy {Nvuniary obligations. iMijrc- 
tory over which a heated sirugglo wiis destincHl to tiou wu» alMt nmde tn the ftirm of the instructi<»nN 
rago for more than a century. The allhir was heblby Utiv» which wero i*im|ily »igniHl by Thilip 
brmight U'lbre the Maryland Oouncil on August C-nlvert, mrn'tnry, but euutuiue<l neither place nur 
3rd (0. 8.), and UliewiM further instnictc«l'* that, in date; but Utic |>aid little attention to (his. The 
case he find an op|»ortunity, he insinuate into the |Mtrticulars of the affair were furwanled at once to 
|jei>ple there seated (on the IX*laware) that in case Stuy viitunt. who replied on the 2«5d, censuring 
they make their applieution to his Uirdship's (Jov- Alrichs and Ik'eknuin for aUowing Utie to proceed 
enior here,they shall find good condition9i,a(*cording as fur as he bad already done and aUo for promise- 
to the conditions of plantations grantc«l to all iug to reply within three weeks. He severely 
oomeni into this pn»viiice, which shall lie made reprimontled them for rcco;;uizing Utic at all. with 
giMxl to them, and that tlicy shall have protection the dtfeetivu ereiU'Utials «\liieh he brought, and by 
in their lives, lilK>rty and estates, which they i«httll way of repriMif reiiiovetl the nmuagcment of the 
bring with them." On the same day the (tovenior alliiir fnun their handf ami npiMiintiHl instead Cap- 
of Maryland wrote to the Governor of the territory tain Martin Krygier and Cornelius Van Kuyven 
of tbul>elaware giving him notice to depart. With to have entire etmtntl uf the cimtrovervy with 
reference to the disputed lands he said: ** I can by Marylautl. Krygier was at the same time coro- 
uo means ackmtwleilgc any for Go vcnutrs there but mi>sioncd as eomnumder of nil the militia on the 
myself, who am by his lordship ap|M)inted lieutcn- Delaware, ami sixty men were placed under him 
ant uf his whole province, lying between these to rcfH.*! any inroads fmni Mun'Ian«I. The new 
degrees, 38 and 4*^ but do by thcs«* re<|iiin* and com- agents were alrnj !n.<«tructiHl to treat I'lie as a spy 
nnind you presently to de|Nirt forth of his hmlsliip's unKvs, on his n itira, lii.'< pu|H'r!i were Icm defii*tive 
pnivimH;, or titherwise tU>sire you 'to bohl me tbun when first exhibileil. 

cxcumhI if I UM* my utiuiMt endeavor tti ii*due«' Kuiiiors snon eiinie from Maryland iluit I'lie, 
thai |iart of his lordship's provimv unto its due ^^ho had ii'turiu'tl on the I lib, was pn'|Niring to 
ulNslientH* t'lnio liim." return to .New .Xmoiel with a fonvof five hundntt 
Colonel Vtie n^aeluHl New Ami<lel in SeptendsT, men. Mtiyvifuut tliereujMHi ap|Ntihte«l tHoci»mmis- 
with .Major Jaitdi Do Vrinis and s<'vend others who siouers, in the |H'riM>iis of .\ugusiine II«rrmans and 
nuidct up the c<»mmission. Several days were s|ient Kesolved \Valdron,to prmred to Maryland with a 
in reconnoitering and fpiestioning the si*ttlers, and letter and orders to rei|uii>t, in a ** frifiidly and 
on the 8th a eonfcn'Uee was held with Alriehs and neigblsirly way, the nnlelivery ami re>lituti«»u of 
Cimimissary William Jicekman. Three of the such free iH-opb* ami Movants us fiir debt and otiier 
fugitiv(*s were handed over, and Utie then plainly ways have bei'n HM^ and as to us is given to un- 
stated that the ))e«iple must either leave or dci'bire stand that for the nuMt |tart are residing in his 
themselves the subjects of Ijord Ualtimore, and if honor s government, es|x.*cially alsiuc a ycrur sinc«* 
they rcfusetl to submit to either of these alternatives have g«me out of this oilony uf the high, well 
he ctmid not hold himself *' res|>onsible for the inn«>- esteemed lords governors of the city of Am»tt*r- 
cent bloiMl tluit might be shed on that account." dam; which if you do, we are ready toas:4ure you, 
Alrichs nMUonstmiiMl that they bad been in |M)S!<es> that in nmiutaining uf goud Justice and neigh- 
sion for nmny years, and held their land by an borly duty, to do the same boide all thow that 
octroi of the 8tates*(iencnd and the directors of nmv come rumtwavs to us out of anv of v(»ur 
the Wiwt India Comimny. The .Marylandcrs were neighltor governments.*' If Governor Kendall 
obstinate and irritable and refused to argue, refused to comply the commis»ioners were to in- 
but ilcmandcti an immctliute and (Misitive state- form liiui that the Dutch would retaliate by nffrr- 
nicnt from the Dutt-h ns to what they pro|Ni!<cd to ing full protection to whatsoever fugitives might 
do. Alrichs now endeavonKl to KH.'uro delay by sirk refuge tm the Delaware. With regani to 
a pro|HA»i(i(m to submit the wluile (lUivtitm to the Colonel Ulie's exiHilition, the letter bi(t«>rly ci»ni- 
mother countries. Failing in this, he nipiestiHl phiineil Isitli on the gnaiud «»f tli«> al*r>ene«' of hII 
ihnv wcH'ks in which to ctmfer with the Dire«'(or- JuMice and the hnrsli nuuiuer in nhieh it was 
General of the New Netherlands, to whieh Cidouel ctmducteil, ami the 4HmMii!!*sioners Hen* in^truet*-*! 
Utie reluctantly etmsenteil. 'flic next day, how- to demand full re|siration fiir the injuries ^'alnntdy 
ever, the Duleh submit tetl a written pruli'stsigueil sustained by bis frivolous demands and blmsly 


thf«a«iiiii|^** Ob Um dOth of September Hcer* atkcd for a charter over « region " AilAerio imni/- 

■MiM and WaldroD eet out on their Journey to Hvnttd, and patiiif oeeupitd by tamget hwiny ne 

Maryland. Their jniidtt were tavaipra, and with kuowtnlye of the Dittitte Jking** When they reaa- 

a •null cunvoy of Mildiera they m*t out on what wna wnihlcd in the evcntni;, thia paMajje was urKcntly 

thi*n a rather iwrilnua trip They had not pro> put forward by the Dutch aa beiuj^ quite tuHieieut 

gn-wetl far when the Indians dcelined to pnKi<vd. to invalidate iSaltinioro's present claim, since the 

TlH*y finally induced tlK*ni to advance a little, but rej^ion had uudoubtcdly been settled by civiliied 

as siion as a river was readied they diKiniiwed all |N!<>ple priur to 1002, when the charter a*aa granted, 

but one. Tliey embarked in an old, drie«l-up bunt, Goveniur Kendall replied that this was known to 

which they fuund on the shore, but «'ere forced to the King, and demar led the charter by which ilia 

calk it with rags, and one luan was consluutly em- iX'hiware territory was livid, but llcernians and 

ployed in Duiling It out. Thus they reached the Wuldruu refui«vil to exhibit it. It had now be- 

KIk River, and atler a brief rest in the wtxidii, pro- ctinie so evident that no |)ernittneut arrangement 

ceeded to tlie .Sussafras. Here they fi»und one or cnuld be concludi'd at this time, that very little 

two deserteni. who, on pruniii(C4»f a pardon, agreed eflbrt was miide after this, and on the 20th the 

to n.ium to New Anistel within a mouth, but met commiwitineri left, Wnldrun returuing to New 

with much op}M)sition fnmi others. At the mouth Am«tcl at once, while llevrmniM pmccedcd to Vir- 

of the ^Hll>Kafras, which they rencheil on (X^oIht giniat4i obtain the opinion of the Governor of that 

2d, they lieani a heavy fui^ilade at Colonel llttu's c«ilony on the subject of dinpute. 0*Callagluin, in 

place, and sup|iosed that this was a cimi|miiy pre- hin **ilii»tory of the New Nvtherlanils " ' exprcnK?s 

|iaring fiir an attack on the Delaware settlements, the foUowiug opinitm of the action (»f the Dutch 

iln the 3d they utopiicd for a while with Captain eomiuiiwioners at their meeting with the Maryland 

Wilke, one of the niagt4tnites of Kent Island, and Council in IGoU: "They evinced a tact and 

a coUMderable discuMiiou ensued on the issucit be- shrewdness of a high onter ; and it is doubtful 

twfen the two governments, but in a friendly way. now whether, in the pmlongiHl suit which <M*currcd 

Here they secure«I a new ImnU and guide nt forty suli.'<e<piently Urtucen the |Httenti'es of Maryland 

inmndsoftolmceoa day, and on the 7th arrival at and IVnuitylvtiuia, any solid jiiea was brought 

tHvn'tary Calvert s Iioum*, at INituxent. Theydiiie<l forward agniuiil the JIaltimoru claim that was not 

together «Hi the next day, nnd dimMD^Hil ilieMilH alreatly aniiei|intitl in the Dutch pa|H*ni. Ainl 

Jtvi of their mi]*i>ion, and the same prograiume was no man can rim* from a |H«nii«al ofthu wlioloof 

abti (*arr)ei) out on the TJth, thin time the argu- the pleadings without U'lng convintHil of this — 

ttient bi*comlng rather heated. On the 1 (kh the (Sov- that if the State of Delaware now weupies an indo- 

ernor annouuitHl his nntdintits to meet tlicm. and iK'Utlent rank in this gnnit republic, »he is indebted 

two horses were K>nt to ctuivey them to the h«iuse nuiiuly for thut g(MNl fortune nnd high honor to 

of Mr. Baieman at Potu»k, aliout eighteen niih's the stand taken by the Dutch in 1G.VJ." 

distant, where the meeting was to take plnce. Am soon as was jHiMtible .^tuyviiHint acquainted 

After a pleasant dinner tlieimiien) were pruducc<l the directors of the Wi'st India Com|Niny of the 

and the negotiations were l>egun with the Gov- trouble with the Engliiih and in ItMiO received a 

ernor and Council. The preliminarii's were cpiiet- letter in ahich they expriMHtl tito opinion that** if 

ly ciaidueted, but Colonel Utie, who whm uIko pres* they (the Knglinh) won't U* periiua4li>il, they must 

cut, mmhi became exeiinl and d(H'lim-«l thatif *' iho Ik* di!*liNlged." I^ord llaltimore, wlio watatlhis 

(•oven)i>r and (.Vaincil would 1h* plcuiH>«l lo renew time in I^aidon, iM«ue«l onlers to his agiMit in llol- 

bin cimnuiN«ion, he wouKI do omv nion* what ho land, (*apluin ilames Neal, to deuntnd of the com- 

had done U^fore.'* The New Neihcrlanders |Niny tiie Mirreuder of all landit on Delaware Day. 

niihily rt*plied that if that weiv done, he wouhl lie On St'ptcmlicr li*!, Neal conlerriHl with the Council 

con»iilere<t a disturlier of the public fteace and (»f Nineteen with ri'ganl to the matter, but their 

wouhl lie treated as such. This brought on a nviiousti was merely the firm expression to nuiin- 

heatetl battle of wonls, which laste«l some time, tain their rights to territory which they claimed by 

The Dutch had |Hit in a claim for all land l)ctwi>cn pun*hase and priority of |MiMH;<»ion. The Council 

the degrees of ^M** and 42** north latitude, and the of Nineteen then pri'panHlan address to the High 

Marylamlers finally broke up the miftiug by as- Mightinesses of the States-tSeneral, nipu'sting them 

Starting that they were unable to take any furtlier to M'ud an np|N'al to the King of Kngiand to ciun* 

actii»n with«ait inmsulting I^oril Ualiimori^. Tlio nuind I^»nl Hallimoro to dchist in his encntnch- 

friendly n<lati<ms wen> once nion* n'suiut>«l after nieuts. In May, lUlil, at a navting of the Conn- 

the nnvting adjouriuil, ami the niiitler iliseusmil cil of Maryland, the whole trouble wiwsettkHl fur 

by all partiim uuofHeially. On the 17th a copy of a short while by the (lassage of the following reso. 

I^inl llaltimore's gnint was submitted to the Dutch lotion : *' That ai it is a mutter of doubt whether 

at their re(|ucst, and they now for the first time New Amstel lies below the 4i)th degree of north lat- 

discoverud f Imt passage in which Lord Baltimore i v«i. u., ^ "M-yj*. 


tilde, and at the Watt iDdU Comiuiiiy appeari the Mid creek over to the $imyle tree poiiU oo the 

raolved to maiDUio their piiiMisions by force, and east tide of thin river.** 

there ie no pmtpcct of aid fVom the other coluniev In tO-tO Penn'« pctitiim canie up before the I^oida 
in anj attempt* which they miKlit maico to roiluco of Trade and IMnntatioo, prayioj; for a K^nt to 
them, all Airtlier cflurta for their euhjugation should certain lands in America. The petition was sub- 
be delayed until the will of the proprietary can be as- mittcd at once to Lord Baltimore's ajreots to learn 
eertainedandthtttinthemcantimesomecffortshould to what extent, if any, his lordship's profierty was 
be made to determine whether the settlement was co-exteusive with the territory a^ked fir by Penn. 
located within the limits of the erant" LordBal- Mcsrirs. Itaninby Dunfh and Richard Burk, the 
timore nevertheless took the additional precau- af^enu referred to, replied that ** it is divireJ. that 
tiou of securing a confirmation of his fHiieut if the f^rant pass unto Mr. Penn, of the lands pe> 
from the King, on July 2, 1661, so as to be titionc<l for by him. in America, that it may be 
lietter pre|wred to meet Dutch claims in the ezprc^wod to be land that shall be north of Sus- 
future. quchnna fort, aliM> north of all lanrb in a direct 
The boundary disputes were now allowed to re- line lietwevu tiic said fort, for said fort is the boon- 

main umlisturlicd for a few vears, but with the darv of Mnrvland uorthwar«l. It is further dc«irvd 

• • • 

traiuifcr of the New Ni'lherlnnds to the. Duke of that there niny l>c contniiiod gruemi wonU of re- 
York, in IOC I, a now factor was iutroduce«l. The strietion as to any intenntt granted to the I>»rd 
accession of an English Governor somewhat a|»- Buliimorc and laving to him all rights granted." 
|)eased the desires of Lord Baltimore, and he was A letter was also received from Sir Ji>hn Wcnlen, 
during a brirf i>criod a source of no annoyance to eccretar}' of the Duke of York, in re^ponjie to an 
the proprietors of the Delaware region. That his inquiry sent by the Lords of Plantations, in which 
claims were not c«>mpleteiy dropiied is evident he statc<l that the ImuudaricM of the territory peti- 
from a minute of tlie Council in 1072, from which tioned for by Mr. Penn agreed with **that colony 
it can l)e inferred that in that year the Maryland- or plantation which has iK'cn hitherto held as an 
ers ha<I again MMit their agi>nts t4) the Delaware, ap]K'ndix and |tiirt of the piverniiient of New 
who, without any cen^mony. had pnKH>cde<l ti» sur- York, by the name of Jh-lmrtirt f.WAtiiy, or nior« 
vcy the laud with tlie apparent pur|M)mi of n.M4*rt- |mrtieulnrly iVnr (W/c r»AiNV, that U'lng the 
ing their authority over Wh>>n*kill. I«ater in the naiiiu of a prineijud phut* in it." The J hike of 
year a Mary lander nanus] .lones creiiteil a ctumiil- York had h illiiigly awH'iititl to the grant, and etHirts 
erublu diHturbniice there by |ilundering the |KH»plo were now made to so arninge niattem that a fier- 
and magistrates, and the affair was taken up by nmnent check should lie given to dLtputes over the 
the Governors of the two provinces. This it was extent of territory oceu)»ipd bv the various pro- 
feared was another attempt to gain poaeession of prietors in America. We shall see sul»$cquently 
the territory for Maryland, but it appears to have with what little suecera this was done. After con- 
been no more than an outrage by private parties, sidenible parleying the charter was i.«sued to Penn, 
A similar attack was made in 1674. These were on Mareh 4, l(»Hl,nnd grantctl to Penn, in consid- 
quito sufficient to make the Mnrylandcrs a constant enition of the i^crvices of his father, 
object of dread and suHpieion to the inhaUitaiits on ... ...... .......... 

the lielawaro. Ihis is iIIUHtnitiil by an itieiilent nMiuiiir.(.Mih..iH«« itiMUH.M..N ih- ri^ i.mii« ihu*«*« ao»r, 

in 1 077. It wns h'unuHl that Oiloiiel Couwev wim ft**"/'*;"'- imh -.jlum^- ii..ri».»4f.i .j »•• ••-hi- •..••. •»!.. ih# ikf«. 

going to >ew York as an ngt*nt froiii Maryland, ft.ur ■•.•riii««r.i; imiinhioiii ri»rr«<iiii ni(*«i«ni •>• t*t it-^h, 

and would pass thnaigh Now ('aj«lle. When it •••'^•••'»»;r»h.*.Mrtw..f4r«u .mh..*!^^^ 

was heard, hoa'cver, that ho wouul lie accompanied i.* uiinwn rnwn ni- h^t tif ib« ui.i ri««r uot» ommi.! r..rtvrkini 

by a numlKT of others, a siiecial meeting of the f''T.-.Il!i\r*'1 1? *' Vr'T,' TT'^t'^ V^w'^TTL'^^T^^^ 

J .' Ill ii'i*. »• rxaifWlKil inMii tli« Mlitt4al<'rii iMUiKKan*! lb*»iMU»Hl>fli« bwaad* 

commander and justices was calltMl and the militia «•! on iii* t-nh uj ih.. bv^iniiinK .if ib* ihrw ani ivrtMb ih^r* a 

»M .ummoncd to «,.,««r with »r..» «,,a .mmuui- rr;\i'rt.rj:;!LT:;MV.;';:;i?:^\r,"S:r.':: 

tioii, under Captain Cantwell, and await the arrival hihk "t tur r.inii<<ii .!.•(;»«•• ut n»tth*rn uutu.!.*. aihi i>i*n by • •inucM 
of Colonel Coursiy. But it was nevertliole^i or- "*" "'^"•'^ i-ii..iimita«f l«^,l,•l•.u.,.1..*^^..M^" 
dercHl that in eim> the colonel should nnnouneo his This singular ilefliiition of the southern boun- 
arrivnl and lnisinii<s, that he lie hospitably received, dary left it an oik'Ii question whether this Itmindary 
It was in I07'< that the iMUinihiries wen* ngntil circle was to Ih< a eirelo of twelve niihi^ in eircuiu- 
U|M)n iM'lween Upland and New Ciistle C4iuiities. fen-nir,orio In; drawn around a diameter of twelve 
The decision was n'lieluMl on NoveiiilnT 22d lie- niih-s parsing through New Canlle, or with a radius 
twei'U the Upland Court and Prurtident John Moll, of twelve tiiiies U'ginning in New Castle, and was 
of the Newcastle Court,niid dcchmnl the "county therefore the principal sourtv of the future ohi- 
of Upland to begin from the north side of Oolu tention between Baltimore and I'eiin. 
Fransen's creek, otherwise calU*d Stcenkill, lying Pcnu's deputy, Captain William Markluim,ar- 
on the bight above the Verdrietige Uoekt and from rived in America towards the end of August to take 


dwrge of Im Mwljr-Mqulrad terrttory. ne w pimw —< — >• wy ti»»w>" • 

once Yiiited Lord BnUiniora, bcftring lotton ftom |,^^^ |„ y^^ („„ fonmided a long l«tttr to tht 
both renn and Uie King rwiuciting an e arly ict tl» j^^ ^ ^rade and Planting ietUng forth hit vef 
nent of the boundariei. Baltimore expressed hie ^^ ^^ ^^m oontioversy, and asking for an Inter- 
dcaire to aooonplish this, and fixed upon October p^j^jtj,^ ^f ^jje question at Issue fiivorablc to him- 
16th as the date in which he would hold a confer- ^^^ ^^ Baltimore had now begun to be some- 
cace; but this engagement was subsequently can- ^y^^ aggressive, and issued a procbmation invit- 
celcd owing to l^Iarkham's indisposition. Baltimore .^^^ colonists to settle in the lower counties and 
ga?e him finnly to understand, however, in the first ^^^^ petenU from him, oflcring exceedingly low 
interview that he poMCSned an undisputed title to .^^ ^ ioducenients. In addition to this, he ap- 
all hmd up to the fortieth degree of north latitude, j^i^t^ |j|g cousin, George Talbot, in September, 
and at this same time it was learned, to the surprise ^^^^ ^ ^ commissiuner to demand of Penn all 
of all, that UpUnd was situated several miles be- j^^^ ^^ jj^^ Delaware south of the fortieth degree 
hiw that limit. of north latitude* Tallwt delivered his demandr 

In the mean time Penn induced the Duke of ^^ ^nt\ng nod Penn replied in a document of great 
York to deed New Castle to him, and two deeds jg„gt|, reviewing the whole situation, and denying 
were ifsuedbyHisHighncifS in 1682, one conveying ^| ^..^i^^ ^ ^y^^ intruders, and here the matter 
Pennsylvania and the other ** the town of New . ^^ allowed to drop once more. But it was with 
Castle'and all that tract of land lying within the ^^.^ ^^^ ^^ Talbot that we may associate the be- 
cumpass or circle of twelve miles about the same," gi„uing ©f Lord Baltimore's attempts to stir up re- 
and all that tract of land extending southward from y^iw^^ |q ^y^^ lo^cr counties, which we have seen in 
it,along the Delaware, to Cape Henlopen. This lat- ^ aulwoqucnt chapter (on Colonial History, 1704- 
terdeiS, however, it was dear, would be certain to ^^j entered as an important clement among 
provoke great opponition from the Marylaiulvrs, ^^^ causes which led to the seiMration iu 1704. 
since the Duke's |inteuU <lid not include the tcrri- aImmiI this time some corrc»|Nin(lenoe was ex- 
tory granted away.' Armed with the two d»>cu- jj|,„„g„i ^m, the Jorm'y authorities relative to 
nicnts, IVnn rvi sail and reachwl New i'lwtle on j^n^j^ hut the diHputes were never of great imiiort* 
Octolwr 27, 1682 In IVcemUr he held liia first ^^^^^ ^y^^ \^^j ^^d river forming a very distinct 
inler\'iew with I^rd Baltimore at the house of ^^^ ^f division. As early as 1078 complainU 
Colonel Thomas Tailler, in Anne Arundel C(»unty. ^^^ lodged against Major Fcnwick and others 
Baltimore insisted on 40"* as being i'eun's southern ^|,^ y^^ ioUrfered with the people on tlte Jersey 
boundary, but the latter endeavored to f atisty him ^y^^^^ {„ ^i^^ rightful poi«cmion of their lands, and 
with 87* 51', which offer was politely rejected. It ^y^^ authorities at New Castle were ordered to check 
was not the northern boundary, however, so much ^^^. further abuses of a similar character. In 
as Penn's |iurchase of the lower counties from the jjj^jj^ however, the relati«m between the two gov- 
Duke of York, which irritateil Baltimore, and efn„,eutB had awunied a new phaso. In that year 
fixed him in his determination to s<.>cure them if p^.„„ npp,ii,ited a ctminiiMiion, conNi«liug of Chris- 
IMwible.' For we find him remarking, iu the course topii^.^ Taylor, James I larrimm, Thomas Ilulmce 
uf the conference, "Mr. Penu, you did. I remcm- ^^^^ r^^^^ Winne, to confer with the Governor and 
her, once propose to me iu England that you had c,ju„cil of West Jersey, rcs))ecting ** cerUin great 

cept thereof because you knew it was mine. The ^|q„ f^^ ^y^^ misdemeanors of cerUin individuals, 

same. I hear, you have now iMSscned youiuelf of. p^y„„ j|,j.„ ^jj, ^h^ « after all this is ended, insist 

I only desire to know what you claim." Penn ^^^ ^^y ^'^^\^ ^^ ^y^ f\ycT, soil and inlands thereof 

evadwl the point.andthcc-^mfurencucloswl without n„.„rding to grant, and if they will deliver up 

any approach to an nrriiUKenient, and tliu next |^,,tiHidily tho lnhuidnuf Miitinieum andHejnumltig, 

nun'ting U'tweiMi them, held nt New Citntle In May, r^.^urn ono-half of the liihuid of Matluleuni U'foro 

l(lH:t^endinl similarly. In Juno Bultiniore \ftn>to ||,^ |,^^.||^ aiH^onling to my former clemency.'* 

to Kngland In the following lenns: ^y^ documents relating to thems coutrovvmies lie- 

i , .-.I 4..iiiw». twevn IVMuwylvHuIn and New Jersey are unfortu- 

M •« far iiMi, Ummm Mr. wm. pmm nuv« bto nuONiy fur aiijr ftonhrr natclv incdmplctc, and it only appcan as a dctinite 

;S^.nS« t'C^li't.r.l-'.iiS'S'.rJrS fcct th.t th« iuh«biunu of th. lower «>onti«. .nd 
M« uwi airtiiii^ u ••taaiiwd Vf Mr. fWM to iim ptvjiHiir* uf their opposito ueighlwrs on the Jersey shore, bad 

nJ!;';Sr-r"S:;;;2.S;':f.u*!r^^^'!iClL'^ ««.» .t yarlou. amc encroachmg OD each other'. 

vol tL A. 414. * B«port of VlrglBte CMBBhrioMra oa Mwjrlaad ■ 

• in, *irin, 1073, p. to. 

v^ii. ^tac •pn«wl•••*utalwl7<|fr^w>vl«■•K"▼«ll•l•^sT4. 


pnipertjr.' But bo terloua dispute tTor raultod tvalled. Ht wm fi>ro«il U> find mure powerftil 

fh>m thflN Mrlv mlfundontjindinjfii, m Itoth {iiir* menus of n>milUiig his oiieniy, iiad his Kurch wm 

tici iconicd dosiraus of itmchlnif A Just settlonicnt. In the end highly succvasAil. He now eswrtiil 

The dbpute between Penn end the nuthoritius of that the Delaware laodn had been {wrchased and 
Maryland assumed an alarming as|>ect at the begin- aeltiid by the Dutch before Lord Baltimore's char- 
ning of 1684, from a hostile invasion of the lower ter was granted. It will be remembered that Lord 
counties. Colonel Talbot was again at the head of Baltimore's charter of 1632 had in express terms 
this expedition with a force arracd with guns and declared that he had prayed for lands which were 
axes. They terrified the pciiple throughout New Cas- uncultivated and uninhabited, except by savages. 
tU County with threats, but their main object was If it were now proveil that this disputed territory 
plainly to di^affcct the inhabitants from any sym- was not only cultivated, but inhabited by a civil- 
pathy with Pcnn's government This was fully ized |)coplo at the time of the granting of the 
appreciated by the Penney Ivanians, for when Penu charter, the Mnrylandcr's case would certainly re- 
issued a comniis^iou to Wiliiuni Welsh, Joliu Sim- ccive a severe blow, and this wum shown to be the case 
cock and James Harrison to defend, the l<»wer by Penn to the tatisfactittn of the I»nls of Trado 
eouottes, they weru instructed to put down all and Plantations. Not even at this point did the 
" rebellious practices," as well as to put down the inexorable Penn rest his oue, but further incisted 
riots of the Mnrylundera. An instance of Talbot's that Baltimore being entitlud to an extent of 
proceedings was funiishe<l Vt the Council at Philn- territory covering but two degrees of latitude, his 
delphia in a letter from Soiuuel Land, of New northern boundary should be determined by 
Castle, dated May .'tOth. He acc]uaintcfl them measuring two degrees of sixty miles each from 
that the c(»lonel had visit' d the houses of Jonas Watkins Point, the acknowledged southernmost 
£nkine. Andrew Tillc and a widow named Ogle, limit. It wiu thu thinl point, however, which in* 
all residing near New Castle ; nml, accompanied fUience«l thu arbiters in tlu'ir dveisioii, for wu find 
by three musketeers, Ut add force to his deiiiauds, their opiuitin to lie tliat ** I^iinl Balliinore's grant 
had inrornK*<l them that unless they wouhl ineiude<l only lands uneultivatefl and iuhahiti-d by 
ocknowleilge I>»nl Baltimore as their proprie- savages, and that the territory along the I X'laware 
tor within three weeks, and |my their rents to him had been settled by Chrii^tians antecedently to his 
in the future, they would be disitosmsssetl of their grant, and was therefore not included in \C* 
land and turned out of their homes. The testi> Tbeir ultimate venlict . was not however, a com- 
niony of Joseph Bowie beftire the Council, reif Mint- plcte acknowU>dgmcnt of the justiix* of Peiio^s 
ing his ex|ierience with Talbot, gives a vivid idi*a claim, but jMirlook rather of the nature of a c<»m> 
of the extent to which the abuses were carric<l. promise, and in November, 1U8.'), a decree of King 
Bowie, « ho lived at Iron Hill, about eight miles James* C<iuncil was ii«sued ordering *'that for 
distant fMm New Castle, attestiMi that "Colonel avoiding further diflerences, the tract of land 
Tallxtt ridd up to his house and wan retidy ti> riilu lying U'tween the Imy of Delaware and the eastern 
over him, and said, *Dam you, you Dogg, whom do sea on the i»ne side, and llie Clu<itji|N-ake liny on 
you scut under here, you dogg ! You seat under the other, l»o diviile<l into e^\ut^ parts by a line 
noe body ; you have noe Warrt from Penn no my from thu latitude of Caiie Henlopcn to the fiirtieth 
Lord ; therefore gett you gon or Else Pie sent degree of nurtli latitude the southern lioundary of 
you to St. Murry's ; ' and I being frighted, says Pennsylvania by charter, and that the ooe half 
he, * you Brazen-faced, Impudent, Confident Dogg, thereof, lying towanlii the bay of Delaware and 
ri 8harteu Peun's Territories by and by.' " the caMcrn »ea, be adjudged to belong to his nta- 

This latest outrage elicited a declaration against j<«ty, and the other half to Lord Baltimore, as 

Lord Baltimore from Penn, reciting the whole compriM.<<l in his cliarter.'* ' 

history of the trouble lK*twcen the two proprietors. This deciition phuxnl the coveted lower counti<-s 

This was forwarded to tho I^onls Comiuis«ioners of in the han<U of IVnn, hut many cnnm-s conspinil 

Trade and Plantations. Penn and Ilahiniont Imth to delay llm execution of this mniidnle. Prcnii* 

went to Kiiglninl nml the nnttler was taken in hniid netil nniong tln-Mi i^ns the revulution then In pn»- 

by the Kings ollleers. The nrguiiieiits on iNilh sid(«s gress in Kngland. The Duke of York, to whom 

were subinitte«l with great force l^onl Balllniura Peun owed his grant, was now on the llinme as 

was content with the |MJsitivc terms of his charter. James 11., and Baltimore dared not raise his voice 

Penn, in his turn, arrayed a long series of objections, against the decree, lest by the arbitrary fiat of the 

with greater vigor than ever iK'fore. against the val- monarch he should lose all that was lefl. But the 

idity of his op|)onent's claim. His own grant of deiMssition of James II. meant the fall of Penn's 

Pennsylvania was the first weujion used for the ally, and the decision of 16H.1 remained inoperative; 

attack ; he followed this up with the grant of the but as we shall see presently, it was allerwanls ta- 

Duke of York, but neither of these arguments ken as an important element in future negotiations. 


We mmj at IcmI, bowwrer, look upon the decree of MeiylaiKl, although li?lDg within the twelve-nile 

JeoBei II at being important in first approximating circle around New Gutle ; a little later complaint 

theboundariceof Delaware to their present limita.* was made by William Clark, of Sunez County, 

The events which folbwed upon the revolution that his mother was being sued on account of the 

entirely changed the situation. Jt was now no uncertainty of the boundary linos between that 

longer a controversy between the two proprietors, county and Maryland. With regard to the first 

each endeavoring to rob the other of his territory, of these questions, the Council forwarded a protest 

as from another point of view, each seeking to se- to the Governor of Maryland, while the second was 

cure undisputed sway over what he believed to be settled by an order to the justices of Suss* x Coun- 

hb own pro|ierty, but both Penn and Bnitimors ty, instructing them not to entertain any action 

were busily engaged in defcmliiig their lands which nii^lit involve tho boundniy question. The 

against new rivals. Penn, in fact, was retired from Mnrylniulers did not desist, however, for in August 

htt government by the crown, but was reinstated tho slicrifl* of Cecil Couuty forcibly diiiiNmetsed a 

in 1694." He was forced to act during this period number of tho Welsh settlers in New Castle Coun- 

of unsettlement with the greatest shrewdness and ty by virtue of Maryland writs. The sheriff of 

diplomacy; for the mere fact that he had been in New Castle would not quietly submit to this, and 

favor with James II. would have been suflScient with the assistance of a lew fritnds seised the sheriff 

cause for his removal, on the slightest provocation, of Cecil, with one of his aids, nnd bound him 

by the new monarch. Lonl Baltimore had greater over to appear in court ; but such inslances were 

troublesto contend with. Tho Protestant njistociiitiuu, rare at this time and do not seem to have been at 

which was foniicd in Maryland immediately after the instigation of the higher ofliciah. 

the rvvolution under John CmHie, sucocetlod in In 1708 Ijord Unltiinore made another effort to 

throwing off the Catholic proprietary! and con- secure ptNuvwitm of the whole territory of the 

trolled tbe colony from 1G89 to 1091. It was then peninsula between the two bays, by petitioning 

taken up as a royal goveniment and remained so Queen Anne. This attempt proved equally as 

untillTlfib But an absolute quietus was nevertho- abortive as those previously made, and only re- 

Icss not put upon the controversy Iwtween the two suited in a oonfiniiation of Pcnn's title according 

disputants. That the dispute was a positive detri- to the decree of 1C8«3, with new instructions to 

ment to the value of land in the lower counties draw the line as ordered in that decision. But 

we hav« definite knowledge. At the close of again this was delayed, only to leave matters 

1704, Pcnn's secretary, Jantes Logan, wrote to him worn than ever liefore. The petty squabbles that 

that one of the most valuable tracts of land in were continually indulged in by the authorities 

Kew Castle County was the Welsh settlement, but and the inhabitants of the two provinces in conse- 

he mournfully deplores that tho ** buHinetw between quence of the boundary disputes very soon became 

Maryland and us** renders it almost worthlctM. a source of so much annoyance to Pcnn that at 

Of threo thotwand fmunds due on the proficrly re> length in 1712, he contracted for the sale of 

ferivtl to, l«ogau fears that not five hundre<l |M>unds his interest in the colonies. At the last moment 

will be realized until tlie boundary is settled. He an attack of apoplexy prevented him from afiix- 

says further in his letter to Penn, ** if that whole ing his signature, and his mental troubles which 

busincfs be not issued in thy lifetime, I doubt thy followed never made it possible to transfer the 

heirs will reap no great benefit from a large iwrt land * 

of these counties: they grow more bold now than The bonier disputes continued at frequent in> 
ever, and extend their claims u|ion old surveys up tervals, but not oilen with suflieieut virulence to 
to and some lieyond our old settlement I must demand s|)ecial action with reference to their sup- 
always press this, and in eveiy letter, as of the pression. Occasionally this was necessary, as in 
greatest necewity.** Heferring to the same subject 1717, when Colonel French was apfNunted 
in Beptemher, 1 705, Pcnn informs Ixigan that when '* ranger and keeper " of the marshes in the province 
last in Maryland he propositi to Colonel Dumct, and lower counties, with |N>wera to repel invasions 
Baltimore's chief agent, to fix the line, but he re- from the Marylanders. The direct cause of this 
fused, as having no instructions from his lordship, appointment was the arrival of a number of 
In 1707 the Marylanders reopened their en- Maryland surveyors, who had abruptly taken a 
eroachments upon the property of the pef»ple in survey of many lots in the lower counties, with the 
the lower counties, which was brought to the atten- apparent purpose of claiming the ownership of the 
tion of the Council through a fietition from the laud. A year later the dispute vn* reopened by a 
justices of New Castle; some of the inhabitants more serious question. The complainants on this 
had been served with writs of ejectment issued in occasion were the Marylanders and not tho Penn- 

sylvanians. Tho town of Nottingham was the 

:;S:£;:"rSL1.E:JSl'^S;'3•'^:-*;J;„^.■.«t....^ «rP«"<''«<«- Gov.nK>rH.rt.ofM.TrU.«,. 

StS. r^aa Ml Ufia CMyTwp m ii li aw. > MiMaliva** " Hhtory U Mao ■••'." P- »- 


dneed MrenJ eomplaiiilt, showing that muglttratM accomnodatioD, both hj a pefional intenriew with 

had baen appointed by the Governor of Pennsyl- the Ooremor of Maryland and by application to 

vania for Nottingham, while according to his opin* the authoritict In Kofrland.* No record is to be 

ion the town was unqoeetionably in Cecil County, found of any meeting brtween the two Goremon 

Governor Keith admitted having appointed the in accordance with this resolution. In fact, it was 

magistrates, but was under the impression that the only a few days after the Pennsylvania Council 

town was in Chester County. Colonel French, had adopted this cunciiintory tone that ihey turned 

who had resided for a long time in that neighbor* savagely on the Cecil County Courts fur their ac- 

hood, substantiated this view, but stated that since tion in reprehending Taylor and Gatcbel, declar- 

the boundary disputes had begun it had occaiiion- ing that " they ought not by any means suhniit to 

ally been a mooted question as to the county In their (Maryland) courts or order*, or acknowledge 

which Nottingham was actually situated. Govcr- their juriiMlictinn o%'er thcni, ami that this govern- 

nor Keith firmly refused to revoke the commissions nient ought tu support them m the defence of their 

of the nmgistrntes of Nottingham, although pressed just rights." 

to do so by Colonel Hart. It was at length agreed It can eosily be a]>preciated that it was only 
that they should remain, but both partii-s promised with extreme difficulty that the relations between 
to make no further aggression until the whole the parties to this prolonged dispute were main- 
matter was settled. taincd in a peaceable way, when supported by such 
In the spring of 1722 the controversy was again hulluw and artificial manifestations of mutual re- 
revivcil, through a series of causes Philip Syng gnrd. Every movement was eagerly watched on 
was prosecuted for surveying and taking out his both sides, and suspicion was e(|ually share«I by 
patents for a piece of hind under the Governor of iMith parties. Thew facts were brought out con- 
Maryland, after ho had been informed that it was tinunlly, and more forcibly in matters of little ini- 
situated witliin the boundaries of Pennsylvania, port than in affairs (»f graver bearing, in which the 
A greater source of trouble was the rumor of an dealings were usually open an«l above board. The 
attempt, on the part of the Mnrylanders, to sur- most singular feature of the eutire controversy is 
vey a strip of the disputed territory, then occupied the eutire absence of any evidence to show that 
by tlie Indians on the Susquehanna. The Indians either the Peunsylvaniaus or Marylanders took any 
themselves were much alarmed, and notified Gov- pains to hasten a settlement of the boundarie«. 
ernor Keith, who met them at ConcHtogoe The This is the more easily explained in theca«eof 
Governor anticipated the Marylanilers, however. Lord Baltimore, whose claims had twice been de- 
by having the land surveyed himself, and called cideil u|K)n prejudicially to his intefests ; but what 
out tlto militia at New Castle to meet the invading deterred Peun's heirs from hurrying a settlemt^nt 
hosts if they cru»sed the line. lie wntte to the is not »oetiHy toooiijeeture. Roth parties secniitl 
Council informing it of his plans and also his in- to imagine the prolilein wouKl Ih.' sol vctl through 
teution to run a line westward as far as the Poto- forces within itself and preferreil not to Iw annoyed 
mac. Thoy assiaited to all his propositions, ex- with it. Tlie one arrangetnent whieh was n*a<le, 
cept the last, which they feared would maketho however, in 172.1, is worthy of reci»rding, showing 
breach with Maryland very much wider, unless the that a settlement was exjieeted. and a desire fur 
line would be drawn with the consent of all con- such exprci^Ned, although the (mrties to the dis- 
cerned. Later in the year the matter become even pute still rcmsine<l iunclive. The terms of the 
more complicated by the arrest of Isaac Taylor agreement are as follows: 

and Elisha Gntchel, two Chester County mugis* »w'ii«nM.iiirN •ra«jia|iuiM<ut>cadiaKUiwwMtiMm|Mrti««r«». 

tratct. by the authoritlea of Cecil County, on ac- JlHT'f^JZ'l^H^t n.^llIJ'ri'l.tlll^r'':;"'^*''^^'':' '^ 

count of the old Nottnigham dispute. Governor t«Mch «4h«r. aihJ »hen-M. btnii i«niM km iiMi-fviy tmuumi tm 

jweiih wrote to ^^ionei ^.aivert oi me anair, re- ,„,,^^,„, aMrrniii.i»« thi. «w o.i,in>«»r.j. b, .cr^i., •,.«Mrh 

questing him to release the prisoners, hut they were hum or ><iUw markivr dutincuob, lu to wum •• m*j nmmiu tor* 

...v««« bound over to k«.p tho pc«ce oo rrrr:!:c::t:;j:.':':x:^^"^.„,^n,^,,u...n>^ 

Noi'cmlier 5th the Governor placed the whole cb«rir« lmiu iwiimurp. iiruKinwr bimi u«trrMr vt mmtImmi. ms 

matter before the Council asking what measures j,^^ ,^ g«wo«r vt p«n».5i...i. ju.hM ^Ji luJCT 

may be most proper for him to take for preventing ■M-rcbam, mmi tuwj gouMm/, or UM«kj«. iiom jnpvr. la h«(wir «r 

the faUl consequences of a general misundewtand- „„u. ih.t f«r .T..Minc of .ii --..JTof «N.unu.«. ^ a.ff*«Icr. 

inir with such near neighbors." The resiionse of b^twrwi ih» inhabiuuta or um mu i«>*«iM»«. m r*nu« m- |wi 

., fy, .1 1 . * _ I 1 J ■hall to JMurbtl or mwlcatoJ hi Owir pui>itt»i» on »Utor 4ile, awr ■■> 

the Council was moderate to a marked degree. hMh to MrT«yr<i. t.kru uk uricr«.i^ i. •iiher»r ih* .id ^nii.^ 

They admitted that the boundary controven»y in- ■^oi«to«i*ur«wbkiih«»«to.ncuiiiwa«ri«».«»toii«toMo.*itor 

volved questions of absolute doubt, and acknowl- *•« nb «icf««iMiit lo iimtinm r«r ih* •!»« of rubtmi ■wchim tt^ 

edged the possibility of error on the part of Penn- »^• «*•'• ^'*^\ '" •'••/^ •'"- "• »»"i^ '»« b««i»a«ri.* •iii to *i»*. 

, . * ,, Zg 1 1 rrti /• nihwd iitMl wtlb^t, ami II b mnliMlly «Krml <« bv Ibv mtti iHrtirB lb«t 

sylvania as well as Maryland. The Ctovernor was prntamattoM to bM^i oui m ib» hui HtetiiK««ti(iitoii.c ibb .gfv^ 
advised to make every effort to secure some form of i -cuiuaht r«««^ «r pb^»M/i*.BU. v«i. ui . p. tu.- 




agljr«fM tiM 






Bakham P■n^ 
ivtmvh Omat 
BiaaT OooiMwr.** 

Tlie hope that upoo th« tenniDation of thb 
•freement tho boundariai would havo been tattled 
nay indeed hare been einoere; but that either 
Lord ISaltimore or the Penntjlvanianii made any 
eflbrt to bring about its realiiation doci not in the 
Icaat appear erident The document at any rate 
put an end to the border disputee, but it wat ikr 
Irom having any eflect towards eecuring an ar- 

rangement on a permanent batii. Another decade 
el|Hwed bcfure any pruepectt of euch a iottle- 
mmt made their apponraiice. 

In the Minimcr of 1731 the controveray was 
apiin renewed, through tho violence of one Holey, 
of Cecil (bounty, who, with a number of others, had 
dfstroycd the fencing around the property of a 
man named Wherry, residing within the limits of 
Pennsylvania. By a rather curioiM series of ju- 
dicial processes. Holey was ftnsUy liberated, and 
Wherry was prosecuted on a charf^ of cutting 
Holev*s timber. Tlie defendant claimed that the 


timber was on his own provcrty, which was situ- 
ated in Pennsylvania but tho Cecil Ciiunty jury, 
before which ho appeared, decided that the land 
was in Maryland, in spito of all the agreements 
U-tween the two pn»vinoes to render no decisions 
as to boundaries until the whole dispute was fin- 

ally settled. At the Muno tine a ibnOar eooi- 
plaint was entered by an Inhabitant of Kent 
County, who had met with like treatment In Mary- 
land. This arbitrary style of the Cecil courts 
greatly incensed Governor Gordon, and .he at 
once opened a oorrespondenee with Governor Gal- 
vert, of Maryland, protesting against a oontinu* 
anoe of the existing methods. Governor Calvert 
responded that on his side he had received com- 
plaints that the people of the three lower counties 
on Delaware had been committing similar depre* 
dations, and that only his indisposition had de- 
terred him from writing on the same subject He 
then explained the Maryland position in the 
Wherry case, but the negotiations were left in a 
mortt unsatisfactory condition. In Oct<iber of the 
same year (1731) another cause for friction arose 
out of the abusive actions of Captain Cresap toward 
the Indians on the eastern side of tho .Susquehanna. 
The complexity of tho controversy whicii grow out 
of tho CrvMip aH'sir, doubtloMi exercised a great in- 
fluence in forcing the entire boundary ifuestion to a 
settlement, and wo are therefore warranted in con* 
sideriug the case in some detail. Penn had guar- 
anteed the Indians who settled on tlie Sumjue- 
hanna within his territory against all incursions 
from the Mary landers on tlie op|MisiU) side of the 
river. Crtwup being a native of Baltimore County, 
his interference with the Conostogoes wsh a mat- 
ter which rightfully rctiuired Governor Gordon's 
interference. It was not long, however, before 
Cresap entered a counterclaim against Edward 
Beddock and Kioe Morgan, two Pennsylvaninns, 
who, while he (Cresap) was taking them across the 
river, threw him overboard and carried oifhis boat. 
Cresap took his caw before Justice Cornish, a 
Pennsylvania magistrate, and although the 
oflendera were duly convicted, tho question of 
boundaries again came up, it being a disputed 
point whether tho offense was committed in Mary- 
land or Pennsylvania. Governor 0);le, of Mary- 
land, also took umbrage at an alleged statement of 
Cornish, who, as Cresap insbtrd, said that Mary- 
lnu<ler« should not ask for justice in his court. 
Justicu (Jornish denied having said this, and his 
conviction of the prisoners would seem to have 
proven his impartiality. But notwithstanding 
this, Governor Ogle continued to write on the sub- 
ject, and the dispute continued through the spring 
of 1732. At this point Cresap was entirely sub* 
ordinnted in the public mind to a reiMrt from 
London that an agrccnH^nt had finally been reached 
between the contestants in the boundary dii^pute. 
The report wai< a little premature, but steps towards 
an actual settlement had really been taken. On 
May lOih, Li»nl Btiltimore, of the one iwrt, and 
John, Uichard and Thomas Penn, of the other, 

' TImI i« t«« 



?"/!!!!:T**Tf^.?**^^'f pJ»tol that the bouodanr of th« territorr wm to 
!■• la octoi^r, i73f. aBd to u eato|M«4 oa OT bd^ be determioed by the power of the people. Graap 

DtrtMtor fMh. iias, and »h*s to 4oi». • ptea tWf««i abaji tw viicMd, ^,g hj^q mixed u D III thii aifiiir as a witDCM acaiut 

hatMwWtoaiiiiM^tiikuarMiatiMWMraipnifiBfMaiitfaMiBiiMi the reDDsylvauians, and loon aiienrards he is 

•^.•^T'^t!?.***^I!!!Tri!L''*'^I'*^'*""S!"*!r *Ka»n >»««fd of as coing into Lancaster Goontr 

■wlwiltlwir ibMS lioaMtartM at kaMaacala Ibiaa yvai^ Tka party *?. ^m % % « tm 

4p<kMidac topayto ihaatbar ruijreadMaaad rixtkuwaad pMiada With a Mar}'iand Warrant, and carrying off a 

<^'"«-"* laborer named William Humphrey. This was 

The last clause of the agreement gave it a tone of precisely the same ofTcose which he himself had 
genuineeamestness, and, in fact, two days aAer the complained of aj^ainst the Pennsylvania authori- 
signatures were appended the Peuns named Gov- itics. Cresap had also become notorious as hav- 
ernor Gordon, Isaac Norris, Samuel Preston, ing threnteucd to shottt any officer from Pennsyl- 
Jamca Logan, Andrew Hamilton, James Steel vunia who would attempt to apprehend a prisoner 
and Robert Charles as the commissioners on their on the disputed territory. This trouble again 
part to treat with those appointed by Lord Baltt- resolved itself into a " boundary dispute,^ Cresap 
more. On the same day his lordship executed a and his nssocintcs holding that the laud was Mary- 
similar commission, nominating Samuel Ogle, land soil, on the ground tlint it was within the 
Charles Calvert, Plrilenion Lloyd, Michael How- fortieth degree of uurth latitude, while Jivhua 
ard, Kichard Bennet, Benjamin Tasker and Mat- Low, the tax cnl lector of Pennsylvania, testified 
thcw Tilghman Ward, to represent his interests in that over four hundred inbubitauts living south of 
the appn«ching convention. It was several that (Milut hod been paying tax to him without 
months before these coniniitwions reached America, protest, and his {XNtition received the support of 
and during the intervening time the corniipond- Governor Gonlon and the other authorities of the 
ence between the two Governors was continued, province. 

though it was not of imp<irtHnce. Immediately The border troubles next took a southerly 

uix>n the rrtvipt of the pn|>crs, about the miildle courso, and wo find Kent C4»unty the centre of 

of August, Governor Gordon wrote to Ogle, sug- hontile o|ierations The caunc of this dii*pute arose 

gCMting New Custlo as a suitable place for the joint out of the purcliaflc of a piece of land by John 

meetings of the comniiiMioners on both sides. The Newt<m. He bought thepniperty of aiH*ivon who 

Marylun<len preftfrred Newtown, as being niore told htm that it wiis held under a Maryhind grant, 

convenient, and it was arranged to meet at that and was >iituatcd iu Dorche-ter County. Newton 

place on Octol)er Gth. accordingly paid taxes for the first year to the 

But even while the negotinti<ins were being con- Dorchi'slcr authorities, when he learned that the 
ducte<l, the Ixirder warfare broke out in a mora Inml was never granted to any one by Maryland, 
brutal form than ever before. Both fwrties op- As it was situated in the doubtful territory, he 
pear to have been at fault, and it is <lifficult to say preferrctl to become a resident of the lower coun- 
which side is to bo blamed for the initial move* tics, itud had it surveyed as a part of Kent County, 
nient. On the night of November 26th. John For several years he paid his tuxes into the Kent 
Lowe, of Jhiltimoro County, was awakeneti by the treasury, when the Dorchester magistrates levied 
marauders and made prisoner. Ho tentified afler on him, insisting that he was a refidcut of Mary- 
wards that ohe of the intruders was James Patti- land. Ho applied to the justices of Kent County, 
son, and the second a constable of Lanaister who api)ointed a coniitable to protei-t him, but not- 
County. Paitison threatened him with a pistol, withstanding this, the sheriff of Dorchester raided 
but ho nevertheless resisted, whereupon six more his place and carried him off. The protecting 
fell on him. Ho was knocked down and dragged constable gathered a force and put out in hot pur- 
out of his house, and coni|ielled to cross the Sus- suit, and nf\cr a hot skirmish recaptured the 
quehanna on the ice, although ho had lost his hat prisoner. This gave rise to a most extensive series 
and one shoe in the struggle. The next morning of letters between the Governors of the two prov- 
he was taken before two justices of Lancaster inces, the justices of Kent and of Mar}'land, and 
County, Messrs. Samuel Blimston and John Wright between private individuals, connecte<l, directly and 
The only charge brought was that his son had indirectly, with the afliiir. Governor Ogle de- 
threatened to kill some one, but as nothing was nianded the surrender of all who had attacked the 
known to implicate the pristmer. the justices dis- sheriff of Dorcliciiter County and n*lea2<ed his pris- 
chargcd him. The case well illustrates the extent oner, but this was refused by the iVnnsylvauians. 
to which thtfo unwarranted aggressions were car- The relations lietween the Marylanders and their 
ried. Lowe hod protested that there were magis- opi>onents seemed more strained at this time than 
tratca in Maryland who would apprehend him if for many years, and yet in the whole corrvsimnd- 
he transgressed the law ; but this only elicited the ence both imrtics always gave expnwion to tlie 
reply froiu Pattison, who stood over him with a sincere hojie that the pending negotiations would 
« PraMTa "Ubtory u PmavivMiia.'* *«!. iL, p. JOD. rcsult in a spccdy settlement of the di'^pute, while 


mA fUibboralj aontailed Ibr minor advaotagei with » radius of twolvt mlki. From tbo point of 

in this mbofdionte qunrrel. contact with the circle, however, it was to extend 

Bat not even the more important tranaactions due north until it reached the lame latitude as a 

of the boundary comroimionera were conducted |wint fifteen roilee couth of the meet southerly 

without IHclion. They had met, according to part of Philadelphia. A line due wctt ftrom thte 

ai;rcemont, at Newtown, In Maryhind, In Octubc r, |ioiut, tiigother with the ara of the Now Giiiitle 

ami after duin^ very llttio, adjourned on NnvomlK»r circle, was to form the louthorn boundary of Penn- 

:UI, to meet at New Cantlo on. the let of the pylvauiii. The lower line, extending wcct IVom 

rn»ulng Fcbniary. On February 15th, Lord Cniic Hcnlopcn, and the northerly line were to 

Baltimore athlrwRnl a letter to Qovernor Gordon, have nerved aa eouthcrn and wcntcm boundaries of 

complaining of the treatment of the Maryland the lower counties.' Tliu was Lord Baltimore's 

commiMiiuuers, whom ho had taken special pains to own pmpnsition, and was the basis fixed in the 

send prom|Hly, in order to facilitate in every articles of May 10, 17*12, on which the oommis- 

|iiMiiiblo way the conduct of the negotiations. The sioncrs were to act. This view of the situa- 

Mar}'landcn had arrived at New Omtlo in ample tion of Cniw Hvniopon was what the Ponns had 

time ti> nHH*t their engagement, but allltough tliey always dvsiretl, and they were, conse<]uently, only 

had repeatctlly sent to tlie coniniiMionera ap- too eager to aswnt. No record remains of the 

pointed by the Penns, they had refused tu come, proceedings of the commissioners on the occasions 

and it was impossible to proceed with the business, when they did come together ; but it b quite evi* 

Lnnl Baltimore also referred to certain improper dent that as soon as Lord Bultiniore discovered 

liehavior on the part of the Pcnnsylvanians towards his error he interposed every possible obstacle so 

hit own commissioners while at New Castle, but as to prevent the completion of the work before 

did not mention details. He considered the action December, 173:i, at the expiration of which time 

on this occasion as sufficient ground on which to the commissioners were to be di«;harged. He was 

claim the forfeit provided for in the original eminently successful in this scheme, and after all 

agreement, but agreed nevertheless, to hold the laborious negotiations, the dispute still re- 

another meeting on the first Monday in May, at maine<l unsettled. It would not be proficr to 

Jopiw, in Baltimore County. Governor Gordon say that it was no nearer settlement than before, 

in hb reply evaded all reference to the ill treat- as the terms of the agreement of 17*12 actually 

ment of tlio commissioners, as thii was without formed the basis of oiwrntions when the final 

foundation, but stated that the commiMitmors for Umndnries were drawn by Mason and Dixon, 

his province declined to meet at Jop|ia, since It in 17U3. 

was situated at too great a distance fmm the What action the Penns took to secure indem* 
|ioints of most im|inrtance, which wmild have to nity fntm Ix>nl Baltimore we shall see later, 
he visited to determine the boundary lines. As but for the present we must follow up the border 
New Castle was one of these places, and was of troubles, which were not in the least interfered 
great prominence, owing to the fact that the ceo- with by the appointm<»nt of the commissioners, 
tre of tlie twelve-mile circle was there situated, he One of the sufferers was Samuel Moncey, of Mur- 
thought that was the most suitable place, and dcr Kill Hundivd, in Kent County. At the re- 
named April 16th os the day for convening the quest of three strangers, who afterwards proved 
members of the ccmimission * to lie Jacob Hevnnmn, Peter Rich and William 

Thus the meetings wore delayed and postponed Underling, and who stated they had lost their 

until the time expired, Tlicse delays were plainly way, Moncey oflered to go with them about a 

due to the machinations of Lord Baltimore, who mile, on being promised a pistol for his servif*es. 

though it was through his own suggestion that the He had not gone far, however, before he was 

proceedings of the ciimmissioners had been insti- seized by the men, and taken to Cambridge jail ; 

luted, found, as matten progressed, that hb ignor- he was next removed to Annapolb, and was in 

anoe of the geography of the country placed him at irons for six weeks Itefure he was finally released, 

considerable disadvantage, and therefore made use Jared Rothwell was likewise arrested in Now 

of all means to interfere with the progress of the Castle County by Cecil County magistrates, and 

commissionera. He had submitted a map of hb similar occurrences on both sides were continually 

own, placing Cafw Henlopen about twenty miles rejiorted as growing out of the doubtful titles to 

below the mouth of IX'laware Bay. A line was land occupied by the parties concerned. An at- 

then to be run from this point due west, acrois the tempt to check these broils was made in 1734. 

Peninsula From the middle point of thb lino^ The initiative was this time taken by the Governor 

that is, halfway between the two Imys— a line was and Council of Pennsylvania, by the apfiointment 

to be drawn northerly, so os to ibrni a tangent to of two commissionera to treat with the Lieutenant- 

the cirele, whose centre was at New Castle, and Governor of Maryland, and *' conclude on such 

i^CWIoaial Bteurti of ttmrnflnakt,'* wLUL fi 600. ■"MtMoOiaT ik* Hktork«l SocMy cT rM^jlvsata,*' foL L |i IIS* 



at tukj bat eondttoe to pnMrre peace 
between both gofanmentt, and to prevent irregu- 
Uritiea for the future, until the bnundarici shall be 
aetualljT run and marked out " The oomniMi«»nera 
were Andrew Hamilton and John Georges, and the 
papen were Issued on May 14th. Tlioj at once set 
out fur Maryland, and arrived at Anua|Nilison the 
<Oth. The no|;(t>tiatiuns wore at onco bo^un, each 
side opening with the declaration that it was the 
most aggrieved. The oral pruocedings resulted in 
nothing, and Messrs. Hamilton and Georges then 
presented a formal paper, setting furth their side of 
the question, and requesting some form of agree- 
ment. Governor Ogle, in reply, proptwed to 
refer the whole matter to the King. It was 
evident that Ogle was endeavoring to evade 
the matter. The comniissioucrs then drew up a 
second document, expressing their desire to come 
to an immediate agreement, and iu response ti this. 
Ogle flstly refused, asserting that the commissi n- 
ers had acknowledged themselves to bo without 
sufficient authority. He had only reached this 
conclusion from a most unwarranted misonnstruo- 
tion of a phrase in their letter to him, and it be- 
came clear that the mission would prove fruitless. 
The PenusyK'anians dauntlcssly penisted in send- 
ing a third letter, but waited in vain for a reply. 
Til us tenuinalcd another effort at settlement 

Excitement soon became most intense, however, 
when it was learned that Lord Baltimore had 
made application to the King to confirm Iiik charter 
or grant of the thive lower counties. At tho 
re<iu<Mt of the mayor and citizciu of Philadelphia, 
the Governor convened the Assembly of the pro- 
vince to con:«idcr this latest step of Lord Baltimore. 
Little was done, however, except to give expression 
to the alarm felt at this attempt to usurp the lower 
counties. In reply to Governor Gonlon*s address, 
the Assembly, referring to the efforts of Lord 
Baltimore to secure the territories uimu Delaware, 
said they thought ** it would bo attended with con- 
sequences truly unhappy to the inhabitants of this 
province, not only disuniting those whom the same 
form of government, admintMtered umler the pro- 
prietaries and Go^'emors, and a similitude of in- 
clinations and interests have closely united, but in 
diminishing our trade, depriving many of us of our 
properties, and destroying those religious and civil 
liberties which were one of the chief inducements 
to the first planting of this colony." The Penns 
fought with all their might against granting the 
petition. They cited Lord Baltimore's voluntary 
surrender of this territory by the agrc*emont of 
1732, as his own acknowledgment that the title was 
vestc<l in the Penns. The c(mw<iuence was that, 
in order to test the validity of this agreement, the 
Penns were ordered to file a bill in chancery 
against Lord Baltimore, demanding the fulfillment 
of the provisions of the agreement The bill was 

accordingly filed, in 1735, by John, lUehaid and 
Thomas Penn, but, with the proverbial delay of the 
Chancery Court, it was fifteen yean before the 
decision was rendered.* 

The interval was characteriaed by bordertronblcs 
of a violent nature. In April, 1735, a complaint 
was onterpd by Patrick Thomas, of Kent County, 
Maryland, that Janu« Mullen, Edwaid Banbury 
and James Ueilly, of Dover, with some others, had 
dragged him from his house to the Dover prison. 
The most serious of these frays was an attack on 
the house of Thomas Cresap. Cresap, as we have 
seen above, was a desperate character, who was 
continually mixed up in the disputes on the 
boundary, but had, nevertheless, attained some 
prominence in Maryland affairs. The attack was 
doubtless made by Pennsylvanians who hadsuflered 

at his hands. It was not long, however, before 
Cresap Is found at the head of a band of fifly men, 
invading Lancaster County, and attempting to 
settle a dispute which would rather have been a 
matter for tho consideration of the Governors 
During this raid, among others, Knowlos Daunt 
«'as killed, and CrcMap was captured and charged 
with his murder. The controversy which arose 
out of this occurrence forms a monotonous record 
of letters and dcpo!>iti(ins. It was followed by 
outrages, however, whirh soon disgusted both sides, 
and made them equally anxious to end this constant 
state of open warfare. Both the Mar)'land and 
Pennsvlvanin Assemblies furwardeil addresMM to 
the King, requesting hist interference to put a stop 
to the dinorders. Thev were immetlintc in their 
effect nnd brought from the King the following 
order in Council, dated August 18, 1737. It is 


M^Mr* « #ii w wi> ^HMii nr Mtbv lAy tiiMBtt ar ifo(« «r oiiim- m%. Itoing tho limit of the land at vat bought ftt>m the 

HMPWM < to w* w to hm ra«wltl«4 m Ui* ImtAn* vT iMr iw|wMlv« IiMllitnM * 

KMlacMi taH ihat tliff ifc» iMMN^Mvly |wi ••luf Ihmta, m4 «•• ml , . « 

«Mr «iM«< MkiM*.** tH rrvwfv* fmrnt* ma »«a4 «i«iw mimhi«4 aH iito Tlii« wan tho Riinoua *' toiiipanirT Una,** and wai 

■Mk* Rt»iiM «4 Mf |Mt «r tb« teN4« i« cMiiMi M««»B tiM iwupruiuN ritit and hluuiUhcd which for a half-contunr had 

Krw (V4K KeM • Jiwi. Mr K«»it My |M»NI lu Mtii* ihrr^ « "*"• ** "wjucnt intenrali» carried on alonj; tho 

*«*ii to aiirMH w ■»•»• •^•rtti««wirt thvNM. Mil Hb u^h^'* piMMi* borden of the two proYinoee. There was, practi- 

•k.n b. AuiWiioiM.** ^j^lly^ ij^j further encroachment on either tide, and 

It will be noticed that the three counties of the nothing occurred in the cootrovenj worthy of 

prewnt State of Delaware were always the most particuUr note, until the announcement of the 

prominent cause of the dbpute. The King's onleri decree in the chancery case, which was issued by 

however, had some cfll'ct in allaying the trouble* Lord Chiuiccllt>r ilardwickc, in May, 1750. It 

ami at length, in May, 1738. the proprietors came developed mithing novel in tho case, but wos a 

in perwn before the C4»uncil at Kensington, and simple ratilicntion of tho agreement of May 10, 

agivetl to arcommmUte their difntn*iH<ort, Tho new 1732. in favor i>f the Pennn. No moro solemn 

arrangcnient rvfcrred particularly to lando in the rebuke cituhl have been brought uptm tho heail of 

ncighltorlH>odofl*hilndi'lphinniMltlicSuiM|uehaiiiia, I^ril ISnltinioro than the dcclamtititi of the Lonl 

the lower counties having been frintl fruiii tho Chancellor that ** in America the defendant's com- 

bonler wars since the promulgation of the King's niiivioncra tiehaved with great chicane." Cape 

onler in Council. In fact, in the agreement drawn Hcnlopcn is decided to bo situated as given by 

up between the proprieton, it was distinctly stated Lord Baltimore on his original map, and nof, as 

** that there being no riots that appear to have Itcen he claimed later, identical with Cape Cornelius.' 

committed within the three lower counties of New The decree provided for the ap|Miintment of com- 

Castle. Kent and 8ui«ex, it b therefore not thought missioncr^ on lioth sides within three months, and 

m-cvMsary to continue the latter jairt of the said upi*retioiis were to be bi*gun in Novemlier.* Tho 

Older in Council, as to the said three lower counties."^ CliHn<x'llor niii*r>'ed tho right todeeide any tpiestioiis 

Two ctmimii«ioneri were appointtnl on each side to which might anno in the oxecutitm of the deenr,* 

drew the lines as provided for — Uichnnl l*eteni and A provision which was soon proved to bo a gmvo 

Lawrences Growden for Pennsylvania, nnil Col. nceejwity. The commissiimers asm^ndilcd at New 

Levin Gale and Samuel ChambcrUine for Mary- CnKtIe on November 15, 1750. The New Castle 

land. The temporery agreement for the pniier\'a- circle being the fint matter dimruMied, the Court- 

tion of peace while the work was in progna* House was fixed ujion as the ci*ntre of the circle, 

placed all hind above the point fifteen mileii south but the Marylanilcra at once began their former 

of Philadelphia, and not occupied by either, in tactics by imtinting that tho twelve-mile radius 

posMwion of the Penns, and all south of it, in tho should bo drawn superficially, in the face of tho 

ImiuIs of lionl jialtinions This, of ixturm*, refem fact that in tho mensureiiiont of I7tlU they had 

only ti» the dispute<l territory on either i*tdo of tho objected to this methiMl, when it opi)OHe<l their own 

Siiiu|uehanna. The survey was eonimciuHHl in the inten'sts, Tho IVnnsylvanians prot4<itted, and in- 

spring of 1 7H!), and progn*iMe<l with soniu rapitlity, sisli*d on tho horixontnl nieaHUit'nieiit, but it was 

although the IVnnsylvanians elainiiHl that their neceiwary to apply to tho Chaiuvllor U^fore I^ird 

brother coniniiMtoneni proved to them ** that men Baltimore's coniniissionen would yield. Consider- 

uf skill can fiinl a thousand objections against able delay was thus caused, but the work was 

the doing of a thing that they have no mind to." quickly resumed and the position of Cape Henlopen 

Tlie Marylandem first opened a discuwion as to the determined at a point one hundred and thirty-nine 

method of measurement, inMisting on measuring perches from the cape on the northern portion of 

boriiontally and not superficially, wherever the Fenwick's Ixhind. A line was then run westward 

hills presented a chance of Iom to them by the across the peninsula, but another dispute here arone 

hitter proccMs. Next, a controversy arose over the as to its western termination, tho Mar}*landere 

Guniher's chain used by the surveyor, and when claiming they hail reached the bay, when in truth 

thesedisiMitcs had been settled, the death of Colonel they had only gimo as far as Slaughter's Creek, 

Gale's s«m calletl him away, and Mr. Chantlierlatne which was more than three miles east of the 

refused to |>roceod in his aboence. Not desiring to Chesaiwake.* Another suit in chancery followed, 

have a good work thus obstructed. Governor and matters were further complicated by the death 

Thomas issued instructions to the PennDvlvunia of Chnrli<s, Lord Baltimore, and the succession of 
cuiumissioners to continue tho work alone, and ..^ „ , ^ . ^. 

,. , ,-, I . It.. •/Vtr»l. .¥Hy«rf««, T«l. II., p. t«l. 

Messrs. Peters and Growden continued the line afv^iM. jf..^M«. tui.ii..|i.'m. 

west waid to a point eighty-eight miles west of the J i3S::r.f . i^HtZ^i^/X'^^" «i. t. mis 

I » C tAm i ^ BwwSi rf r— .," ^•L It., p SPB. • XrHahwB. p. 41. 



hb ton Frederiok. the lait Lord Baltimore. While 
the suit WM peiMling the French and Indimi War 
oocupletl the attention of the people U» too gn*at an 
extent to fwrnilt them to n>ncw tlivlr bonier fl^liti. 
AlmoMt nothing li licard of tlie boundary qiiMtion, 
and tlie only intcrooumc between tlio autlioritiee 
of the provinces liad reference to the war or tlie 

The year 1760 standi out as an important epoch 
in our story. Frederick, Lord Baltimore, had 
long grown tired of the fight which, it appeared 
more than probable, would again be dei*tdc«i against 
him. lie coiucquently entered into an agrtMMiicut 
with the Penus on July 4, 1700, accepting ai« a 
basis the artielcii alrvady drawn up in 17:12, and 
afhTwanli* set forth in the (*hah4X'!l(»r'N <leertv of 
n^iO. The twelve-mile nidiun fniiii New Cnslto 
was measured lif»riz4intally, and the line acniMi the 
lieninsula from Cn\)o iIeiili)|H>n to the ( Mieitu|N.*ako 
was drawn to the full length of i>ixty-nine miles, 
two hundred and ninety eight }ierclies, as was 
originally cliiimcd by the Pennnylvania conimis- 
f loners in 17«il. The articles of agreement are 
mtist minute in every detail, and occupy thirty-four 
printe<l ptigi<s in the IVnnsylvaifia Archives.' The 
bouuilurii'S of the hiwer iHiuntiiw were thun praeti- 
cally H«*ttle(l in their present form. 

To carry the agreement intocHvct.commiiMiiimeni 
were np|M)iiit('«l on both sides, those for Muryhind 
lieing (iovenior Shar|)e, JWnjamin Tusker, Jr., 
ICdwnnl Lluvd, Itobert Jenkins Henrv, Daniel 
Dulany, Stephen Bordleyuud the Kev. Alexander 
Mal(.n>lm, and thoK! for Pennsylvania being lion. 
Jnnien Hamilton, William Allen, Itichnrd Peters, 
lienjamin Chew, Lynford Lnrdiier, Ky ves Holt and 
Ge(»rge Stepheiimin. They met at New Cuntle on 
NovemU-r ISI, 1700, ami at once la'pin to draw 
the boundary lines. In August, 170:i, lionl Ihtlii- 
more and SlesKrs. Thomas nn<l JtiehnnI Penn 
cmployisl Charles Manon and Jeremiah Dixon, of 
Knglund, to ** nmrk, run out, settle, fix and <leter- 
mine all such parts of the circle, mnrku, lines and 
boundaries as were mentioned in the i«venil artiekm 
or commissions, and were not yet coniplete«K*' 
They undertook the work and carrietl it out success- 
fully, finii*hing their task in Deeember, 1707. It 
wax thus that the boundary between Pennsylvania 
and Marylanti came to receive the famous name of 
the Mason and Dixon's line. The final reiMirt was 
Bubmittetl by the commi.«itionera on November 9, 
17o8, and gives an exact account of the work in 
the following tcrnui: 

** W« hart e»ni|il«l«l7 rua out, wtllwl, flx«4 aarf dH^milMMl • Mralchl 
ho* lM>iilunlBtf at th« •x«cl aUMb of lli« 4m t«M •»•! wmI Ihm nwn* 
tl<.iir>l In th« ■rliclM uf iIm tuunh itox of Juljr, oim thouMii'l wv*b 
liumlrfd auJ alsty, lu bar* bMpa rna lijr ollirr rtinimlMl<UMir«, t«rmnty 
a|>|iulnli'<l by IkwMM Clwrl«^ Lunl tt«lllBiuc«.auil lli«a»l«l 'I'lMiiiaa i*anD 
•iiU KIt'bAnI IVaa, •t-rM'* th» |irnlii«ul« Irvm I'aiK' nrul<i|a-n iw 4'ltMa- 
|irak« Ba.v, III** cxjirt iiiliMtM vt wlikh anM t««t a»l «rr«l liiH> U al IIm 
SiaUBca wf lltinjr-ltfar Mtka and ihPtm buadivd and biua p*rcli«a ttvm 

I VflL If., p|k S-SOL. 

llM«wir»«r Mm BMla aeaas. Mm imIiwi mS ar ba|lMla« «r ika aM 
Sa# aart aad wmI Haa ; aad ibal «• bava aatoMHl tb» aaU «mlcbl Uaa 
«l«bly<«Mia mUm Hwaiy alMbl rbalaa and tblfijr llaka f tbm p*«lM«la, 
•alll tl ItMirbad and nwlw a Uiicvttl Iw Iba mmmrrm (Mft wl Ika fmtXfk^rf 
•r a rtnia dmwa al lb* b<iriaii«ilal dMtlHV t4 |«»l*« KaatMb aUlala 
mIIm ftvai Iba rvaira %4 lb* lw«b *4 Ha* OmIK aad Imv* mmrkmt, 4^ 
•rrllivil and |MFr|i'(*Bi^l fb* >ald alralcbl ur laac»Ml UMk bjr wftlac «p 
aad pfwrltitc iiiH> i^iiMrkaMa Mumr at iba |dar* uf brilnaliif ih^tpwr, |a 
ikm aHai-l ailddbiur Om nfurtw^id daa •w4 a«d «««( lliiv. ar«-wt<llac to Iba 
aacia mad* Uf lb* mU dua wart llaa aad Iba «dd laagval IIm ; wbkb 
■luaa. iHi lb* Inward aklMor lb«MMfilWlBKla*aidtiii*«Miaa.l«i*aBf4i 
Ika Mortb, batb Iba anwi^ Iba »l'l TbiHMa Ptm aad Rkbard tfm 
gnivrd Ihvnwa, afid wn Iba utiiwaid M<lra wf Iba mbm*, farlD« Iwwaixli 
tba ««M and luaarb Iba MUlh, balb lb* arwa af Ibv Mid fYvdrrirb, 
Lofd BalilBMt^ (nvH llM-rwn ; aad bac* abwrnctMl •ndwc a^la iba 
•aid MrNlisht or Univnl Urn*, frtiBi Iba mM flmc9 af brflanlBs la tba 
tanirnl |mHmI. rrnMrfcaldr Mtiami al Iha •a.l U rrvfy Mila. aitfb «-4m at 
llw dlatanr* ur vnd wf rtarjr S«f mlira bvtaff |«nlralMljr duilB(«UlM4 
by ba«ln( iIm «•«•• U lb* mM Kr«.|<prk'k, l^ml ttalnawr. (T»t«d .hi ika 
Bl<|a ihrrmtr lurnlnc lw«anb iIm wml, an>l Iba arma u( iIm «U.| Tb»a»M 
r^nn Bti'l Ul«-b«r«l IVbb (iHTnlua lb* aLk ibrnntr lNrBla« i»«*f«k tiia 
MCI, and all III* iKlif^r lnifrniM|iMt« ■!•«.« mm marlml «|ib lb* l«ll*r f 
■HI III* ftdra «iid aitli lh*i iHIrr M ■■• Ibr •ukm fa* lac lowani* lh« ••■I, 
and liatv A^ihI In the lantfrnl |ailM a Mu** wlih lb« arMia wf Ika aatd 
Fmlriit k, Uinl IWIIIiw«r«>, grutnl mi thr ■(•k f*<-lit< |waHr>k lli« wmt, 
ami ilir aiBt* iiT lh« m«»<I Tb*Niia« IVbb and Ukbaid IVbb (ravad •• Iba 
aid« Ittiini l«f««lda lb* ra.4. 

*'3<l. TImI rr»iii lli« vihI tiT tba mM rtralirbl Mm er lani*M ^at, «• 
bar* r«n muI, ■•■llk<l,flaiilan>ld«-i«TWiM«l adiia B->nliUBa«ir llMkBKth 
•rf S*8 biIIm uiM cb«lM mhI ttfiy lluka la a ptmllal wT klllaik flflavu aiilaa 
dna aiiulh uf Ika bh«4 a>j«llt«m pafl uf IIm cMy wT PhtUiWI|>kMs arbub 
B>id da* Burtb IIm lBtrr^n-i*.| ihv mM rlivk drawa al lb* dkiaiwa of 
Iwrlv* KiiKUali aiaimc niiica fruni Iba crnim*r Iba IvwB uf Nr« I'kalla, 
BBa Biil« llitn.v-^B • iMin* «Bil fl«« llak* (rum tba aaid Uafirtil ikdnt, «»d 
llial In ufikr lu nark ami |a-qiHH«la tba Mid diaa B>inb Una. «• b««a 
rrMlml and ai-l u|i uii» uuMuirkrd Mi*n« m% iba |»dnt Bbrrw iba aaid haa 
lBlrrk«i u iIm bild rink, ilinni wlli>T altinva ai a mlk di«laiMv froai raib 
mbvr aravpil allb Ibr kikr I* an lb* aldra fmr\»t Ibi* »Mt. ami Ibr k<t«c 
M .ill tlin alilua Ui Ihk tlii* »i>al, ItPlan-ii III* mM |<U<-r .d iNlvranlMa af 
Ibr mM I ill k Hinl lli«< aaid |«ir.ilkl uf lalilMik, «bh b 1^1 M.>Nr i.* Iba 
■kira fai liitf li<«ai«U IIh- iiiirlbaiid ra*l balblbr ariMa4d ib« u^M Th>«Ma 
IVBti and llkliaid iVnii ifiatvl llirrrtiB, and wtitltr m>I.« ferine l»«ai«li 
tlir •Piilb ami Bval lialb llw arata wf Ika Mkl FradrrUk, l«i«d UaltiMaaa, 
fravMl lhrir<m, 

*Md. Tlial »r liava niB out, aHlM. S«rd a»l dHrrnilard awb pmit af 
tba mUI rin-lraa Ika «r«laafd uf Iba Mid daa friUb liar and bava 
Biarka>l ami |a-r|«plaalr«l tli« m»m bjr aHiIni up ami rtrriinc fu«r *!••»« 
In Ihr |irrt|ilii*rj lli«-m<f. wlia wf vlikh, al Ibr BirrMkB dial«i*rr uf ««M 
Bilk frtau ilia lannrMl ludnl, k niarkrd nitb Iba kllar I* a* lb* aaataarf 
Iba ktirf M wn lb» mrM nkka ihriaNir.*' 

The fourth section gues on to describe tlic run- 
ning of the east and wi*st line, whidi f«irnb> the 
Imumlarv for the north of Murvland and south «if 
IVniiHylvaiiia. Tliis line wtui carHiil to a distani'e 
of over two humlrcil ami eighty milei*, *\wn the 
Iiidiuni* prcventetl I hem from proeitdiiig, and it 
wiis utU'rwunIs tiirrieil to its pHwiit length. Si 
fura.<« the lt>wer counties wen* coneerned, this termi- 
nated the bonier trouble!*, but in the northeastern 
counties of Mar\'Iuiid, and the counties in Penn- 
sylvania adjoining them, oec{L<ional riots were still 
lK*ard of at long intervals. John Penn had iK*ca- 
sion to eomplHin, in 170U,of Cecil C ounty ruffians 
who had nnnmittetl t>utniges in Pennsylvania, and 
even as late ib« 17J4 the entire tnmble hud m»t Uvn 
snitMithttl over. The outrages of earlier linu*i* had 
eeiwetl, however, ami what misundt'i^taiidingv now 
oecurre<l were of a fieiuvable nature, and grew uut 
of attempts to settle the iletails of the tlUpute 
beyond all cavil. The final proclamation of the 
Governor of Pennsylvania aiimmneing the comple- 
tion of the work was not issued until April <5, 1775. 
In order to render ol>e<liencc to its bflie^ts as little 
difKeult us iMMtible, n s|MH'ial act was pOMHtl by the 
territorial AsMMiiblv i.f the three lower countivs on 
Delaware, expressly stating tlio bouuduriut uf 


Kent, Bvmn and New Ci»(1« CtHintlea, and ckf Uir- Febninry 1 • 1084, ont Charlct Plokoring reported 

Init that all itrnmnt wh<i hid rrttdtMl in tUo dlnputrd timt It wm hb bellof that moHt of the people of 

tfrritorjr, but now aokhowkvlgcd dtliens of the KentOountywerorcndy to revolt becauMQovomor 

k»wrr fountin, nhould enjoy nil rights and privl- Penn had not kept hb promiae to enter and clear 

Ifgee therein, as though no controTersy had ever all vemeli at New Otftle, and in the event of such 

existed. To this act, pofsod on September 2d, a outbreak they were assured of the support of Lord 

supplement was added on October 28th. The Baltimore. At the same time Francis Whitwell, 

sopplementwas intended for the benefit of creditoia John Hilliard and John Richardson, the repre* 

vho held judgments taken out in Maryland courts seotatives from Kent, refused to attend the Council, 

against perrons residing on the land in dispute, and committees were sent to inquire into the cause 

Great confusion had arisen when the settlement of of their absence, as well as that of the general 

the boundary question placed the debton in the disaffection. While no serious outbreak resulted 

lower counties. For the relief and security of the from this, the government of the lower counties 

creditors, the Assembly enacted a law making it a proved to be a source of much annoyance to the 

valid proceeding to docket transcripts of the judg- Council. Reports were continually brought to 

ments formerly obtained in the Maryland courts them complaining of the manner in which the 

agaiost penons resident on lands which had fallen officials performed their duties. The sherifl*s could 

within the lower counties on the determination of not be relied up m, and the decisions of the justices 

the boundary lines. With this act, the history of were frequently appealed from, as being unjust and 

* the dispute over the boundaries of Delaware came partial. Matters began to take a more serious turn 

to an end. in 169(). Jealousies, based on local prejudices, had 

incren.*«cd, and the lower counties asKcrtcil that thoy 

*"""—" wero not fairly treated In the ap)N»intinent of 

olHccr^. Ill the year nuMitioniMl Thoninn Lloyd 

CHAPTKR XIL had b(H>n duly olcctcil pnwdeut of thu CtHincil. 

The territorial nioiiilM^m, fearing that they would 

COLONIAL iiinTORY, 17(M-75. not receive their fair pro|M)rtion of olKciv, eouveniti 

a secret meeting without notifying the president 

Tbs history of Delaware during the period or any member of the Ck)uncil. The six menilicrs 

eovered by the present chapter, stands out as a bold present were William Clark, Luke WatMm, Griffith 

anomaly In the colonial history of America. After Jones, John Brinkloe. John Ciinn and Jolmnncs 

a bug series of wrangles and dissensions with the D'llaes, who appointed and commissioned six 

other counties of the province of Pennsylvania, in judges without the knowledge and cornvnt of the 

1704 the " territories," or the ** three lower coun- other memben. When the regular Council learned 

tics," or the ** counties of New Oistle, Kent and of the affair, they promptly declared the appoint- 

dussex upon DeUware," as they were then variously ments to be illegal, and severely reprimanded tlie 

called, seceded from the counties of the province, unruly members for their clandestine action. A 

They were to be governed by a separate Assembly demand was m made that the judges and other 

consisting of representatives from the three coun- oflicers of t . >ower counties should be appointe<l 

tics, but still acknowledged the authority of the by the nine .'cprcscntatives from those counties, but 

provincial Go%'emor of Pennsylvania. This con- this was not allowed. 

tinned to be the form of government until the In 1G91 what was evidently intended by the 

adoption of a separate Constitution by the State of proprietor as an indulgent privilege proved only a 

Delaware, in 1776. means of widening the breach between the two 

The lower counties had hardly been annexed to sections of the province. Penn had left to the 

the province, in 1082, when the controversies and choice of the Council three different forms for the 

diMgreemcnts began which finally led to a separa- executive management of the government. It was 

tion. The Council dealt liberaNy with the new to bo either through a Deputy-Governor, a comniis- 

counties, agreeing to assume a large share of their sion of fivo or the Council itself. A majority of 

expenses as an obligation on the whole province, the Council favored the first of these methods, 

and as early as 1684 they complied with the This brought forth a formal protest from seven 

request of the territorial representatives by holding members for the lower counties— William Clark, 

a part of their meetings at New Castle. One John Cann, John Brinkloe, John Hill, Richard 

effective cause for these early differences is to be Halliwell, Albertus Jacobs, and George Martin. 

traced to the agents sent over by the Marylanders. They declared that the appointment of five com- 

It waa a part of Lord Baltimore's plan for the mLvioners was the method most agreeable to them, 

success of his covetous designs on Penn's territory and their second choice would be the conimwsion 

to stir up ill feeling in the lower counties. At a of the Council itself, but that they could not accept 

meeting of the Council, held at Philadelphia, on the choice of a Deputy^Governor, since it placed all 


apfolntinfiita In the handii of a 9\n^U prmm, iimI firm cfrtnln ifU mmM «t « niMliiig ptwkiwly hvM 

■Ira on ocfount of (h« cxprtnw rpqulrcd fl>r hb at NpwCMll^. TliocllMifiilliiir mmilirri uryrd that 

pupport They ogrecd, however, to accriii the u the law^ had heen duly posKd by the Aipenbly» 

government of the Council, on condition that no they could see no maon why they thould be re- 

officen ahould be appointed to poaitlona in the enacted at Philadelphia. The act of union had 

three lower oountlea without the consent of the provided that the lower countiea were to have 

memben of Council for thfee counties. They then equal privileges with the upper In all things rela« 

withdrew from the Council. President Lloyd, who ting to the government, and to say that measures 

had been chosen Deputy^Govcmor, dis|iatchcd passed at New Castle required to be confirmed at 

John 6imcock, John Brivtow, John Dclavall and Phila(lel|»hia would discourage any further visits 

David Lloyd to New Castle after the seceiling to New Cantle an a place fur holding; meetings of 

roenibers, with the promise that they need have no the Awcmhly. Moreover, they failtnl to undenuiad 

apprehension on the points raised by them, as he tliat the \avn would be binding if the lower cuun- 

would occupy the chair without expense to them, tics acted at Philadelphia in conjunction with the 

unlessthey voluntarily agreed to contribute toward upficr, unless it could be shown that there b 

hb support, and, moreover, he would make no greater authority than when the two parties act 

changes in the offices of the lower counties until in conjunction at NewcaKtle, Thb protest was 

the proprietor's pleasure were known, and none siyrncd by John Brinkloe, William Rodeney, John 

should be removed without their consent. This Walker, William Morton, Luke Wat>on, Jr., 

did not satisfy the representatives from the three Jas|ier Yeatcs, Kiehnnl Hnliiwell, Atlam Peterwin 

lower counties, and they finally seceded, William and John lX)nald.'<on. The Governor explained 

Markham, the secretary, who had joinetl them, that this wim a more matu*r of furni, to avoiti tny 

Wing elMiM*ti Lieutennnt'Oovernor for thecNiutities misumlrn>taiHlings during hb alisemv, anti adthtl 

of New Castle, Kent and KnsM»x. Penn was much tlint he wiw d«H>ply hurt at what he dHi«idrr^ii a 

grievtHi when he lieani of the disunion of the |H'raoMnl sli^'ht. On iH'hnlf of the otheni, Ja«|H'r 

prtivinct*, and attrihute«l the trouble to Lloyd's Yeut(*s ns.«unHl the (lovenior that no insult was 

ambition. This charge se<*med unjust, however, as intendftl, and that they cherii^lHHl tl»e grvat«st 

Lloyd had only accepted his office after much revixHl for him, hut that they only a(ie<l in ac- 

reluctance, and at the earnest solicitation of most conlnnec with theUnt inten*»ts of those whom th<*y 

of the colonbts. • rcpnvcnteil. The Governor then su|.'geste<l that 

The province continued under this double gov they should adjourn for one hour, until he ei>uld 

emment for two years, when Governor Fletcher send for the rest of the Assembly, and at the 

aMumed control in 1603, and again succeedol in appointed time they again met. A full discuwiim 

uniting them.' The union that was thus restf>rod of the matter to<»k place, in which both si<li-s sjiiike 

Gtmtinued for a while without anything to disturb very plainly. The territorial members held that 

the peaceful conduct of government. In 1700 the union had been from the fint burdcn!«ome and 

there occurred a slight dbpute over the proportion objectionable to them, and they were no longer 

of expenses to be bom by the upfjer and lower willing to remain a party to it. Pcnn argued with 

counties, but thb was soon adjusted. In the fol- them, and expressed hb sorrow at being compelled 

lowing year several contests were begun, which led to carry such ill reports to England on hb ap> 

to the final separation, three years later. Ever pnwching voyage, but finally a;^reed to let them 

since the act of union, in 1682, the lower counties withdraw from the union, sti|Milating in pwitire 

had always acteil with great unanimity. In 1701, terms that the separation should be on amicable 

when the King ff>rwardetl a retpiest to Penn, ask- terms, and that they must first settle the laws, 

ing for three hundred and fifty pounds sterling for Some further difficulties occurn>«t, and on the fol- 

the maintenance of fortifications near New York, hiwing day the proprietor addn-sMtl a note to 

they entennl their protest as a b<Mly, explaining them, ri'iti'raling his pleas and admcmitiuiis. Kirh- 

that they were utmhle to provide defenses for that ard llnlliwoll. Jns|ier Yeates and Witlinm litA- 

colony, as they themselves badly nce<led protection, vnvy returned to the As^*ml»ly, hut stsm apfiearrd 

On the 10th of October, of the same year, the mem- before the proprieU»r and assured him that they 

bers from the lower counties, considering that the could no long(>r sit in that body, but mu:>c at ouce 

mer^ures then pending before the Assembly were proceed to their homes. The other memben om- 

highly prejudicial to their interests, abruptly left tinuod in their obstinate refusal to recognice the 

that body. On the 14th the members from New privileges oonsbtcnt with the honor and interest 

Castle and Kent Counties, with John Hill for Sua- of the lower counties, that it was incumbent upon 

sex, appeared before the Governor to set forth the memben to leave. Penn, with a lilieral use 

their grievances. At the meeting held on the of hb |K'raunsive |M»wen, at length bmught tla-m 

10th the objectionable measure was a bill to eon- to terms, after several me<«agt*s had Ui-n ex- 

I piwS'i •* RMory oT r<»BMri««BK** «*. I-. p »i. «*. m%. changed with the Council and Assembly, and they 



tgtMi Ift Ntan aad »ke utolber tKirt to nadi 
n umkntandiiv. On Octuber 38th tha mw 
durtcr of privikgci which Peno had (or mine 
iIb* hcMi prepuiag mi ubniiUsl to tho Coun- 
ctL Thu mi ttw oecuiiHi ttr inotfaer outbmtk. 
Tb* charter prorided, in the ueuil lermi, fur the 
cDJajinent of liberty uul hmppints bj the inhnhit- 
■nu of the provinM, etui ft lingle ABtnibljr to 
eooMM of four incnitMn f>um each countjr ; but, 
■ceing thkt > M)ianitian hnd naw eumo to be inur- 
ilable, Fenn mldnl the fulluwing pniriM : 

GoVCTVor, kad Jama Logen •enMairof the pror- 
tnoe, ud citrk of the Cuuudl, end alio 
noniuuad BKmbcn of ihc Council, and iocorpar- 
atcd tbe citj of Philadelphia. Ha then •eilol (br 
Kspland, lating Ihc proiince in a rMlon umI 
dioMiIiBrd Modiiina. The inrorTwration of Phila- 
ili4|iliin which Rave the I'ruTJnrial Ancnililjr two 
•■hliliunal nii'mbcn, wu lulficii'iit lo ghiiw the 
tl DMOiben Uul (hit wu unlj tlw Ant- 

•tep lowatdi the|tnduel InercsM of the proTlBclal 
memben, while their own number would remain 
Ualimarjr. With the otttr of tha long^dfiired 
•eparatjoa placed before them In tha charter ot 
priTilegte, it WB* not likalj that thcj ahoutd maln- 
laiD iIm union anir longer than wu aheolutely 
neccMirir. But u thaj were granted three yean 
in which to decide, thcjr tarried a little to bear tbe 
argumcnti and exhortatlone of the Quremor and 
pmvincial monilicre, who made eiety eHiirt lo re- 
Uin thein. Tiiirerita tlie chiee of the jrear 1T02 
the conlcHl (uibknU aMuntol a new ihapc. A 
number of tlw proviociat memben grew wcar^ of 
tha annoyanec coum-U by tho eonlinualogilaliun uf 
the terrilurial nMmben, and titey demanik-d a 
•eparala Ancmbly, according to the lemu of the 
charter. The Ouvvrnor retnunitratcd thnt iueh a 
•tep enutd only produce the iniwl direflil resutlf, 
in eneunibering the nHiiiiH'rcial rclalluiu then 
■nHmtlilj: maintained with tlie mother country j 
Init, moat itupiirtaht of nil. (a Ihe )irapn<!loT w*a 
then in Knitlnnd fiir llio purpuie of wcurinj( lilt 
titbi lo the tuwiT eoiintit'e, which hail iK-en ili»|iuli'd 
bj ulltcn, a ai'iianitlun at tluit niiniicnl niiitht 
pruvc »|ie<'ialty dIeiMruue by wrakuiilug liia claim. 
Moreun-r, the u[>|ilicaliDn biid bniii made on iho 
8th or Octiibcr, and aa the charter tutuin-d all 
clcctioii* lo begin uo October In, the (jovenior 
iiulMni ihal a new Asaemhly could nut be elcded 
unlil the lalof October ihini hi nguin recur. They 
Tcjilinl that thia dilflculty cuuld euaily be avoided 
by tlw inniing of tlw Uovcmor'a writ*, but lliia 
otHcial tmiulni out that ifaa lower ci<uliliea wuulil 
BOW runijilniu that tliey Iwd hnin thrown out 
without noiive, ami llio ulijveting iiMnnlwr* pnMn> 
bedtu piHl|ii>no rnrthcr nrliun until a euiirurrnce 
euuM be held with Iho Council. At llio oiuren-nca 
it wae again argued llial, ai tlie lower counlici 
bnd nut ret elected nwiiiben of llie AMcmbly, 
thcrcbj lignifying [bnt llioy woulil not accept the 
diarlcr, It woiilil lie better lii give ibcni an oti[ior- 
luiiity lo iwiue wriu of election, which would re> 
■juire very little time, befiin llipy were abruptly 
i«>tu(i;Rithntthciraicnibenmi);htl»beBnl Tbe 
diMcnling mcndwn of tlie |inivinre ngncd lo 
n-cunaider iheir delcrminatliin, iHwiik-d tbe Guv- 
rnior wnuhl wljoum lliem lor otw moiiifa. Thia 
waa accordingly iliHie, and theCouiKil mHwmbled 
on XuvcniW Ililli. In the nicun lime nmiiben 
of llic AHKiiibly Iwl been eU-ctol fur the lower 
euuDlica, but thiw who liad reuclKil lliilnilcljAia 
informed Ihe Ouvernor llial lliey could nmlcr no 
circumalaDcvs lil with llie menibera elected for the 
piDVJDce. Tlie provincial mcitibcn had been 
elected under a charier which the lurritorial mew- 
hrn refiued to recognise, and fur tlielr own dec* 
liun wriW had bcvu bwinl. L^lMidl'rHb1a Umo 
wiu> PtK'iit ill arguing, Iiut witliuut nmill. Wlicn 
the npiuaciiUlivea met in thu alWeoun al bamuul 


P«re'i, Moordiof to the Oovenior*t instnictloM, It province from PufTeriDfr. when eoch gnxt qucetioM 
WM fiMiod that the territorial members were not remain unconei<lored ? The provincial members 
present. Griffith Jones and John Swift were sent immediately replied, expressing themselves as both 
to inform them that the Governor dcnred their willing and dc^iroiu of acting in A«semblv accord- 
attendance, but returned with the message that ing to the direction of the charter. The following 
they ** had waited on the Governor for some time, reply was subniiited by the mcnibeis for the lower 
and had now withdrawn to refresh themBclvcs, counties: 
and would to-morrow wait on the Governor, if 

but to adjourn, although much againH the will of ••-••'•••. J"'- ;•«»• th'- i» Wbw-h^« b«i •« '««'f-i "-»•••"-« 

some of thonO prCHCnt On the noXt daV, NoVCm- mi y* ruiuiiwn.K Kml Muhuthfr iiMtt.-nwr lM|»>rtaiK« wrfk*il tb*a te 

bcr 17.h. the re,,r»cnta.ivc. fr.,n. Urth 'th, ,.n,v. il"i:?rJ^r,:"r.'X'.l" ZJ:Zr^i: l^J^T^Z 

inces and terntoricM met acconling to np|)oint- biMiDw, km tui •■tiimm •iio nii« »««r ib*m. 

, , _^ "TIm m\4 ■wmh*n flMtac that tb#j M* ««n*4 iMfvoaa 41(frmit 

there were occasion. There was no alternative Swi »tiii ihom uT ih* u^'f «M*ait« mnwn, tr tbrr* m •• ctwr 

ment Owing to the diflercnt metho.1. which had .;:i;rjr.TLti'Ji ViTwirE;:.""'"*'' 
been employed in electing the members of the two 

sections of the province, it was agreed that they On the advice of the Council, the Governor 

could not meet as an Aswmbly. It was sug^rcstcd di^fraiiwed the whole ImhIv until intelligence should 

that they might meet as rcpr»ientatives of the cc»me from England recommending further action, 

people, or as a convention, but no conclusion could All the nieniberM of the province then united in a 

bo reached on account of tho firm' {losition taken i>etition to the Ciovernor, ngiiin n-iiucsiting a i>e|ia- 

by tho territorial memlters. They, however, wnt ration, nnd the election of memlK-rs for a separate 

to tho Governor, stating that they were by no Atfeiiibly, witli two atUlititmnl memlierM for IMtila- 

means lacking in loyalty to the (jucen, and were delphia. (iovenior Iluuiilton die«l i>o«>n afler> 

not desirous of shirking their fair share of duty wartld, iifter having devotcti the whole of his brief 

and reB|>onitil)ility, and if there wa>i anything of Bdministration to a futile atwrnpt to unite the dis- 

great im|)ortance which ho had to lay before tho corJant elenieiiLt of the province, much to the ne- 

Aiwcmbly, requiring the joint action of the prov- gleet ofothcriniiH)rtunt business. The management 

inoe and territories, it might still be possible to of afluirs now devolved on the (*ouncil, of whom 

bring about some form of accommodation. The Kdward h>hi]>pen wait president. When the time for 

Governor ansiwered that the two questions which convening the ^Vj<8einbly, according to the charter, 

he desired particularly to call to their attention came around, in October, 1703, the memliers for 

were the onlers lately received from the Queen, the thrive counties of the province, with two mem- 

and the'?rts condition of the province, bcrs fur IMiihulelphia, prei^'nted thcniK-lve:* for 

exposed, OS it wiut, to the attacks of eneniit^ on quulitientittn hy the Council to pHKittl to buvincvs 

all >*ides. Uut thene niatteni were not sufficiently in tho new AMH*nil)ly. Governor llamiltim hail 

grave to accomplish the dmirod end, and tltiii wiui died without taking any action on their |ietition of 

reported to the Governor on the iMth, by Joseph the previous yitir, and the Council was at a lo(« to 

Growdoii, on behalf of all the mendicrs. Tho know wliat authority it had in the matter. After 

provincial memliers averted their willingness to some delay, the Council <iualified them, and on 

meet the others, but the latter now held that as the Oct4)ber loth they orgtmized them.<H.'lves into an 

writs by which they were electe<l were hosi'd on Assembly of the province. 

the charter, a recognition of the volidity of this John Evans* arrivctl with hi* commission as 

electitin wouKl also imply tlieir acceptance of tho IJeutenatit-Govern(»r at the close of the year 

charter, which they were not preimntl to do. Tho 17(Kl. His first cnrc was to examine into the 

Council then puMsed a resolution to the eHect that iiium's of the ilixruption lietwei'U the provim-c and 

as the niemlters .for the lower counties had con. territorii's. with a view to reuniting them if pos.'«i- 

sentc<l to bo elected under a writ grounditl on the ble. The Governor increuiH-d the numlM>r of 

charter, it was now too late to refu!<e to admit its fori-e, memliers of the Council, adding several niefulK'rs 

ami they might ns well proceeil to businem with the from the lower counties, prominent among them 

other members. On the 19th the Council sent a being William Ro<leney and Jaj«iHT Yeate». He 

message to the Assembly, containing three ques- also secured the |nii»age of a re:«olution by Council, 

tions, as follows : 1st, are the representatives of deprecating the measures alntidy taken toward a 

the province willing to meet the representatives of dii«ti4iIution of the union, and advising the mutt 

the territories for the purpono of forming an As- eurmftt endeavors to keep them unitiil, iMith in 

scmbly? 2tl, are the repre?H;ntativcs of t lie terri- legislation and ndmini.«tnition. (iovenior Evans 

tories willing to meet the representatives of the Uien went to New Cuttle and held a (ninfcrvnce 

province for tho pur|Mise of forming an Ai^sembly ? with tlie moot pnmiinent citizens, and it wa:* ar- 

3d, if either refuse, what methods do they pro|Hjso rnngeil that the lower counties shoultl ehi-t mem- 

for the formation of an Assembly to prevent the bers for an A>sembly, to meet the Governor at 

_!A_a^ ■"-< 



FUladelphb is April, 1704. The elMdom irara 
kcld in Mareh, awl vara rwj ezciting, cipaeiAlly 
tiM OM at New CSmCIc, tlia eandidalci being Jamet 
Cbottt and Ricbanl HalUwelL On April 11th. in 
accordance vith the Gorenior't orden» the mem- 
ben of the prorinee and thoee firom New Gbetle and 
Kent Cnontiee appeared before the Gouncil, thoM 
fivm Suawx not having arrived. The provincial 
members refoaed to confer with the Governor in the 
pmenee of strangers, and tlie members fmm New 
OsaCle and Kent then withdrew. The Speaker of 
the Provincial Amembly then gave the Governor 
the most sincere assurance on behalf of the whole 
bodj of their desire to obey any commands he 
might have to lay before them, either from the 
eruwn or the proprietor. When the Governor 
suggested that they art in conjunction with the 
m«*mberi for the lower countitw, they iiiitistiHl that 
this would infringe on tlioir rightii as an Aiveni- 
biy, and declined to yield, but finally withdrew 
to their chamber to connider the Plato of aflkiri. 
On April 12th the two bodies were brought together 
before the Governor, who delivered a written ad- 
dr«*ss, setting forth the benefits of harmony and 
unity, and strongly beseeching them to reconsider 
the steps taken in the past, and once more to 
unite. Direct negotiations were then begun be- 
tween the Assembly of the province and the 
members for the three lower counties. Two days 
were thus occupied, and on the Nth the Governor 
received the following address, signed by the 
members who had been elected from New Cattle, 
Kent and Sussex : 


•TiM limiU* mMtm or IS* I 
** Mmf II fUmm jvmr llwMur : 

«*!• t»imU»wM to jrwir write ftir •iMttagVoprNMitatlvM Wmrr* te 
■My Art- «MW cwialki^, *• Im**, accanUaf M our dwlhi awl Ik* 
la •• bjr Iba ttmwu m lA IIm muim, mmim Mir afipMiaM* 
IMMV, «• tiM Hith l»4aat. to liava Mtoil lrfffg|«llT«ly la 
•HMiMy. Sat ahra w 4M vkm m by joar Njaur^ t^vwli to iIm 
i«f«wrBUtlT«« fur tha rrwvlnr* aad torTitortM iImi jrwi judiH ll SI 
UmI all eMlpavyn •kuiiM l» awd, la llw Sral |ilMr«, Ut vntllnc vT 
%w» v*t»fa«iral la vm M»aiM]r, Wlag wry mialMp uT Ih* iwfvrl 
v»w«* y««r Ui4Mr,BiMll»«ncT*ry avlt »ttlsil«il thai yiiailM at thai 
IhM ftf^^mu aialiH* wT IIm f ivalnl lai|k«l towank lb* lalaml, qaWl, 
•a4 |«««t»iHy hT lb* r^^vtiiiMiiil. iut«« aminllaRly awd our ulahwl 
•ti4wa*itt« br aa Mr«tMaMMlallua aUb tba r»|«i««ratollt«« fur Iba |n<wv 
la--*, ap yiMr llwaur awy aiw by var |)ru|MaBia to llt««^ baraaato aaan* 
•4, a«4 tiara «a an awawJ ibal uar rc«WaTt«a raaaot iirvfa MircMafal 
aa iImI a*«w«M, aa by ibair aaawar 4aU*ar«4 aatw at (a r«i|9 «f wbkh 
•a bav* llbawiaa aSlwd) Ana fMaiy appaar: 

*<Wa tbvnAito ito baaiUy lay brMa yoar Uaauc'i caaaMaialloa 
lb* aarr*lty Ibaia wlH bv A« to fell apua awlbo^ tut a ipaady aad 
■ a wtaal aMIIIaf war eeaailai la a rafabir aialbwd of gvtaraaiaal, tbal 
JaaOca aa«y ba ilaly aOaiialiiarad, Iba f»a^ vnaarrad la Uvlr riffbli 
aa4 UbvrliM^ aad yaar liuMur'a as|i««lalioB fnaa aa aaaarviad ; tba 
vbkb mm iblak «a bafa aw nrnwa to tluvtS coailJarlaf «a ara taailUa 
tbal all ywar Uwauf'a acttoaa, alacv wa bad iba bapiNaM* to ba aadar 
ywar fa%aniaH«l, bava aw |il*li>>y <baBuaa*nilMt ibai ywar rblaf car* U 
to ft.0ma^m tba »«-iraf« aaU pruifvriiy wf Iba auaa. Wa «wacla4a ywar 
'a awal baaiHa aartaaiaw 

•• Mka Hin, 
Wm. Ibffvall. 
a*4wrl Hartwa, 
ahrbari IVIator, 
WtlUaai Swilaaty. 
Jwba SriabhM, 

The proposal referred to in this address was a 

Winiam Mortoa, 
Arlb. MrMua, 
Jaawa Cwatl^ 
Jwba H««ly, 
RowbiT l>'llaa^ 

■imple agreemant on the partof the mamben Aom 
the territories to unite with the province, on con- 
dition that the number of rapresentatives for each 
should be equal, as had always been the case. 
They ftirther stated that they had assembled at 
Philadelphia in pursuance with the Governor's 
instructions, fiilly expecting to be joined by the 
provincial members, and they hoped nothing would 
prevent such meeting. The provincial members, 
in their reply to this, declared that the aseertion 
that the territorial members had come to join them 
in Assembly was mere pretense, as it was they who 
had sci'ompliBhed the disunion, and refused to 
recognize the charter, and consequently the prov- 
ince WAS firm in its- purpose to retain its new 
Assembly distinct from that of the lower counties, 
but at the same time they hoped that friendly and 
ntMghlMirly rcltitiuns would always be kept up 
betw«HM) tliom for the safety and welfare of the 

It will thus be seen that the positions formerly 
taken by the respective parties to the controversy 
had now been exactly reversed. It was the prov- 
ince which now wuhed to withdraw, and the 
territories that desired to continue the union. Yet 
it does not seem that they cherished any very fond 
desire for a reunion; but seeing that such a thing 
was now beyond hope, and that the province had 
assumed the lead in the cry for separation, they 
were anxious that their northern brethren should 
be in a position to bear all the odium that might 
result from any future ill efiects of the disunion. 
When the Governor had received the ultimatum 
of the lower counties, he still thought that an 
agreement might be poesible, and requested all the 
parties concerned to meet him on the following 
day for a free conference. Governor Evans once 
more earnestly and eloquently repeated the argu- 
ments which he hod so frequently submitted before. 
Hut all to no effect. Tlie Governor agreed to the 
se|)aration, and from that time it was complete. 
The next step was to organise the Assembly for 
the kiwer countios. Tlio opinion of Judge Mimi- 
pi<Nion liciug asked, he deeidetl that It would be 
better to issue new writs for elections, and avoid 
any |N)ssiblo broils, and also ruled that all laws 
which had previously been enacted by the joint 
Assembly of province and territories were now in 
full force in each separately. 

The first Assembly of the three lower counties 
met in November, 1704. Most of the members 
who had Jbecn elected on the original writs were 
re^slected, and James Coutts was chosen B|)eaker. 
The most im|Mirtant laws enacted by the new 
Legislature included a measure providing that 
seven yearn' posifeaion of land should give un- 
questionable title thereto, except in tlie case of 
infants, married women, lunatics and persons 
beyond the seas, and also those who possess estates 


for a form of jean» for life or mtaiL A law was beMeching the eitisent to oiler all poeatble 
also {MUMed for the prtToutiun of aboMs in the ance in the emergencj. But through lome un- 
administration of justice, and fixing an oath fur Itnown agency the secret became iLnown and the 
attorneys and solicitors, and aLso a kw for rcgu- plot failed, the only effect being to frighten a few 
lating weights and measures according to the people farther up the river, with whatever vain- 
Queen's standard for the exchequer. As soon as ables they could carry with them, while the 
the AMcmbly had convened at Kew Castle, a few Governor's action met with universal condemna- 
intriguers instituted a plan for an absolute scfMira- tion, and placed him in general disfavor with the 
tion from the province. James Logan, who ])copIe. 

accompanied the Governor to New Castle, as In November of the same year, at the secret 

secretary of tlie Council, wrote to Fcnn that suggestion of the Governor, the Assembly of the 

*' Judge Guest, with the doiiguing men of this luwer counties authorized the erection of a fort at 

place (New Castle), seem to endeavor an utter New Ca-itlc for Her Majesty's service. A duty was 

separation, and that this alone may l>e made the imposed on all vesseln {Nusia}; the fort in g<)ing up 

mart for all the ])coplo below." * Guest wan an the river from the sea, con;»i:'iing of a quarter of a 

anibitiouif scamp who sought penonnl cndu fnmi pounil of {xiwiler |mt ton for nil vctveU owned by 

the acconipliithmvutof thijiwheniv, which met with penwuis nviding on lX>lnwiiro River or Hay, and a 

deitorvcdiy little Kuppftort at that time. linlf a |)ouml tor tlioM* owmtl by all otlicn, exiV|tt*> 

The Aiisenihly Ik'toro adjourning e<»nrirnie<l all ing only shi))H of war. In atldition to this, all 

prcvioun laws, and also inorviitHxl the number of vittitcls |iu.<M*tiig in either direction were re<|uire(l to 

nieuiberv of the Assembly from four to itix for each drop anchor, and the commander must go on »hore. 

county. report and Mccure leave to iioss. The fienalty for 

Governor Evans was much irritated at his failure the neglect of this regulation was fiseil ut a fine of 
to unite the province and territories, and gave vent five pounds, a forfeiture of five pounds t»r contemitt, 
to his petty spite agtunst the former, who had been and twenty sliillinp* for the first gun, thirty for the 
the last to object, by continually interposing sec«Mid, and forty for every one thereafter that it 
obstacles to prevent any facility of action by their might be uecesmiry to fire at them on aco>unt of 
Assembly. During the summer of 17U4 he had such neglect. This measure naturally met with 
issued a call for militia on account of the war then much opixAiition from the province, the citizens of 
raging between England and France and Spain, which denounce<l it as a bold infraction of their 
Three comjianics were raii>ed in New Ciutle County, privileges, intended only to dcntroy thuir trade. Tbe 
two in Kent and the same numU^r in Sussex, but people of Philndeiphia were |Kirticulorly lou<l in 
in the province consiidemble difiiculty arose over their complaints, dcclarin^r that the tax mijrht as 
this order, owing to the numlier of QiiakerM who well be inifioNHl on the goods in their »ho|is as upon 
held con!«cientious scruples agnin^t bearing arms, the vcN*el.<* bringing them to the city, ami they held 
Governor Evans became highly indignant at thi^, that their charter grante<l them a frve and unintcr- 
and when over a year had ela|Med, ami the fieoplc rupted use of the river and bay without any inter- 
still held out agninH taking up arm.<f (as they helil) fcrence whatever. The law was nevertheless luLswd, 
unnccinsarily, Evans resorted to a curious pinn for except that the provitiion niiuiring vcski'Is owned 
terrifying them into ol)o«licncc. Ho iH>lecti*d on the river and hoy to |my duty wa<« omitted. 
Tlionins Clark, an attorney of rhihidelphin, and The IMiilndclpliians oinmiIv declarul that they 
ltolK*rt Freueh, of New Cit<(tl(% as bin ai«im'iatcs. wouUl n(»t pay any duty whntev€>r. The fort was 
The annual fair was in progn«s at lMii!ade!]ihia, crectiil in the winter of 17()7 by Captain Kctlnap, 
on May 111, 1700. The fair wiua great institution the i^utrn's engineer, who was brought from New 
of the colonial ]ieri(Nl. EvcrylMNty, young and York by the Governor for the puqMMC Whvn 
old, amcmbled in holiday attiro, and it wum a gala everything was in readiness, and several fines had 
time for gayety and rejoicing. French, who wim liccncoIlecte<l by the authorities at the fort, Richard 
stationed at New CoMtle, sent up a mc-^enger to the Hill, of Philadelphia, determined totcst thestreni^h 
Governor, apparently in a great state of fear and of the place by Imldly defying theorden. His new 
consternation, informing him that a number of sloop, the " Philndeiphia,** was just preparing for 
hostile ve;«els had come up the bay, and the ])eople her firxt vtiyage to the Barbadues. The nia:*ter of 
were in imminent danger of being attacked, and the vcs[<el was ordered by the tmncrs not to stop at 
their property pillaged. Alcssengcrs had been the fort. He went to the Governor, re<|Uiyting 
previously statione<l alraut the city, and at once permubion to |>asii, but this was refusetl. Hill then 
hastened to spread the news, to the great terror of informed the Governor that his yvsmel would pa.<«, 
the jicople. The Governor rode through the streets notwith^taiuling \i\* refusal. The Ctovenior at once 
with drawn sword, apparently much agitated, set out for New Ca.<tle on honwback to notify them 

I •*M*mdr. ^ lu lUM^irai scciH, of P«,m,u.nK- «i. i... ^f tlie ex|icctetl arrival of the ve**l, and a watch 

FMia umI LwgMi Cun<M|MMHi«M«, |k. 944. of tcu men Wtts Stationed on the shore, lest she 


anight p§m onnotioed vnder eoTor of darknoM. legality of Ponn'i title to the lower ooaotioi. Tbie 
Hill, hting afraid to tnint tlie ninster, boarded the waji an old question which waa |ieriodicaUy rained 
■kiop and took with him Samuel Prmton and Isaac in the territitriet, and then quietly allowed to drop. 
Norriit, who were ahn part owners Tho veieol Oovornur Kvans rc^fiondeil that he had not the 
wa« «luly clcan*d at l*liiladolphui, and when they lea^t douU at to tlio validity of hit eommimioD, 
ivat*lK*«l New (*ai*tlo» Trivtim and Norri« were m'nt but ai hi^ olKce wai ko ition to <levolve on another, 
to the fiirt to nM|Ui«t )H»nuiM»ion t«» |mM without ho would nut take tho time to viiMlicato it. Atthia 
fhrtlH*r interni|i(ion. iliin was denied unless thoy point a number of membeni took the imrt of tho 
wouM eoniply with the rpjrular nH|uironieiitB of tlie Governor and withdrew from tho Assembly, break- 
station. Hill then took command of llie v&scl, iug up tlie House. They were Richard Era pson, of 
and pasKd the fort under the fire of its pins. New Castle, Joseph Booth, of Kent, ond Thomas 
receiving no damage exoe|yt a shot throujHi the Fisher, Cornelius Wiltliank, Philip UusscU, Wil- 
niainsail. When they had passe<l, John Fn^nch, liam Fisher, Nicholas Grainger and Ad. Johnson, 
th«* omimaiidcr of the fort, |Mit out after them in a of 8tusex. TUey iiitfistiil tliat the action of tho 
boat, and when Itc ctuiio up Hill willingly threw other nicmlK*ra in mining a qm*stion as to tho 
him a ru|K>. Fr«*neh climU^il up, tho niiMS wns cut, (.lovonior'siiuibority witsuncalUHl for and unreason- 
ami lie was taken (NriwHU'r by the owners of the able, ami that his niiswer wns exce«>tlingly appro- 
i>hM»p. I^ml Cornbury, tlie vicc>admiml of the printc. They fcaretl that tlio UKMiilK'n intended 
(Queen's fleet, hap|iened to be lying at 2!<alem, and harm rather than U'm^fit to their form of govern- 
French was delivered over to him, and after a nu'nt, or at least aiitiei|Nite<l soiue change, and to 
se%'ere reprimand was liberated. On May l!Uh avoid any cimnectiun with such a movement they 
about two hundred and twenty inhabitants of the thought \Krat to withdraw. As Governor Gookiu 
province, m<«tly nrsidents of Philadelphia, pre- soon iirrived, the mcmlieri <pii(>tly returned. In 
senteda petition to the (rovernorpnttcsting against addition to the troubles already mentione<l, much 
a continuance of the fort as an infrinp;inciit U|K>n annoyance wan cau>H.*d by tlie depnihktions of the 
their liberty which wns was not granted, but in pirates, negi»tiiitioiui with Indiiiiis ami disiaites over 
fact denied, by the charter «if tlie Duke of York, tlio lionnduries with Maryland, but tbone topics 
A lung discU!«ion ensuiMl in tlu* Council, intwt of have U^n trented at length eliwwherc. Poiin had 
the memlwrs objeiiing, not to tlu^ fort, but to the not dert|iuircil of a ivuiiiiHi, and in hiK instnictiona 
exaiii«»ns, ami the Ctovcrm>r wns Hiially fori*e<l to to the new (lovermir lie an'ommemkHi an attempt 
pnmiif« a susiieni«ion <^ the obje<*tionable fetttunt to setnire this end. To tliuHe in the colony, how- 
of the act. His |iusition in favoring it, however, ever, it was evident that this was no lon^^r possible, 
had already produciHl a stmnger feeling than U^fore The breach between tliem luut become too wide, 
against him, and seveml fietitioiw were sent to Penn But after a few years the two Aj^seniblies learned 
nf]U«'»<ting his rrmovnl, which were at length com- to cense their iN)licy of interme«ldling, and tho 
plieil with aUiut the miildlc of 17(kH, when news government was c<»iiducte«l very |M>accably. As 
was bnmght anmiuncing that lie had U'en su|)er- early as 170!) we find the A»H'mbly of the province 
sitUil by Clmrkf (SiMikin. ptiHsiiig a remtlution of synipsithy with the inhidnt- 
Kvans hnd just iHiri'linxiHl a farm at 8wanh(N>k, ants of liewistown, owing to tlui sutlering ivcently 
near New (*ai>tle, and hnd mnde extensive improve- iMtrne by them fnMn an attiu*k by tlio enemy, 
naiits, au«l wns, then'for^s mit a little intlignnnt at When the Uiwer ctiunties put an end to their 
his |icn*niptory removal. Some of th<Nie in the qunrrels with tho province, liowevcr, they Ix'gan 
lower cintnties who bail formerly actcil with Judge new on4>* with tho proprietor. The |iarticulars of 
(iuei*t, bearing that Kmns hail Ix'en removcil, ami tlie new intrigues hIiow that aiming tlio early col- 
knowing bis {lartiality ft»r the territories, supimsed onii<tN of iX-laware tliore were those who were by 
that he would gladly assume the lumd of their no means <lei«tituto of political astuteness. Some 
government if they <*ould be entirely sefNimted of tho most prominent men in the territories drew 
from the pmvince. They )irc|»arc<l another scheme up an ndiln'ss early in 17()U to tho Lonls of Trade 
for rarr>*ing out this idt*a, but found to their ami Plantations, who maiiageil all tin* British col- 
dismay that Govermir Kvans fiistentl no such onies, complaining of Peiin's manngement of tho 
ambition. On the «Hmtrary, in a mmmiinicntitin thnnMniuniit* u|Nin the IMaware. Tlioy avowe<l 
to tlM* Assembly at New tS»tle, deli vennl shortly ihnt IsTnumt of the |»roprietor ami tlio Qtmkers 
after this, the most |sitriotie M'ut intents nn« found. th«*y hnd not sutll(Mt*nt |N»wer for enacting tlHi laws 
t(tg«'tlH*r with wholesimiQ advice for defenso and nea'winry for the )»ublic g<M>d ; that they were left 
otluT measures e<|Ually neciwary. Much to his in a defcuHrless wiidition, and had m»t had pro- 
iur|irise, he received in reply to this an address vincial c«>urts among them for seven yeark Thie 
fnmi the As!<embly «pieittioning his autliority t4» net aildrcss wiut signetl by nine memberi (»f the Assem- 
at all, on account of the doubts which existed in bly, inclndiiig Jnmes Coutts, Jas|)er Yetites, Kich- 
the minds of members of the Assembly as to the anl Halliwell and Robert French. Coutts had 


hithertd always htm eonaidered a lUiich friend settled on what was then called "The Wdth 

of the proprietor, and hui sudden change of Tract/' but now known t» Glai«g«)w, lying between 

policy oc««aioned much surprise. Yeatus, how- IX;lawan<i City and Newark, and ah(»ut ten nuk« 

«Ter, was the instigator of the new cntvrpritfc. from Wilmiii^rton. They se«'ure«l sImmii thirty 

He had moved from ChcKter to New Castle, and tluHiiwiid acrvs from Mcmm. Kvami. Davb and 

hail there started a bwincM venture on an cz- Willis, who had purchased it from Pcnn, and at 

tended scale. The town was not consitlcred healthy once procvttlcHl to erect a tiiecting-houiie. This was 

at this time and diil not pnis(ier, and the iicople in fininhed in 170G, the first piiKt(»r bein;; the Kev. 

the country much prefvrrcd to g<» to Philadelphia Iluvid Kvans, a native of Wali-s. Under his care 

to tranKnct their buoinest than to stop at New Ciis- the fhurch slowly incivnucd, and each year the 

tie. Yeates saw that some barrier must be placed menilK'ivhip increased, cither throu^rh arlditional 

between the i*cat of his new venture and I'hiliulvU arrivals from Waliw or by the lNi|i(wra of lettlers. 

phia, to materially check common iciition l)ctw<*en At New l'iu(tlc the name prtijrnt^)* was noted. The 

the two places. Thi.<4 was either tu be done by He v. GiNirp? KtiM wiih upimintcd miMiionary at 

making; Near CaKtle the capital of a new province that plaiv in llit'\ Hv »tartcd a ci»n;;r(*;nition 

(■onsiiitinj^of the three luwercuunti4«,«ir alU'fHnnco thenMmd nivt with great Kuocfw, ns iimonK the 

with l*eiini<ylvania must lie severed, nnd an alliance re;;ular attendants at service wore nuniliered many 

made with some other oohniy, the situation of from the surnHiiidin}; country, sofue coming as fiir 

whoM capital would not interfere with the com- as ten or twelve miles. Kufoura;:cd by this be 

mercial progress of New Castle. Yent<« was extended the field of hi» laliors to AiMi«iuininiy and 

shrewd and influential, and secured the iiA^iiitance White CIny Cn-ek, preaching twin: during each 

of many othem. Although the relation between month at New I'aj^tle, and oneeatetichoftheother 

himi«elf and Coutts had for some time |ia.<«t lieen two places named. Kiehard Ilalliwell, who ka<l 

somewhat strainetl, he soon found an opiN»rtunily contributed larjrely toward building the Kmanuel 

to bring aliout a nrconciliatioli, nince Coutb* was Chur<*h on the Oreen at New Ca>tle, liequeatlied 

at thin time by far the nio!*t influential man in the sixty |M>un<ld for its supfMirt, and also gave his 

. lower counties, 'llieir object was simply to secure plantation of Mxty-Mrven acn*, with tinely-im- 

a se]Ninition from IVunsylvanin. Couttj* signed prove<t h(»u.*Ki4 and orehsnli*. oit a par«inageforthe 

the |H'tition aa S|Hniker of the Assembly, nilliough ministerii who should from time to time serve the 

it had never l>een brought liefbrc that iMidy and church. 

was strictly a private afl'uir, and to(»k it to I^tm- The mimiimarius who were here settled were 

don himself. I'enn was kept infornuKl of every sent from ICnglnnd by the Stniety for the Pmpa- 

movement thn>ugli Secretary I^ogsin and was well pition of the Go)i|)el in Foreign Parts. Their 

prcfHired fur his arrival, although he hud at length work in Kent and Su?«<ex Counties wa.«« not so easy, 

liMt patience with the territorioH. liut thin scheme, owing to the fact that the c«>untry wa;* far mt>re 

like its predecei«i(ory. came to naught. Toward the spur^'ly S4'tt!e«l and the |ieople scattcr^il farther 

end CouttH attempteil to setnire thegovenniH>nt for apart than in New Ca<*tle. Hut this hiid not de> 

hinist*lf through brilN'rv, ami hin co«o|H*mt4»rH, tern'd them from Mauling out their agtMits. In 1704 

afniiil of his |M)wer, sgiiin ofren*d (Soveriior Kviins the Itev. MrOawfiyrd was stntionc*! as mii«i«ionttry 

the leadership, but ho |M'rxif«tiil in his ivfuHnl. In at Dover. In alMiut two year* he bnptize<l two 

cons(H]uenee of this, a <lispute nr*m\ which com- hundre«l nnd thirty |)c<iple in his immeiliate dis- 

pletely disorgnniziil the s<*hemcr!i, and there the triet, iNi^ides many others in the vicinity. At the 

matter cndeil. It is difficult to see that any p:!^ end of the thinl year they had en>cted a niod«i*t 

ticular advantage would have lieen derive<l, unlcm structure in which to htihl their nieatings. He 

to the ch<Nten few. The three counties were not lnlMin*<l OHsiduraisly, being obligtHl to give many 

yet sufficiently priis|ien>us to succeed as an inde- sufficient itistructitm to enable them to read the 

pendent colony. It wase^ttimattnlat the time that common prayers. Hin plan was to preach one 

each county contained fmin ofie huiulred to n hun- Sunday at the up|M>r end of the county, on the 

drifl and twenty fauiiiies, hardly enough to snp|Nirt next nt Dover, anil on the thirtl at the Itiwer end. 

a well r\>giilate<l gitvernnient when surrounded on thuscomiii/jn mnlact with a^ ninny of the inhnbit- 

^11 shh*s by otiieni mon« |Miwerful in rcs|Nrt to ant^ ns |M)<«silile. lie was nUiinvitnltoprt-ach in 

numlH*rs nnd exitericmv. AlU<r the excitenu-nt Sus«i>x County, and In n*s|Nin-«* to thi*. prenehe«l 

Ineiilent to this last tMuble liml sulto>idc<l, the fM'o- at Captain Hill's hou^n*, at licwislown. The |M<«)ple 

pie quietly s(*ttle«l down, and for the next few years were much pleas4><t and WMte to the liishop of 

nothing iH*cuft<d to mar the citircns in their fience- liimdon, ai<king that a Minuter be sent to them, 

ful pursuit of happiness and contentment The and promising all the sup|sirt they could nfTird. 

peritKl, however, is at leo^t noteworthy as lieing The construction of a meeting houm* wat also com- 

marke<l by a rapid develo(>nu'nt i»f the church, menced there. Mr. Cniwfonl was soon after r«mi- 

As early as 1703 a colony of Welsh Uaptists had pelhil to return to Kngland and did not n'tum. 


md lor lome time neither of the two counties had tuirered death, ae in the case of nrarder. Any 

a rcKubir miniiter. ppnon who cut out or diwhled the tongtic,put out 

In Augiiet, 1717, Governor Keith, who had a few the eye, ilit tlie nnae or lip, or maimed the limb of 
months |»revious]y succeeded Governor Gookin, another, suffered the death penalty, without benefit 
dosinmsofvlKitinf* the lower counties, invited Mr. of clei^y. Women oonvictcii of felony might 
RuiHS who was still in charge of the spiritual affairs escape the death punishment, and instead were 
of New Csstle, to accompany him. In company branded on the hand and imprisoned. The stibor- 
with several otlicrs, they first went t«> I^wistown, nation of witnoft«es was |ninished by a fine of forty 
and oo August 7th Mr. Ross preached there in the pounds, one-half to go to the government and the 
Court-Houiv. Ho remained there several <lays, other to the n)rgrievv«l party. In cose the offender 
ha|i(izjn}r over fidy children, and then went to the could not procure the nccoMnry amount in money, 
varitHis nKreting'houscs which had already l»ccn land or chiittcK he suffered itiiprisunnient for six 
enH>te«1 in the nHinty. He then went timm^h months, and was plnciHl on the pillory for ono 
Kent ( iiunty with the Governor and nH*t with hour in sonio public plucc where the ofleni'c was 
siniibr ptftin}?. Ho was so much ^rnitifiod at the comniitttHi, and nlso sutfvrcd any other punish* 
rcMilt of his visit, that in April, 171M, he again mentsordiNibilities inflictc«l by tholawof Knglnnd 
went through t^UMcx County, o|)eniiig a new covering the same crime. Any person convicted 
church that had lievn built and baptizing many of a felony made a capital crime by the nut, but 
new mcmbc>r«. ConKC(|uent1y, the two lower conn* who was entitled by the law of Kngland to the 
ties wetv not alvolutely without a minister. Mr, benefit of clergy, if convicted of murder, was taken 
lium athlrvA'cd a letter to the Mociety in Knglaml. in o|K'n court by the gntilcr and branded with an 
ur)ring that a missionary Ite icni out, and this was " M " on the brawn of the left thumb, and with a 
indomedby Governor Keith. The |HH>pleofIx>wis- **T" for any otlier felony. These were the most 
town had, in Oct., 1720, finisheil a frume church in noteworthy features of the law, which, at least, 
the (vnt re of the town^nnd were much rejoiced when, leaves us to infer that tho ficoplo were earnestly 
in the fullowing year, the Uev. Mr. Iteckett nrrivetl bent on the su|ipression of vice, 
fnini liomlon to take charge of it. The siiiiie During the snnie year the Asi^embly devoted 
succxiw followe«l which hi:* ex|H*ctati4Uisanticii)iited, their attention to more material affairs, especially 
ami the work being now on a firm biutin, the pro- en<lcavoring to encourage the construction of 
givi«oftheCl)urch of Knglund (all the missionary mills. It was enacted that in case anyone pro- 
work being independent of the hirgu number of jectcd building a mill, but was unable to con- 
Quaken* in the colony) was now well established.* veniently convey water to his property on account 
In the meanwhile the civil affairs of the lower of the intervention of laud belonging to another 
counties had not lM*en negle<.-te<l. When Governor {Mirty, which the latter wns unwilling todisiMisc of, 
Keith arriveil, in 1717, he tmnHnlialdy exaniiiH'«l he might nfiply to two jiistitTS of the \fiMW for 
into the affairs of tho territoriii', and u|Ntn the relief. The justice's of the |K*nco were to instniet 
eltiM* of his invcf^tigntion n«hlc«l nnotiior mcmlN*rto the i>licriff \» Humnnm six fKvlioldcrs, who sliouhl 
the Council fVimi tho hiwer counties, in the iM'rsou fix U|Min the vnlue of the himl, ami als«> tho hsis 
of John KrenHi. likely to bo suilcred by the owner, but they had 

In 1719 tho Assembly {NiHscd an net for the no jurisdiction in cases where the disputed ground 

better administration of justitv, some of the pro- amounted to more than six acres in Xew Castle 

visions of which are hardly equaled by tlH> famous County, and to two acres in Kent or 8usdex. 
blue laws of Connecticut, of the seventeenth In 1719 permission was granted to Benjamin 

century. In one respect, however, the act Shurmer, Witliiun Rrinkloeand KiclmrdUichanl- 

exhibited a tendency toward ti>lenition, viz.: by son to survey tho town of Dover and lay it off in 

allowing Qunken to'affirm. as well as all others who lots. 

might lie conscientiously opp<wed to taking an In 1721 Jasfier Yeatea <lied, and the vacancy 

oath. In this they nnticiputeil similar action by in the Governor's Council was filled by theap|>oint« 

tlic Awembly of the provin<'e by hix years, for it ment of Henry Bro(»ke, who had formerly been 

was mil until' 1 72o that the rcufisy Ivaniu As»K»mhIy collector of cu«lonis at Ix'wistown. 
n*li4*ved the (Quakers from taking oath. Hy the Duriig the next five years there was much 

terms of the new law, all pcfMins committing activity in the lower counties, and many progres- 

robliery, sodomy, buggery or ni|ie were made sive meusu res were in{<titute<l. In 1 722 an Orphans' 

felouM, and punislied according to the law of Kng- Court was ej^tablishcfl, to meet what had for some 

land (punished hy 'death). Any woman who time been felt on alisolute reciuircment. This new 

concealed the <leath of her Imstunl child, or any court of reconi was prcMidc<l over by tho justices 

{lersim mlvising or awixting the wonmn in killing of the {mice, who met in rt'gular (jmirtor Sessions 

the child, was guilty of a capital oHenso and in each of tho thn*e c<»untics and during tho same 

I •• n»u««r» R#ii«i«r,** fwi. I.. |u 4i«. Week that other «*ourts were held, and at such other 



timei M were nec w iry. They controlled euch the lower oountiee he had uicd language highly 

matten as are usually confided to timilar tribunals, dbmiiectfbl Co the piMprictary family. Till was* 

but were not allowed to admit any Ivttcri of therefore, removed and KicharJ Hinman a(klc<l. 

administration in which no bond was required, in his place, to the list of justices. At tlie same 

and no administrators or gunrdians were allowecl time John KlHidcs, Ri>bert Sliankland, CSeoq^e 

to place the money of their wards on interest with- Walton and Enoch Cumminfis were appointed, 

out renewing for a longer time than one year, vies 8imon Kollock, John May and Thomas 

Shortly after this the le};al rate of interest was Daviii. As the result of the CMolier elections 

reduceil from eight to six |«r cent, and the penalty held i hortly aftenRards, for sheritCi and eonmers 

fur a violation of the art was forfeiture of the in the various nnintics, comniii«»i«»ns won* iMued 

whole sum loanc<l. About the same time the to John Ct<NKliii);, shoriti* and Mtinran Morpin. 

authorities of New CsKtle County ri'movcil the cororn'r, of New (Wli* County ; Williuni K<Ml<>m*y, 

olistnietioiis in the Dnindywiiic that interfrn<<l sherilf, hu«1 M«lwanl Jrnninpi, rorooer, of Kent 

with the H»ht'rieis and a new outlet was cut for C<»unty; Hi vex Holt, sheriH', and Snmuel Davis, 

Murthcrkill Crei'k into the bay, in Kent County. eonmer, ofSiiiiHcx County. 

Governor Keith was succeeded hy Patrick I>urin>r the hitter jiert of 1726, and early in 

Gordon on June 22, 172G. lie went down to New 1727, the ANHenihly f»f the lower counties paiwd 

CaMtle on the 28th, where a nicetin)( of the Council many ini|M>rtanl measures. All vesseb havin;; on 

was held, and sumuionod the Asm'inbly to meet iMianl i>iekly fieraons, or coming from places where 

him on July 20th. At a meeting of tlic Council there existett a eontatrious ditfeas«, were not allowed 

on July 2t>th he iiwued conmiirinions to I^avitl to «Mnie witliin one mile of the shore until they 

French oa attorney-general for the three lower iKHMinil a jicrmit from the (tovemor or two justices 

counties; to Jolin French and Samuel liownian *if the imiico. I^ws were aI#o pnHM-d ohli^'ing all 

in New CVtIe County, HoU'rt GonKm and witne^'H's legally nunnnoncfl to tivtify a;niin!>t the 

Denjaniin Shurmer in Kent, and Henry UnN>ke d(*2>truetiou of landmarks ; apiinst the eoti>truetion 

and Jonathan Daily in Susk>x, as jud^i» of tlio of dams uen»m rivers and ereekit, except for mills ; 

Supreme Court, and also conunii*«ionerM of Oyer against tlefneing or counterfeiting; seaU ami 

and Terminer and General Gaol IX'livery in their chnrtera, inciting riots and holding unlawful 

rcs|ieetive countic:*. The justices ap|Hiiuti*d for awemldit'S. A nieunure of more int|Mirtance. how- 

New Castle County were John French, Holiert ever, was the s|iecittl form of trial fumi«>hcil for 

Gordon, Joseph England, Charles 8prin;n*r, John negroes. The Ciuvemor was to commission two 

Kichanlson, James James, William Ihtttell, David justices of the {leucv in each county, who, with tix 

Evans, Andrew IVterson, EU-neziT >jn|Mon, linns of the nioeit able freehoMem in the nei^^hliorhood, 

Hnnmrn, James Dyre, Samuel Kirk, Uiehanl should form a Inianl fur the trial of all ne^nt or 

(Snifton and Simon Hadley. Tlioi«e for Kent muhitto i>lavei>. In eiim* the iiegni «as mnviettd 

wen* Kiiltert Gordon, neiijamin Shurmer, Uiehanl of a nipilal ollriim* iumI snIK'n'd the deiith penally, 

JtichanUon, Clmrhn llillani, Thonius Kreiieli, he wai at oihh' nppniUil by the »Hiii<5 jutlirinl 

Mark Manlove, Timothy llaniMin, John Hall, Inianl, and two-thinli* of hit* value |Niid to tho 

James Wom*ll, Joneph IhMith, Jr., John Brinkloe, owner out of the county treaj^ury. The punish- 

Thomas Ilerry, (Seorgo Nowcll, Jf»hn Hou.<«nian, ment of the negroest for mi-eting in iNidies numU'r- 

John Tilt.m, William Manlove and Hugh Dur- ing more than six, or ftir carrying arms, wo.^ 

l»orrow. Those for Su»m.*x were llenrv Hrooke, tuentVHme lai^hes on the bare back. If eouvi<-te«l 

William Till, Philip Kusecll, .^amuel Kowlund, of f^tealing, the slave was Iashi*d at tlie diM-rction 

Woolsey Burton, Simon Kollock, John May, of the bounl, while his muster was comiiclleil to 

Jeremiah Clayp(N>le, Jacob Kollock, Thonms make reparation for the stolen pnifierty. The 

Davis, John Jacolis, Samuel Davis ami JoMcph piini.'ihment for an attempt at ni|)c u|Mm a white 

Cord. The lasi-named iJHt of justice:*, however, woman was rather revolting, the negn> U'ing 

soon underwent a change, for when the Couiitil forcnnl to otand in the pillory at the (Murt-hooM 

met at Phihulelphia, on Scptemlier 2>'{«1. the for four houn^, <m iiome murt day, with his ears 

Governor uiuiounced that Alexander MoUiitton nailed to the frame, anil liefore he was let down 

had entered a complaint against Juniicc William they were cut ofl* close to his head. 

Till, who, he declannl, had UMtl his influence on For the better necurity of deliti>, the AwK'nddy 

the bench so as to utterly prevent the complainant authorize<l the sale of land when thi* |ier!*imal 

from obtaining employment and supporting his estate wiu* insuHicient to meet the liability, uuIcm 

family. It was then learned from members of the the rent of the land wouM prtive to be great 

Council that Till had on a previous m-cosion enough t<» me<«t the claim in seven yeara. in which 

openeil and kc)it a letter sent fnmi Philadelphia to cum; the cn>ditor wiu olilip'«l to wait that time, 

liolicrt Fnuikhmd, survevor of Sukacx Countv, Hut bv fur the nioMt imiNirtnnt mt-osun* of tlii« 

and that at a nnx^nt meeting of tho AsM>nibly of iN^riisl of leginhitive activity was the tvinlilivh* 


nent of a regular ijriilemof Uw mkI equity courta. Pcnn't title to the lower eounttci was onoe more 

There wee flnt the oourt etjlcfl the Qetieral itorted. Oovemor Gordon had spent tome time 

Quarter 8cai<iona of the Peace and Gaol I>elivcry at New Cii*tle» and while tliero had lecured docu- 

in each county, and waa ticld four times in each mentary evidence that John French had been 

year. It was held at Lewintown on the first spreading reports derogatory to the proprietary's 

Tuesday in February, May, August and Novcm- faintly and their authority over the lower counties. 

her, at Dover on the second Tuesday in the same When the Governor returned to Philadelphia he 

months, and at New Castle on the third Tuesday, laid the facts, as well as the papers, before the 

This court was presided over by the jtistioce, or Council, and although it was not proven that 

at least thrre of them, regularly ci»raniistiioned by French wa^ mnking any attom|)t to overthrow 

the Governor, who were also em|)ower>Ml to hold the government, or advance any claim of his 

special or private sessions whenever they deemed own, he was, nevertheless, removed from the 

fit, or to take recognisance of misdemeanon out of Council. While in New Castle, however, the Gov- 

the regular sessions, and bring them before the ernor had leanied tliat William Till, who had been 

court at its regular meeting. Such cases as were removed from the magistracy of Sussex County 

not within their jurisdiction they t«H>k to the in the preceding year, had sinco Inm^u conducting 

Supreme Court of Oyer and Terminer. The himself very satisfactorily, and had done good 

General Quarter Sessions was held for three days service in the late Astwrnbly. lie had admitted 

at each of its regular meetings, and to ex|)cdite his error, and declaRnl that he had been imposed 

matters the writs of any justice were applicable in uiM>n. He was, therefore, rctHmimcndcd for rein- 

all the counties. There was also a Court of ' statement, which was accordingly done, when the 

Record held twice during each ycnr in every mugistratcs were conmiMicmcd in April. In that 

county. The days for holding this court were the month the Council commisHioneil the f«>llowing 

5th of OctolH>r and the 21st of April at New to bo judges of the Supremo Court of the lower 

Castle; the IHh of October and the 'iAtli of April ctmnties: David Kvnns, KiohanI Grafton, Robert 

at Dover; the l.*Uh of October and 2ih\\ of April Gonlon, Uenjumin Shurmcr, Henry Brooke and 

at Lewbtown ; but when either of the dotes named Jonathan llailey. The justices of the peace for 

fell on Sunday the court met on the following <lay. New Cft«tlc and Sussex Counties were at the same 

This court was known as the Supreme Court of the time appointed for 1727-28, those for the former 

Counties of New Castle, Kent and Sussex u|Mm being Robert GortUm, John Richard, Joseph 

Delaware. It wss presided over by three judges Kngland. Charli>s Springer, Andrew Petcrwin, 

comniiiwioned by the Governor, one of whom was Hans Hanson, Simon lladly, William Read, 

the chief justice. Each of them, however, had Thomas January, James Jamo*, Jr., Richard 

full power to issue writs of habeas eorpttg, eer- Cantwell, Joseph Robicson and James Armitagu. 

tinrari, writs of error, etc. The jurisdiction of Thesis from Su»4cx were Henry Brooke, William 

this oourt was rather broad, but in general it was Till, Richard Hinman, John Roadcs, Woolsey 

a court of apfical, cimsidering cases brought from Burton, Simon Kolluck, Samuel Kowland, John 

the Court of Quarter Sessions, or any other on a May, Jeremiah ClayiKwle, Jacob Kolluck, John 

writ of error, or appeal, or otherwise. Besides Jacolw, Samuel Davis, Joseph (^)rd, Robert 

those there was a County Court of Common IMcas, Shankland, George Walton, Knoch Comings, 

held quarterly at the same times and places as and David Smith. 

the regular Quarter Sessions. The Governor Georgo I. having died June 11th, the proclama- 
issued commissions to competent justices, not less tion of George II. was published at New Castle 
than three, who presided. They held pleas of in September, it having been decided by the Gov- 
assize, seire fatiat, replevins, informations and enior and C'ouucil that it was unnecea«nry to 
actions upon iK*nal statutes, and hcanl all such proclaim the acctrssion in each of the countii*s 
ennt as onlinarily oome under the jurisdiction of seiNinit^'ly. Immediately upon the rei*eii»t of 
similar courts. The same juKtici<s who sat in the intelligentH) an nddrcM of allegiance and 
the Courts of Common Pleort were also required subnii?4i«ion to tho new monarch was drawn up 
to sit quarterly, at nearly the same time that ami signtnl by various magistrate* and citizens 
the Common Pleas were hehl, as a Court of of Kent, Sussex and New Oistle Counties. The 
Equity. The prothonotary of the Common Pleas signen were Morgan Morgan, Enoch Morgan, Jot- 
Court was also regbter of the Court of Equity, eph Hill, Eluha Thomas, Rees Jones, Thomas Davis, 
They considered all cases in equity and any David French, John French, George Ross, Robert 
other matters coming under the control of Chan- Sparks, James Sykcs, Henry Newton, John Van 
eery Courts. Thb remained the conntitution of Gc/xill, Hugh Stevenson, John Hove, Samuel 
the court until 17G0, when material changes were Griffith, ]k*njnmin Burleigh, William (loddanis, 
made. RoU^rt Gonlon, Richard Graflon, John Richahl- 
In March, 1727. tlie ohi bngliear 0)i)ccming son, Charles Springer, Thomas January, William 


Rcftd, Jamoi Artnitiige, Jam«t Jamei, Jr., HAniucl Morgnn Morgiiii oontiouecl u eoR>n«r of New Ca»tl« 

Bhcnnan and Jeremiah Bhcnnan. Cuunty ; William Kodcncy nsgalocd lib pwitiun 

The Oeiubcf elections for sheriffii and coronen as tlierilf of Kent County, and Samuel ISerry wm 
In 1727 resulted in a choice of the same otticers iv<>lectcd coruncr, and in Huaiwx, Riven Holt wos 
in all the coiiutict except in Kent, where Tlumiai reelected t^heriff, while John lloadit •uccccdi'd 
Bkidmore replaced William Hodcney as sheriff. In John JiicoIm as coroner. In 17^$0 the old ofiicvrs 
the following year, however, William Ucad was H-erc all put out with the exceiHion of Ikrry. The 
made shcriif of New CaKtlo County, in place of cloctioiis miultc«l in the choice of William iCcid and 
John Gooding ; Momm Fn*cinan instead of Abnihiiiu GotNling um sheriff and coroner for New 
Thonuis i?ki<lmore, in Kent ; and John Jacolis Castle County ; John Hall and Samuel tierry for 
succce<lcd Coroner Samuel Davis in Su.<mi>x. A the siime oflicui in Kent ; and Simon Kolluck and 
vacancy in several oftiitM occurred in October, Cornelius Wilthank in Susiex. A nuisance which 
1728, by the death of Colonel John French, and the {icople found theuisclvus forced to abate was 
ten of the jui>ticcB of the \Knoe for New Costlo the rapidly increasing number of peddlers. Many 
County at once addressed a petition to the Gov- oompluinLKJ that they were iui|ioscd on by the va- 
ernor, requesting that whatever ap])ointmcnti grants, lioth in quality and price, and as they paid 
might be made, the officen selected sliouUI be r»ti- no taxes, there was no reason why they should 
dents of the lower counties. A petition was also be allowed to have uoliuiited privileges. In 1731 
received from l*etcr Kvnns, praying to 1m> at once the AHM*nibly took the matter in hand, by 
admitted to the oflice of probate of wills, having prohibiting any one from engaging in thb 
been ap|M)inted by Penn, but kept out by Freneii. occupation without obtaining a nt^^nimenda- 
Kvans, howc\'cr, reitiiletl at IMiihulelpliia, and in tion from the justiei'S of the County Court, and 
consideration of the ficiition jujtt received fnmi the also a iiecnsu from the G«iVernor. In ad(litii>n to 
justices, his {tctition was not gninle<l. KoU-rt this, they weru nNiuin^l to give iHind with at 
GonUm was. npiN>intetl to fill the )Mtsitiou, and letutt one surety, and the on^t of the lieen>« was 
other nominations were made, as follows: Duvid fixed at twenty-five shillings for one who travelvd 
French, to be clerk of the |»eacc and prothono- in a wagon or on horse, ami fifteen shillings for 
tary of the Court of Common Pleas in New Castle one traveling on foot. The elections in 1731 
County ; William Head, to be clerk of the placed in office John Gooding and Robert Robert- 
Orphans' Court ; and Willium Shnw to succeed son as sheriff and con>ner, resjiectively, in New 
French as attorney-general. There was nothing Castle County. The old jthcritU were uiidii<turbe<l 
further of partictilar note which occurred to ilis- in the other two eounticH, but the c«>n>nen8 were 
turb the tranquil tenor of life in the territories not so fortunate, Niehuhis I^HM-kerman rv|>ittcing 
during the next few years. Alexander Keith was Samuel Derry in Kent County, an<l John Clowes 
app(»inled collector of customs at New CttHtlo u|N>n suecee<ling Cornelius Wililiunk in Su!*sex. In 
the death of l'ollect<ir Lownian, in 172{y. Later in 1732, Robi*rtsi'n wom defeateii by Henry Gonn6 as 
the year a stir wiu* cremated by a sc^litious news- connier of New Cuttle County. There was no 
pa|)cr article, which caused its pulilinher, Amlruw change in the i^liertfi's i^ce, nor in either of the 
liradfonl, to be committed for court. The article offices in Kent, but in Sussex, Sinison Kolluck and 
was written by one <»f the niiKi«ionnries sent out Joshua Fivlier weru elected sheriff and conmer. 
from Knglund, naniG<l Canipltell, who hxid been In the following year the only changes were that 
flatiimed in New Cnstle County, but had lKi>n Henry Newton became sheriff of New Cattle 
forced to leave on account of unliecoming ctmduct. County, and Daniel RiNleney in Kent. At this 
By way of revenge he had written the article men- time the <lispute over the boundaries assumed a 
tionetl, which contaiiKMl numerous charges against very mtIous us|>ei't, but the lionler frays were 
the government of IVnnsylvanin and the terri- quiet4'<i with lera trouble than was ex|iecteit. 
torics, and n<lvice to the |Kt»ple to nn'olt. He had In 1734 un ini|Kirtnnt and fundnuiental change 
shrewdly gotten out of the n'aeh i»f the authori- wax nuule by nii act n>guliiting elections, as well oa 
tics, however, and had gone to liong Island. the number, of meinliers of the AftHrndily. There- 

The only indulgence in p«)litics which was en- nf\cr the elections for members of the AsK'mbly 

joyed by the people was their annual election for were to take place on tlie 1st day in each succeed- 

sheriflii and coroners in each county. But from ing October, at the Court-Houses in New Castle, 

the records of these officers it is evident that the Dover and Lewistown, for the counties in which 

holders of the positions were well able to manage these towns were situated. Each county was then 

their affairs, as those who got control of 4hc ofliccs entitled to at least six repni4entutives, but the 

in 1720 continued, with only a few changes, for Assembly might increase timt numlicr if it saw fit. 

four or five years, when a second lot came in, who Voting was made compulsiiry for all qualitietl 

n*|H'ttted the same thing. At the elections in electors, under is-nalty of a tine of twenty sliillings. 

1729 William Ucad was apiwinted sheriff, and The Assembly thus elected met on the 2T)th of 


Ortober «l N«w OMtle, And Um only eieuMt for thtm mm of no llttio imporUnot. A pound wm 

wbicli the GoTcrnor wn« allowed to toniponirily in this year built at New Gnrtle, and paid for by 

fhtMgp tbe place of meeting was a raging iickncta tbe peu|»le of the town. Thb wm to check the 

or fi>reign invasion. The qualifications for tbe nuisances lulfored Afoai horses and cattle running 

right of suflVage, and also to hold offlce» wens that loose. Thereafter, if a stray horM or head of cattle 

the penon should be a subject of Groat Britain, were found on the jtropcrty of a penon wImiso fences 

and twenty-one years of age. Hewasalsoretpiired were en>ctcd accunliug to law, he night put the 

to be a freeholder within the govcmnient of the horM or cattle in the putind until coi)i|)eusateil by 

lower counties ami have fifty acrai of land ur more, their owners fur whatovcr damage was done. An- 

twelve of which were clcaml and liiipruvcd. or in other impruvcment made at New Costlo was the 

lieu of chin ho must have iMMMssed furty pounds in eslabli^hinciit of a regular nmrket, and thorough 

money. But in any ease, he must have been a regulations for its conduct. Philip Van I.<euvenigh 

iwident lor two yean. Any perM>n ofioring to was appointed clerk, with authority to enforce con- 

voto who was not so qualified was mibjcct to a fine formity to its rules. WedncMlny and Haturday 

of five poomU, ami was not eligible to serve as a were selected as the regular nmrket da}'s, and no 

member during that year. This punishment was one was allowed to buy or sell any provisions, 

aim imposed for bribery. Inspectors of election except fish, milk and bread, anywhere but at tiie 

were chosen, one out of each humircd, and they, market-place on thcise days. On a breach of this 

with the shcriflT or coroner, actctl as judges of rule the clerk of the nmrket could levy on both 

elections. Kvery elector hamled in the nannw of purchaser and vernier for the amount of the sale, 

the partiia for whom he desiml to vote in writing; and these fines were used for the benefit of the |Mior 

ttut if lie were illiterate, one of the clerks in attend- of the town. The rt*gulations prohibited the sale 

ance at the polls was empowered to publicly writo of unxouud brcf, and the use of false weights. The 

whatever names the elet*tor should mention, and size and weight of the loaves of bread allowed to 

deposit the paiier in the box. Any vacancies be sold were fixed by the justices of the |)ettoe, and 

occurring were filled by special elections under every baker was rc«|uircd to mark his loaves so as 

writs issued by the Governor, or in case of his to distinguish them from oUiers. No fwnon was 

failure to issue them promt^tly, the S|)eaker of the allowed to otfvr any meat for sale on Tuesdays and 

AsKcmbly was em|K>wered to sign them. The Fridays, excei>t in the montlis of June, July and 

sherifi'tlH»n publicly announced tlie time and place August 

of eUftiontaml poittc<l notiftvon tmti, liousvii,aiid It was also found neitMary to ap|)oint new 

even the Omrt-l louse and plain's of worship. Tiie trustcHi* over the fHiblic land at Dover. Tlie three 

Assembly had authority to ele<*t a 8|M'aker ami who had bci>n ap|N»inted in 1710 — Benjamin 8hur- 

other otfii'crB, and was the judge of the qualifiouti«>n nier, William Brinkloc and Kichanl Uichardson— 

and election of its own members, im|)euclictl crim- hud since died, and the absence of any one with 

inals, redresBcd grievances, passed laws and pos- authority to sell the land hotl lieen a serious draw- 

se«sc«l other powers necessary for the conduct of a back to the town. In their stead were appiiuied 

legislative biidy. Tlie quorum was two-thirds. John Ilulliday, James Gorrel and Thomas Hkid- 

No member was allowed to vote before he attested more, who were authorised not only to sell all tlie 

to a rigid oath, in which he was oliligud to swear land not yet disfiosed of, but alsi> to confirm the 

all<*giance to the King, his abhorrence for the titles of any sold by the former trui«tec8. 
doctrines of the Catholic (church, and his belief in The |)cople at this time began to tire of the 

the divine inspiration of the Old and New Testa- practice of re-electing sherifls for a number of 

nicnts. Members of the Ansemhly received six succiwive terms, but found that it was no easy 

shillings |ier day, and tlie S|ii*aker ten, as well as a matter to check. Many evils had re8ult4*d from 

niikikgc of three pence, which was {laid by the tlie custom. The sherifls had resorted to bribery, 

counties from which they were elected. ami it a*as also complained that their liberal dis- 

At the 0<tober elections in 1734 all the old tribution of intoxicating liquon usually trans* 

officers were continued except Simon Kolluck, who formed the |m>IIs into a howling mob of drunk and 

was succeeded by Cornelius Wiltbank as slieriif disorderly ruffians. Along with the many other 

of Kent. In 17«V> John Gooding once more became additions to the statutes in 1740, the Assembly 

sheriff of New Caj4le County, with Henry Gonne enacted a law prohibiting a sheriff who had served 

as coroner. In Kent, Daniel Hodeney and Nicholas three terms to be re-elected until a like time had 

I^MM'kerman retainc<l their offices, while in Sufttex elii|Nicd after the expiration of his last term, and 

Uith otficc'rN were chaii^iil by the el(H*tioii of J<»hn at the same time heavy |H*ualties wcru threatened 

Khnnkland for nhcriir, and Daniel Niiiiex as on all who ollerc«l or acct^iited bribes In money, 

cimiiH'r. drink or in any form whatsoever. Another evil 

The year 1740 brought forth many new measuitv which n>ceivcd a check was the imiwrtation of 

from the law-maken of New Castle, and some of paupers, in whom an extensive trade had sprung 


up. It WM now made uolawftil to import a oon- In tho three oountiet reralted in fiivor of John 

vict or pauper into tlie torritoriet without |iayinf( (Somlinj; and Henry Giiene for nheriflT and 'coroner 

a duty of live pounds for ea(*h one, and giving bond of Now Gkutle County. Samuel ltol»iciM>n and 

in tho aum of fifty pounds for his goiKi behavior Kichuni James f»r Kent, ami Curnclius Wiltlmnk 

ibr one year. In tlio case of infants or lunatics and and John WynktMip for 8umh>x. In 1741 the 

the like, the peimm im|M)rting them had cither to New CVtIe ofKcem wore rc-i'lcctcd, hut rn Kent 

indemnify tho gitvornrnvnt or return them whence County Kdnuiiitl Und^^er micccciIimI Itifhnnl Jnnu's 

they came. Biwcial collectors wero a)>|Nnntc<l to as comner, nnd in Suivex IVtcr Hall and I*eCer 

see that these provirtiouH were (dK^ycd in cueli county. Clowes lio<*anie sheritr and comiicr, rei*pocti vcly. 

John Kinney was np|minti*d for New Ciistle (^»unty, The Awembly. in 174*2, again iHiaM<«l a iiumlwr 

John Ilolliduy for Kent and 8ini«>n KoUuck for of new laws with a view to preventin<4 dueling, 

8uiMex, and any vacancies were filled by a commie- horve-stealing, burglar}- and other similar crimes, 

sion from the Governor. A niewure de^rvin*; of more notice, however, and 

An attempt was also made to decrease drunken- inismmI in the same year, was a jury acL The 

nesi, blasphemy and profxiuity. Druiikenni'ss and shcriHs in (>acli county were onlercil, on the 

mild profanity were punished by small tines, and rciiMpt of profwr writt from the court, to summon 

the culprit was placed in the stocks for from two twenty-iMght of the most able and sulHantial men 

to three hours, but for blasphemy he wiwset in the in their bailiwicks to serve as grand jumrs. and 

piHory for two hours, brauiieil on the forehead with forty-eight ns petty jurorsi, in the Court of Oyer 

a B, and then received thirty-nine hothcs on the and Terminer. For the Quarter i?cA*ions they 

iMire back in full view of the public. Inn-keepera were to Kumnion a grand jury in eueh county 

weremorestrictly watched, and the prices of liipior before the lieginning of the May term, and this 

and the quantity allowed to be sold were annually jury scrve<l during the year, but a |H'tty jury was 

fixed by the justices in each county, and the lists summoned quarterly, UTon* each soKion of the 

were |MMtetl in each tavern. Minor measures were court. Hut in etu>e the slieritl' was in any way 

passed, fixing the time for killing deer and making connecttnl with the |inrties intereste<l in a suit 

it punishable to kill a deer or fawn from January {Handing U'fore the courts, or was in any way di:«- 

1st t«» August Ist. The height of po»*t and rail abKnl, his authority for summoning jur^-men was 

fences was put ut four nn«l n half feet, ami worm tninsfcrntl to tho coroner, 

fences at five feet, and sevend other similar laws An iumtvution that was now intnMlueiMl was 

were {HifiHil nt the same time. the ap|M»intnient of wiNNl-ciirdcrs iu every ttiwn 

Alhiut the midille of 1740 the lower counties and villiige in the counties. It was the duty of 

had a lively ex|)erience with KolK*rt Jenkins who thfse otKeers to nuu^un* every cord of wmid 

hail counterfcitiMl a large quantity of their pa|»er ofieretl for sale and certify that the dimensions 

money. Jenkins was a n'sident of 8tdem, New were suc-h ns were pn»|)erly refpiired. The corder 

Jenk«y, and, in 17•'{i^ had gone to Kngland with a reci^ivi'd a six-iietice from the loirchaser for his 

number of the bill:< and ofiered Abraham Hive, a lulnirs. 

printer at Southwark, five guineas if he wouhl The market at New Cnstle having proved a 

duplicate them, and promised a further rewanl sueetiw, similar additions were made to llover and 

when he returnetl to America. Hive, it ap|H'ar<, Lewistown. The regulxitions were ahrnvt iilentical 

had printed the bills, but informc<l on Jenkiiui. with thoM! for the New Custle market, and the 

The latter ship|NMl as a c<M>k on a ve!«4el iMiuud for managi*nient was likewise placed in the hands «if 

New York, and arrived in June, 1740. Governor clerks. Tlionms Nixon wil<« apfKiinted for Dover 

Clarke, of New York, was awaiting hL<< arrival, and Joshua Kinher for Lcwi!<town. 

ami nine hundn^l and seventy-one twenty-chilling An ineiih'nt that occurre<l in 1742, while of no 

notes were found in his |MMtMt<(tion, although none great imiM>rtance, and yet giving evidence that the 

of them were signc«l. He wilh taken prisoner and lower f*ounties wen* progrcT^^ing smoothly and 

Governor Thomas, of r«;nn:<ylvaniu, wiis notifiinl. harmoniouxly in their indei>endent govornnient. 

Ho WHS brought tc» l*hiladelphia, and on July od aror>e out of a f|uarn>I lietween Governor Ge«irgc 

was exuminetl by the (iovemor ami Itcconler Thoma.* and the Assembly of the pmvince. The 

Andrew Humihon, but Jenkins firmly hehl out AstH'inbly had ur«d nither harsh language in 

that the bills, as well as two phials of red and n'reren<n' to the Governor, and an aIln:«ion hnd 

black ink taken frrmi his tnink, wert) there when also Ism nnnlc to his allowances. In reply 

it was purchnse<l, and he knew nothing of them (iuvernor Thotnas eniploye<l tho following Ian- 

until they were fiuind scen*ttMl in the top by the gungt*: " jiutbi't'on* I pniecc<l to a vindication of 

authorities at New York. It was plain that ho myself give me leave to say that you would have 

was guilty, however, and he was forthwith sent to shown more exact nt*!i<» if you Imtl diftiiiguUhtHl 

New Ciuttle, where he was tried an<l convictiKl. between the {icniuisites of thin goveninicnt and 

In October the elections for sherilf and coroner those of the lower counties, for I conceive you 


Ksre M more to do with what reUtct tu that for sheriff and coroner for 1744 placed fiamuol 

gOTtmuent than you have with the income of mj Bickley and Benjamin Cook in thoee ofRon in 

ova prirate evtate. To that Aieembly and their New Oiftle County ; Thoroaa Green and Thomaa 

constituents I am pleated with making my Parke for Kent; and William Sliankland and 

acknowledgment for the provision they have Robert Gill fur Sufsex. The following year no 

annually made for my support, but more particularly change was made except in the office of BberifT of 

for the juMico they have done to my administra- New Cnntlo County, which was filled by Gideon 

tion, for from hence it will be concluded by all Griffith. In 1740, Gideon Griffith and James 

unprejudiced pcnuns that the names impostor, MvMullin were elected sherifl* and coroner in New 

plunderer, invader of tlie lilterties of the people, Castle ; John Hunter and George Goforth in Kent; 

etc, etc, are the result of penonal prejudice or a and William Shankland and John Molliston in 

malignant party spirit." SujHex. 

&imuel Bickley and Benjamin Cook were this In 1747 and 1748 all the lower counties were 

year elected sheriff and coroner of New Castlo kept in a givat state of excitement, owing to the 

County. In Kent and t^Mex the old officers held attacks of privatecn, but thio has been treated of 

over. in another cluipter. In 1747 the nmd leiuling from 

In 1743 lht« nM>tho«) of raii*ing taxc« in the IMiihulelphln to Now (*iii«tle was tho cnuM)ofniucli 

Umvr l^MlnlU's was iiuUjc«*te«l tu a cnnupMo n*nr- anuoyiuuv. owing to itn InuI stato of n*pair and 

r«U|:euNMtt. At the n^gtilur OcIoInt electiim for difficulty c»f iiupMving it. At a UHt'ting of the 

nicnili«*r» of tlio AftH*nil>ly, t\w votcni chose an Council, on Augui>t iMtli, two |ti>titious were prc- 

BfWMNtr for each hundnnl, Si'r>'icc lieing compul- wntetl, one fnuii GtHirgi* Gray, kcc|)er of the lower 

sory. On the Tuesday after the meeting of the ferry, and the other tmni a uuiulicr of cititens of 

Quarter Sessions in November, the justices in each CIiCi<ter County, afking that tlte road Iw repaired, 

county and eight graiMljur}-nien, together with all The record of the rond had bei*n destroyed, and it 

the a^sesMrs for the couutv, formed tliemfelvos into was some time U'foro the Council consented to 

a sort of finance b«ianl, and estiumttHl the amount have the road rexurveyed, but directions were 

rr«|uin>d to mc<*t public exiK'n-^es for the coming finally given for the rpsun'cying of the road, which 

year. When this was detcmiiui'<l they made mit was now nuule nixty fi>ct wide, 

a list (»f items ami the funi reiiuirvd for each, after Late in the year a numlMT of commiMiions were 

the fu»hii*n of a regular appropriations hill. In issuetl to offii-ers in New Custle County, who, with 

AugUKt tlie county clerk directe<l the nmctabli'S otiien in the various counties of the provinces and 

in ever>* hundred or distrit-t in his ctiunty to pre- territories, had l)egun to organize small companies 

ber, and were used by them in asses.'^ing the prop- tenant Paul Allfree, KiMi^nt JerranI Rothwcll ; 
erty of the county. Tlie asMwnients were posted (^uptain David Stcwanl. Lieutenant Jen>me I>u- 
by the county clerk, and four weeks after the shriMie, KuMgn Isaac DuHhcene; Captain George 
boonl held :ts November meeting it again c«m- Gano, Lietitenant James Kgla^rtMin. Knwign 
wm-d to hear any apiNiils fnmi tlifir assessments, Tlifmias IWnnett; Captain David Bush. Lieutenant 
or to ci»rn*ct omiMioiis or other ernm. At this J<ilin MrKinley, Kn^ign Charh<s Bunh ; (*aptttin 
sec«»nd mevtiug llwy apiMiintitl a <<olh>ctor in every Jtihu Vam-e, Lieutenant John Vaiulyke, Knsign 
hundnil for one year. The w»IU'ctor was iwid at William Ilnrraway; I'aptain Alexander Pt>rter, 
the rote often per wnt., hut where he was oblige<l Lieutenant James King, Kneign Samuel Allricks; 
toM^lanyproperty, orarro'tatax-tmyerbyreastni Ca]itain Kdward Fitxrnndolph, Lieutenant Alex- 
of his inability to collect, his fee was limiie<t to ander Chance, Knsign Joseph Ilotham. To these 
three shillinp six|ien<-e in the fiwt ca-'«c, ami four were adde<l, eariy the next year. Captain William 
shillings in the mn-ond. The county treiu^uit>r re- Patterson, Lieutenant John' Read, Knnign Thomas 
cvivttl ami disburKil these fundi*, and was nllttwed Montjroniery ; Captain William Danforth, Lieu- 
f«>ur {NT cent., and his ac«*ounts wen» examin«tl tenant IIiMiry CohidHiry, Knsign Petrr Jae«tuet; 
annually by thifc UM'udH'n of the board. Tho Cnittnin David Withen«|MMm, Lieutenant Alexnn* 
ju*>ti<nii, grand jurymen and asmnimni who formeil iU«r Arnistnmg. Knsign Anthony (iohlen ; Captain 
the boanl in New I'listle County wi'n^ together James MeMeelien, Lieutenant Al»el Anni*trong, 
aUownl eighttvu jMiunds for their services, thono Knsign Thomas Oglu; Captain William Arm- 
in Kent fourti-en pounds, while twelve jiounils was Hin>ng, Lieutenant Jf mt« Morris, Kiwigii Tlionias 
tlie allowance for tho Su^wex boanl. Philifis: Captain Ja^ib Gooding, Lieutenant 
Maiterawcns very ipiiet throughout the lower Jacob Van bvblier and Knnign David Howell. In 
cuuntii>s for leveral years, and even the Assembly May, 174M, still further additions were made fruni 
remained comparatively inactive. The olectiont New Custle County by the issuing of commii«ions 


to CbpUin David Finney, lieutennnt Francu eommitiee to lay off a iquara plot of Kroond in 

January, Ensign French Battle ; CapUin Evan the middle of the court-hoaee atiuare oa which to 

Rioe, Lieutenant Jamei Walker, Ea<«i};n Charles build a roarkct-hou^e. Thomas Clark wa« 

Bryan, f^r.; Oiptain John Almond, Lieuiunant appointed clerk tif the new market, and the regu- 

Lulofl* Petermn, Emi)pi Luke Monjioe ; Captain latiuiM were made niniilar to th<Mc in New Castle. 

Timothy Qriflith, Lieutenant Williahi FaricB, Hn- New trustee! wen; in this year appointed ft>r the 

sign IXivid Kowland; Ca|rtain Archibald Ann- general loan otiicus in the diHercnt ctmnties. Th«ee 

strong. Lieutenant Thomas McCuilough, Kit.<«ign offices had been in existence for two yean, and 

liobcrt Pierce. Two regiments were organized in originntcd in con9c<|Uence of the re-print inir. 

the county, and commiasion* iiwucd to John Guud- cxehnnging and re-emitting of twenty thoumnd 

iiig, Sr., and William Aniintrung aM Colonel*; |ioun«l4 of |m|H>r money. The oflicen originally 

Thomas Jnnies and Wiilinm PutterKon, lieutenant- ap|H>inte<l were Jehu Curtly John Vau«v and 

colonels; and Jacob Vaiibeblier and William Jolin McCikiK* for New Cu.itle County, John 

MrCrea, majom. Brinkley and Thomas Ctreen fitr Kent, and Kives 

In Kent County tlio ap|)ointmenti« were to Holt and Jacob Kolluek in SutM>x. Their duties 

Qiptain John Vining, Lieutenant Thomas Parke, compriMtl a gi'iieral »>u|M'rinteiid4>ntx' nf the new 

KuKign Uiehnrd Wells; Captain John Ilunn, iwiiiu of ninney, and «iu'li won rxtpiiriMt to give 

Lieutenant William llinuis, KuKign Murk llinmi*; liontl in the Hini of one tliouMind |NMin«l*. The 

Captain KoUTt Hlnckiihin*, Lieutenant John Mitft^ ternm for w hirli they had Urn apfiointeti having 

Ensign William Het-s; Captain (itHirgc Mnrtin, now expirttl, Jehu I'urtis and John Vance werv 

Lieutenant Jaeob Alkv, Knxign John Vana'inkle; reupiKiintiHl in New Coi-tle County and served 

Captain John Caton. Lieutenant lloliertCatlin and with a new tnistee, iCiehanl MeWilliam. In 

Eniiign Joseph HodMii. In Auguitt, New Coj^tle Kent C*ounty, John Vining and Andrew Caldwell 

County a«ldeil Captain John F^lwanls, Lieutenant were the new apiMiinti-e^, while lioth the old 

David Johns and Ensign Kobi*rt Stewart ; and oftieen*, Uivva Holt and Ja(t>b Kolluck, were 

Kent, Captain David Maraluill, Lieutenant David ciuitinued in Sumex. 

Clark, Eniiign William Green ; and Captain Janie:* Ste|M were nUi taken toward the better main- 

Edwar>Iii, Lieutenant Jameii Lewis, En«igti James teuance of the bridgiii and higliwavd in the ditferent 

Jame«. eouuties. The jur^tiixit of the (Quarter SfdMoiiii 

The elections in Octolicr, 1749, resulted in the were in«truete«l to ap|M>int annually at the May 

ap|M)intntcnt of John Vandyke and Sanmel Sili«liy seiwion of the ("oiirt one or nMin* ovennvnt in eneh 

to be slieritr and coroner iu New Ciwtle (Viunty, hiindn-<l. All king's hmmLi wei\.> onlenti to lie 

Thomas Parke and William Blaki)*t(m in Kent, forty f«vt wide, of which thirty fi^et were kept 

antl Peter CIowcm and William Shankland in grublNMl ami elearttl, and all bntnched and linilw 

HuMMiX. The two iirat-named counties retained by the waynide weiv cut off within ten feel of the 

the itame oflicera in ITt'iO, but Sussex eleetiHl gnmnd. Other public roads werv to U* thirty f«et 

William •Shankland phcritr and KolxTt Mel I waine wide. liriilges over ereek^ or gidley;* were 

coroner In IT'il George Munni and John Veatuf twelve feet wide with railiuKH three feet high, 

were electetl to fill the two ofHeCM in New Castle Tlie!«e were built and kept in n>|mir at theexin'nM.* 

Omntv. The two sherilfli were re-cleetitl in Kent of the count v in which thev were situatml, unlcr^s 

• • • 

and SuMcx but new iiironen} were cIccUmI, who the bridgi* wax net^-Kigiry by n*aiton of a mill-race 

were Januw CS n>y and John liodeney. cro^Miing the nnul, in which «*a»e the owner of the 

Tlicyiiani IT'il and IT.Vi found the AiMembly of mill wil" obliged to attend to the bridge. If the 

the htwcr cfmnticM once more extremely active. One ]ie<iple of any |iarticular nei^hltorluMMl coiuidcrrd 

of the Hrxt matten of im|)ortancc which received a road necci^iry, application was made to the 

its attention was a new gnnit seal for its govern- justiix's of the Quarter Sessions, who tlu'n ehoM 

uient. The old seal had the word "iX'llowure" five fnx'hohlera of giMMl ftanding to examine the 

engmved on it, and as it wu^ fean>d thin might in region thmugli which the nuid was to nin, and 

time priHlueo trouble, a tK*w one wik-4 thought n*|Mirt ai« to the advinability of constructing it. the 

necessory. All pa|H!ni i«tam|M'd with the old one length, dinrtion, damages and other m*<'vff!(ary 

were declanil to lie |K'rfii'tly leptl, and Jehu lutrticulun*. If the eommitttr n>|Mirtc<l favorably, 

Curtis, ih*njamin Chew and Abralinm Wyncoop ami the |tetitioners a;;rfe<l to pay the damap*;*. the 

were authorixe<l to procure the new one. It was mad wax nu^tructed. To ke<-pthe nnuUin n-(iair 

nmile of silver, wiu two inches in diameter and the overiKHTV were em|Miwere<l to rfpiire of ever}' 

contained thearnuof the Kingof Great Britain, the man paying taxes, amounting to thirty poumls or 

wonU ** Oointii'S on Delaware " and the date 17r>I. less, a days work {wrformctl either by hiniH'lf or 

As no building had yet been eoiwtructed for the a Mulh^titute. Th«ieic {Miyin;! from thirty to sixty 

market-place in Dover, Nicholas liidgely, Andrew pounds were obliged to fumi!>h two men, ami all 

Caldwell and Thomas Alford were veleeted as a paying more than sixty |M>unds three men. 


It WW abo BMCMinrto umoint new tmitMi . T ^TT*^^ •^^^ Tr*. *"*-!■ ***?^ >?ry *i!' ■?." .^ 
for a thiitl time, two of the fecund let having died, ^t m mdi «m m im im»ii« m, him iim pimmh mrfk% 

to dUnwe of the rrnminlng loft in Dover. Jamn '•i«»iMr.,«w»«ik«fcto«rijiiji,^ n.ii«i,«. 

(lonvil, JWnJaniin 11m*w ami Holicrt Willcockt ••rtiiM.'itiiik.jMMMii.iTAt.^^ 

weiv this time M'lectiMl, with iho Mnio |M»wi*ni at -t-uh. »•*•»< ^"tib**' 

wrf^oniforniilonllu'lr |»nHli>«H¥Mn. Tin* ln»t two The liit of proviiiiona pent Included twelve 

UK'ntitmMl were iiUi Mi»|N»iiiti*il In a Mniilar cAfNicity lianii, ei^lit cheiteM, two doien flaflu of oil, ten 

In conjunction with Samuel DickeiMon, John Duvtil lonvea of sugar, one cask of raiuiw, one box of 

and Juhn Viuiug, to diiiiMMe of the old Dover jail vpice and curronts, one box of pioklet and rout- 

and the gn»iiii<l alMiut it The iHH>plc had nuMMl tani, eight «*tt»k8 of biiicuitit, four kegs of nturgeon, 

a ftind for huildiiig a m>w ime, which. ti>gotlicr with one keg of herring, two chc:*tii of letnona, two kegt 

the iiroceedit coming fnmi tho Mnio t>f tlio ohl jail, of npirit, ono cuhIc of vinegar, one barrel of pota- 

wa« placctl in the hnmlHof tho tnitftecnto |iiirvlinjM) tocf, and thrco tuliH of butter, 

a new lot. The »hcriilV and ciinnierM eliMicd In Tho eliM'tiouA in 17«')<j fomheriirand conmer In 

OtiuU'r, 17^«, werv Innirgo MonriN^ and .lolin tho vnriiMM ctuiiitie* pmvetl tho iiu«*eiiMf\il I'nntli- 

Ycute* fur New IVftle i\Hiniy, •lolin llnytnn and dutca to 1h> William Qotdeni«lier f(»r •heriir, and 

Fitiit'h Itntile for Kent, and Willinm Sluinktnuil UoU*rt MorriMm for coroner of New i'lintki 

and tlohn Hmleney for Sukih*x riainty. In 17>Vt County; (.'leMir UtNlney and Kn*nch llattle, for 

Mmmio waa rc*cli*eteil, but John Yeiites w»a the Mimo oiliees in Kent County ; and flniNd) Kol- 

MimHile<l aa coroner of New IVntle County by luck, Jr. and Paynter Stockluy in Suimcx. In 

Robert Morriiion. John Clayttin, Jr., l)eeamo 175U the war wasdechiri'il, and pretwrationtdtegan 

■heriffof Kent Cuunty and French Battle rutnini'd in earnest. A map of Delaware Hay and Kiver, 

his poi'ition as coroner. Two new oHicials wero which had lH*en pit'imred by Jolin Kislier, was 

electeil in Sussex Ciiunty, the sheriff being Jacob aUiut to Ite puliliohcd, when Governor Morris 

Kolluck, Jr., and c(»roner John S|)t*ncer. oniered the publicution to lie fMHitiMUUHl, hiit a 

In 17o4 Jehu CHirtii*, tho neeond juilgi* of tho inipy iihould nnwU tiiu hnntU of tho enemy anti 

SupriMue t.*iMirt, dietl, and Witliiim Till was funiiith them with iii«ii*tnn(v. Tho Ai«M>mbly of 

ap|i(>inti'«l to MieeirtI hini by (lovmior Janii'S the lower countitH pro vitUnHor Mr! king tho sum of 

llnniilton. Hcvend justiiH's had aUi diinl in Kent two thouHund )Miunds in new bills of credit, and 

County and a new (HinimiMion wax IiwuihI, at tho on May 'iOtli an eniiiargo wuMdi^'Inred pioliibiting 

same time, ap|)ointing Samuel Dickinson, .lolin any ex|Hirtiition of pn»vi»ions or arms fnmi either 

Brinckkie, Thomas* Clark, Samuel Johns, William of the three counties. This latter act, passed in 

Fan«>n, John Vining, George Wilson, Ge«)rgo May, expired on July 7th, as did also a similar 

- Martin, John Goading, Stephen Parnidee, Uobcrt law in tho province. The Ciovemor at once re- 

^'illciK'ks, RichanI Wells, Thomas Irons and <picst<Hl the pnivince to renew their embnrgo, but 

John Clayton, Jr.* this thev stoutiv refused to <lo, unless the lower 

Tlio FnMich and Indian War had by this time counties would continue tho embargo fmsHed by 

b(«coiiK* nien>ly a t|Ucstion of time. Tho Fn'Uch their AsM>nibIy. Quvemor Morris went to New 

encnmchnients in the West had already stirrvd tho C*astle to induce tho As^'mbly to extend tho time 

IK-ttple into activity, and all tho ciilonies wero tak- of the act, but they wero only willing to omtinuo it 

ing whatever measures they wero able to asnist in until July 2Uth, and from then for aa long a 

the conmion tlefense. ]n 17r>4 tho AsM'mbly of ' |ieri(Ml as the province might pass a similar act, 

tlie hiwer counties on Delaware had provide«l for Imt in no case sh(»uUI the time extend lieyond 

raising a thoiumml |iounds for His >taji*sty's use, (K-tol»er 2*2d New York and New Jerwy had 

and tlte foHowing year, when the crisis was still ptit elfective emiiargoes into o|H>ration, but uidess 

m^an^r, an act was |ia»H*il for establishing a militia, the barriers exiitted on every side tho Ass«*mbly 

Bradd(K*k had by this time arrive«l and was of tho pnivinee held that an emliargo would Ik> 

alntidy In tho Wi'st. Kveryonewaseagi*rtoiuisist not only useless, but harmful to thorn. Tho bill 

in any way |Mis>*iblc to de<*reaKi% tho lmnlMln|M of yf^ finally passcti, although it was tho cause of 

tin* journey, Tho Uiwer ctmnties, not livling much displiiisun* to nuiny merchants, and later 

thenis(*lvtii able to rentier any gn*at assistamv, lait brought forth a vigonms )>rutest from them, 

yet deslnais of doing all within their |Miwer,S(>nt a The elections in the lower ctmnties for 1756 

load of provisions to the general and also a herd result«Hl in favor of William Golden and Robert 

of cattle for the army. Governor Robert Hunter Morrison for sheriff and conmer of New Castle 

Morris forwardeil with them the following letter: County, C:esar Rodney and Matthias Crozier for 

■ tirmrgir: I imw jwt timm by iiw borrr u» i«t« jun thai ba briiiff Kcut, and Johu Rodocy ami Wrixaui Lcwis for 

la bb wmmum lb* ■rvvfrnl thlna «K| HM ri| In tb« MM vimIuhiI, wlitrh n a ^.ii^i^ii** f 

y«..niJrrt.wr«vi«««..i.d«iib»7b««fi,«M.««r^ Siissex. A montli later, by the bt^guinuig of 

ibr G««rnr« bMiib mui MircM, «Mr> h« will So ib« litiu RuveniMBt November, tlic tlircc counties had organized their 

•r ihrir f* far bta awl iIm caa» la «Mcb b* k myivjwL uiilit la m accoKUince With thc acU of the Assem- 


btf « aihI th« ibllowlnf eoroniMom were leraed : Imwc Hall ; Town of Dover, OipUin John Clajr- 

for the Upper Hoglment of militia In New Cnitle ton, Ltctitcnnnt French Buttle, Kneij^n Janici 

CiMintv, New Cnatle Ilundml, North Uivwlon, AVt'lU; Dover Iliimlrcd, Cn|i(ain Cnvar Itmlnvr, 

OfHain lUchjint McWIIliam, I^Wutfimnt Nath- IJviitoiiant Jnnuii Hyktv. Knnij^n Caleb Lulf; 

atiiel HlUliy, Ktmli^n /nrhariah Luwanl^h ; Houth Up|ier Part of Little Creek llumlml. Captain 

DIvUlon, (*atitain Alcxamlcr Porter, J/iotitciiant John Ihimre, IJeuti'nant Janict Tylmut, Endijni 

Haiiiuel Aldrlck», Knulgn John Jlryan; White Mntthcw Cnxicr; I»wer Part of Little Cm>k 

Clay Creek Iliimlreil, Wnrt DiviWon, Cnptain Hundred, Captain John Drinklce. Lieutenant 

Itott Jones, Lieutenant Kaniuel Piatt, Knuijni WilUtn Htickmastrr, Kni>ij;n Stokely Scuripa; 

Thonina WllllanMon; Vltai Division, Captain Sam- Murder Kiln Hundrrd, I'aptuin Daniel It<ibinM>n, 

U(*l PnltcrMin, Licnitenant Ttionmii Dunn, Kn»t}»n Lietitonant Chnrln* HillvanI, Kiwi^^n lieojunitn 

William Held ; Miln Cmk Hundrt>cl, North Divi- Wiirrt- ii. Jr. : I^>\vor Part of Munler Kiln Hun- 

pion, Captain Kvau IltniM*, Liouteiiant Junuf dnsl, Captnin Witliaiii Ulunuh-*, Lieutenant Jt»- 

Walker, I'Mirn Willittni liall ; Soutit Divinou, M'ph lIutrlieMin, Kim^ii TlHimaH (*mif; ; rp|*or 

CHptniu Tlioniaii (Irny, Lieutenant Williiim Mr* Part of Duek Creek Uumlnil. Captain Daviil 

Mehiin, Knuiffn Alexmider Monl^oHiery; I'lirin- Clark, Lieuteimnt Ji>hn Kiv^*. KiiH^rn John Ca- 

liana Mmidn'd, H<iutit\vei*tDiviHiou,(*itplnin JiuiNii hiNm ; Uiwer INirl of Duek Creek Ilundre«t, Ca|>- 

]«iiliiMer, Lieutenant Khi|iiK)n Hi nl.Knoi^m Thonmi tain Cluirlen HillynnI, Lieutenant Jac<ih SttMit, 

Dufl*; Kiutheaiit DiviHion, Cnpliiin Andrtnv Trnu- Knui^rn Tiiomaj* Tilton; Tidluiry, Captain John 

lN*rg, Lieutenant William Hay, KuHi^n UoU^rt Caten. Lieutenant J<ii<eph CahU ell, Kui^i^ni Janiea 

Uobinmrn ; North Division, Captain Thoinaj* O^de, Caldwell ; Field Oflin^ni, Cohmel John Vinin;;, 

Jr., I^icutennnt John Anu»tnm)r. KuMign John I<ieutenant-Coloncl John lirinkle. Major Andrew 

HendriekM»n; llramlywine Hundred, .S)uthw(>^t Caldwell. 

IHviidon, Cnptnln William Km|iNon, Lieutenant The Sui*m>x County militia wa« nr^pini/iil an fol- 

TlioiMiiM MeKini, Kntiif^n John Kliiot; Northetiitt hiWH: for the northeni military di*trii*t of Ciilar 

|)ivii«lon, (.*nptain Kmnnuel (2nd>, Jr., Lu'Utennnt Cnrk Huiidreil. Cnptnin llenjnmin Wynkoop, 

jlenjnmin Fonl, Jr., KuHlirn IU«njamin Kelhini; Lieutenant th'thuel \VatiN»n. Knn^n I^evin Cro|»- 

Kield OtKeern, Cohmel William Arnwtrong, Lieu- |N>r: for the iMiuthern military dittriet of Ce«lar 

lennnt'Colonel John Finney, Major John Mc- Creek Hundnsl, Captain Tlioma» Hill, Lieutenant 

Kinley, Imtne Watium, KnHi;rn Nehemiah Davi« : for tite 

The I^wer Iti^'iment of New Ca<«tlo Ctainty northern military dij*t net of Unmd Kilo Hnndn"*!, 

xtM eonitMkH*<l of the followinff ofKcem, coiimii»- Captain John Htiverhie. I^ieutenant Jame»« ."^hip^ 

•ioniMl from the plaiTt named ; St. (it*<»rge*i Hun- man, Kni^ijm (ienr}^» CluyiNMde; for e«HitlM-m 

dnnl, Ca|)tain John Jone«, IJeutenant Jerome niilitar)* distriet of Itnmd Kiln I luminal. Captain 

Ihmhane, Kito>ij*n Iraae Gooding ; Cnptain John J«fe«(»ph Cord. Lieutenant William Crai:r. Kii.«i}!ii 

Vanee, IJe«itenant John Vandyke, Kn<«i);n John Alimlom Little ; fur the northern military tli»- 

Anilerttm; (*a|itain Adam l\»tenMtu, Lieutenant tri<*t of Ia'^^v* ami Iteholioth Hundn'«l. Ca(ttain 

William Whittle* Kniiign Alexander lirynn; David Hall, Lieutenant Ja«i>li Koihiek. Jr., Kn- 

A|MM|uininiink HumlriMl, CVptain William Wil- sign John Hall ; for the southern militar)* di^triit 

liamii, Kn^ign Oam*tt Kothw^ll; Captain Alexan- of I^'Wti* ami lieholNith Hundnil, Captain John 

der Chance« Lieutenant Charles Canton, Kni*ign Newliolil, Lieutenant Uieo Wolf, Kn>i'jn Peter 

Daniel WvKhm ; Cafttain George Gam, Lieuten- March ; for the northern militar}* district of In- 

ant Matthew Klica, Knsign Thomas 11<*nnet ; He«l dian Uiver Humlred, Caiitain Conl Hazzard. 

Liim Hundred, Ckjktain Jandi GiMiding, Li<Hi- Limlenant Peter ItohioMin. Kit-^ign Thi>ma« 

tenant Thomas Tobin, Kn!»ign Daviil Howell; PMtyman; for tin* Mmthem military dt^rit-t uf 

IViii*ader Hundrr<l« Ca|4ain 1 41'W is* Thomas, Lieu- Indinn iSiver Hundntl. ( »pt:tin Ihirton Wapl««, 

tenant IMvi<l Ilarr, Kii»i;:n Willinm .Mitchell ; Lieutemint John Burton, Kii«ign William Pntir- 

CafilHin Tlamias CiMH*h, Li«Hitenant AlexMuder man; Fiehl (>tli«vni, Citlnuel Jneob KoUurk, IJeii- 

lS»rter, KuMini D«vi«l Kowhiml; Field Ollitvns teiiant-i'olonel KiveM Holt. M.nj<ir Jm-oh Philli|>s 

INdiiiiel Jacob Vanlicldicr, Lieuleuunt-Coiunel Thr reluru.<« for the militia of the lowfrnumtiea 

l^v ill Wet her9|HKkQ, Major Tliomas JanK*. sumniarixe«l the alNivi- lu* follows: TIh* l'p|«*r 

Thi^ Kcut iViuuty militia \ftaj( »< fidlow^: Cp|<>r Itegimeot of New Ctt>tle i*ounty ctHitaim'«l clevfn 

IVrt of Mi<«ptliitm Hundretl, CVplain Thonins c«mi|wni«'«t, with the officers uanKtl aiHl two »er> 

Clark, IJt^itenant Klijah Morris, Kn?>ign J«iNi«ph gennta for eaeh cnnijiony, with an avenici*of »ixtT 

Marrat ; Middle IHirt of Mispillion Hundretl, priv:ite!(» Tlie l^iwer Ke^riment uf New Cattle 

Cii|MMin lt(»ltert Killcn, I«»(Miteonnt Arvhilwld County c«»n^i«te<l <if nine o»m|«ni««, areraging 

FU niing. Fji^iini Sara«K*l IWviuji Turner ; I>»mTr alMHit fifty privHtt**, hut with the san»e ulfirttsi ki 

l^s^l t^" Mi«piili\in Hundred, Oi|»taiu IWnjumin in the I'lH'cr Kegimcnt. Kent ami Su<i#s C^iaii- 

BrtukWe, Lieutenant John Molti^oo, Ensign tie« furnished twvl\-v and ei;;ht cviii|aiiMs» n>pect- 


ItcIj, and tht oAoeit wid priTitai la each wera the delight at beiog independent of the proTlnee. The 
•ane at in the Tariom eompaniei of the Lower chargea were in truth moetunjuat, for the part taken 
Regiment of Xew OMtle County. From this it by the lower oountiei in tlio French and Indian War 
appean that the lower counties oipiniied a force was relatively, and in some respects absolutely, far 
of over two thousand troops.' In 17«>7 the same greater than that taken by the province, 
seal was oonttnued, the Assembly pawing nets for By the end of 1757 they had nearly four thousand 
striking bills of credit to the amount of four troops organised. A battery and barracks were 
thousand pounds for His Majesty's use, for punish- also liegun late in the year, and the little govern- 
ing deBerti(»ns and mutiny in the army. A con- ment was b4>ldly straining every nerve to faithfully 
siderable difficulty aruse aliout the middle of the perform its duty. The embargo was renewed at 
year in consequence of thescruplcB entertained by New Cai»tlc and Lowintckwn in March, 17«'i8, and 
the Quakcra agniniK bearing arms, antl thoir stub- \*ery noon nfterwanls (lovcrnor Denny convonml 
bom n>ii»tnni« of tlu) militia laws. The ftrnt in- the AKMcmbly nt Nowi-iutle. In hisspiHich U^foro 
stance that mTumnl was Mirly in January, that Ixidy, lie iiifoniMHl them timt in lottt^rs lately 
Chrii'toplicr Wilson, ofC-hristiana llundml, had received from Kngland, the King pmrniswl to make 
been summoneil by i^nptoin Tiionins Ogle, but every efliirt at the coming session of Parliament to 
refused to appear. While seated on his hone, secure the {KisBugo of an act for oom|iensating the 
shortly afterwards, conventing with a friend, Samuel provinces for their efforts in his behalf, but alio 
Clenny, tm-o conncablce, William Brndnlinw and roquciiting al I po4«ible assistance at that very critical 
Thomas Klliot, placed him under arrest, and he was moment The Aiwembly promised, through 8Ix^aker 
afterwardstakenbc'fore Justice David Bush. The Jacob Kolluck, to do all in tlieir power, and 
justice, with very little oeremony, ordered him to regretted that their means were not sufficient to 
jail and he was taken to New Castle. In June, allow them to offer as much as their inclinations 
however, a number uf omiplaints were ItMlgcfl prumptiHl. Nevertheless, an act was soon pa:«cd 
against the same Jui»tice BuKh. Joseph Nickols for niisinga hsin of eight thousand |iounds. 
ciHnplained that he had been summoned to ap|icar In April, 175!), tlio Aswnibly imssetl a bill for 
before him ami state why he had not complied with reprinting and exchanging twenty thousand iiounds 
the provbions of the militia acts. lie assured the of bills of cretlit, and for striking seven thousand 
mogi<trate that he was moved altogether by the pounds additional for His Majesty's use. Jacob 
dictates of conscience, ami not at all by a destirc to Kolluck, William Armstrong and Cawir Rodney 
disobey the laws; but notwithstanding, the consta- were ap}iointed to superintend the printing of the 
bles soon opfieared ami st^ixed a cow. Joshua twenty-icven thousand |)ounds, the bills varying 
Baker had MifTontl in the same way, and Hu(h from one to twenty shillings. They were signe<l 
Meml«*nhttll ttit|itie«l thiit four men lisd liinie with by William AriiiMtrong of New Castle County, 
swuitls and clulis and ilrult out a siinihir fate u|Min Johns linniM of Kent, and David llnll of Kumm'X. 
her wm. Thomas Nichols whs anoilicr of the Ton tliouMintl imhuhIs Heri« plni*i*d In the hands of 
victims. Tlit«si* nim>s were limught to the nltcnliim thi« tnif>t(HK of the loan ofllct* in New ( *asi h« ( Mainly, 
of the Uovenior, and in addition oiliorini'itloiits of and fi»r Kent and Sunk«x, their trusic«ii nnrlved 
a like nature wen* Ht«'d. Joseph Newlin, John n'^|iectively six and four tliouiMind isiunds for re- 
IVrr)', Jacob Robinson, Riclmnl Carsan, William distribution. The neven thousand {lounds were 
8hi]dey, Jr., and Henry Troth all complained tliat placed in charge of McsHrx. John Fiimey, (ie<»rgo 
their profierty had lieen seited to pay the fines Munro, Cnwir Rodney, JiMM*ph (.'aldwell, llavid 
exacted by Justice Bush for an act which they held Hull and JoM*ph Kolluck, Jr., and was to be uiietl 
was specially |ierniitte«l by charter. Governor in the supfMirt of one hundn^d and eight men f(»r 
Denny took tlie matter under c«uisidernti(m, but it s(*rvico in the southern colonic, the money iH'iug 
WM allowed to dn»p. The incitlent at least si>rvcd raiMnl by an additiomd tax of six-)>enco on the 
the Assembly of the pn»vince with a weajMrn of |M>und for five yean. The rcasim for joining 
defeuM* against the Governor, who hud chided them together these two nuMisurcs, which it soeme<l might 
for not being as diligent in the |iossage of militia better have lieen passed sc|Nirately, soon became 
laws OS the lower counties. apimrent. They had purBue«l the latter course on 
Considerable jealousy had, in fact, sprung up in a former occasion, but the proprietary had objected 
the province. The Governor was accu^Ksd of being to the re^miwion. When the Governor and 
partial to the lower counties, and insinuations and Council came down to New Castle, on May 5th, 
attacks of every descrifition were publicly ainieil they fiatly refuiMid to ratify the tlouble measure, 
at them. The only notice taken of this by the for the rcnsim nomcd, and also because in the pre- 
Aspembly at New Castle was in nn address to vious year the lower counties had sup|iorte<l three 
Governor Denny in October, 1757, when they hundred men, and now had cut the numlwr down 
expreseed their disgust at such assaults, and their to one hundred an<l eighty. A conference was held 
i**Ai«MvM«rrtaB«yifaiiu.''ikiT. between the Governor and the ^f|jeaker of the 


AMembly who politeljr informed him that the Home penration to the coloniei* The agent waa allowed 

had reeolved to Airnish no men at all if they were to retain une-half per cent.* and for the management 

compelled to alter their bill. They well saw that of tho residue Benjamin Chew and William Plum- 

the Guvemor could not afford to reject their amirt- stead were appointed tnwtees. One-half of this 

ance, no matter how insignificant it was. Their sum was iinid to New (*ui«tle County, three-tenth* 

calculations soon proved to be correct, for on tlie to Kent, and tlic remaining two-tenthd to Sucees, 

7th the Council reluctantly ordered the Governor and the money was vmpluycd in liquidating the 

to fign the bill. debts contraetisl in cou8G<|uence of the war. 

In October the returns for the election of sherifls The duvA fur holding the Supreme Court were 

and coroncm announced that-in New Castle County again rhanged this ycur, and wi^re fixed for New 

John McKinlcy and William Smith had been Cn.^'tlc on tho tilth of April tind tilth ufSc|)(cnibi-r; 

clcctHl; in Kent County, Tlnuniis I'nrkcr and for Dover on tliv lilWnth of April and litlirnih of 

William WcUk, and in Sumcx, JoK'pli Shanklnud K^ptruiU'r ; niid for )iC«ii»town on the KridiiVK pn> 

an<I Jalnrs Tijtlicr. ceding tlio nurting^ of the May and Novcmlwr 

In April, 17(U), tlic Aiwcmbly was nH*t by Guv. Sitaions of tliu <juurtcrS(it^«ions. 
James llnniilton, who had succeeded (luv. Dfnny Another payment was reix*ive<l by Agent Bar- 
in Novemlier. lie announced new instructions clny in London, in I7(>2, this time amounting to 
from the King, graciously thanking his American three thouKtind K'ven hundred ami fony-five 
subjects for their services, and ofleringto arm and poundit, and paid pursuant to an act of Parliament 
supply with provisions the large number of men of 17511. WillinnilMuni«tendand Benjamin Chew 
which lie ho|)ed they woulil continue to raiw. The were again npiiointitl to muniigc the fund. The 
Avw^mbly adverted their desire to comply with this money wtis divide<l among the counties in the 
to the utnKwt limit of their ability, and ut the same same pni|»ortion as the first fmyment and applied 
time hande<l the G4»vernor two bills for his signu- to similar puriMiK*f>. TIu-h* iwynients were a great 
turc. Governor Hamilton withheld his signature, relief to the iieople, to uhom the war bad beiii a 
to U'arn what they proixiiKfil to do in connection heavy burden. They at onee rallifHl, however, 
with his war mcttHiigc; but on their promise to iti«uo and again iH'gnn to eiiipl(»y their money fur pur- 
a new loan, he signe«l the bill and returned to poses more prolitublo than war. The public mails 
Philadelphia. The Arwmbly this year placed four Mere the fin^t things that were looked after. In 
thouxand ]Kiunds at his dii«]Hisal, but they now also Kent County the nttui bi>ginning at SnIL^bur^*, 
devoted M»mc attention to internal afluir^, which dividing Kent and New Cu>tltf Cuuntii-s, and 
had for several years Uh^h sulK>nIinatfMl to tho thence running to I>over, us well as the two draw- 
war. Tho Supreme Court was eonipletely ntir- bridge roiuN leading from iKiver, wea* now mnde 
gfinixtMl under the name of the Supn>ine Court of public or king's hmhN, wliieh phteed them under 
tlio <Jovernhient <if the (*ountU's of New Ciiwlle, the (111*0 of the county nuthoritiii*. In ?*ii»»ex 
Kent and Sifsex upon heliiwinv. It wiis to meet (!onnly the roiiiln niniiiiig from the Thnv Ituns 
at New Ciislle on the twenty M'venth of April, niid throtiuli LenUtown iien« riiiMHt to thv Niuie dicniiv, 
the twenty third of OetoU'r, at Dover on the in New Ciiiitle County a new highway wns buift, 
twenty eighth of (KioU'r, and on the .Mondiiy pre^ iH'giiiiiing nt llie iNirder of CheMfr County and 
ceding the nuvting of the Court of Common Pleas gating to llrnmlywine Creek, ami from thrre oih* 
in May, and at Iiewii«town on the Mondays pre- was laid out to Salisbury and another to Bhu-kbird 
eeding the meetings of the ('ourt of l*^ninion IMcns Bridge. 

in Mav and Novcml)cr. There were now to lie tho The succe!«sfbl candi<lates in 1702 for sheriff 

chief justice and three others to preside, instead and coroner for New Ciuitle C«itinty were Thomas 

of two, as before. A supplement to the act isimkhI Dunn ami James Walker; for Su.nh.<x, Daniel 

in 1710, for encouraging the construction of giHMl Nunez, Jr., and Samuel Uowland, Jr.; and for 

mills, was nl^o pai^sed in 17U0, and an agent for tho Kent, William Uhodes and John tiniy. The next 

government of tho lower counties was litittioncil at year the same ofliees were filled in New Custle 

London to look af\er their interests. The agent County by Thomas Duff and William Stewart, in 

ap|Niinte<l was David Barclay, Jr., of London. Sussex by l>aniel Nuiiex, Jr, and John Wattom, 

Thomas Dunn and James Walker were elected and in Kent by Daniel Kobert&on and John 

sheritf and coroner at the October elections in New Gray. 

Custle County ; William Uhodes and Jabez Jen- Jn 1704 the roads of New Castle County again 

kins in Kent ; and Joseph and David Shunkland oceupie«l tho attention of the AsK>mbly. An 

in SusKcx. entirely new sy«tetii was adopteil in this county 

In 1701 the London agent announced that ho fur their management, the old one not having 

had reci'ived something over three thousand given satisfiuiion. The nwds were now placitl 

fNiunds, iM the share lielonging to the three coun- under tho mntnil of a Uiard of mnimiMionrrs, 

tiiv, out of a sum granti'd by Parliament as cum- consinting of Mc-ssrs. John Stapler, Thomas Tobin. 


DMTid Stewart, George Monro and John Mo- quietly beer. To the Congrev which wm celled 

Kinlcj.* They hnd entire control over tlie build- at New York by the other eolonict to protest 

ing and repairing of ruada, and aim filled up agaioit the Stamp Act the lower countiet aent 

Tacaneiet in their own body. No changn were Cnaar Rodney, Thomas McKean and Jacob 

made in this year in New Castle County offices by KuUuck, the Speaker of the Assembly. ^V1lcn the 

the annual elections, but in Kent Thomas Collins act was repealed the rejoicing was only equaled 

and Matthew Manlove were elected xlicrilf and by the depression upon its passage. Rodney and 

coroner, and in Susm*x Daniel Nunez, Jr., con- McKcan were again selected by the Assembly to 

tinned as nherilf and Ilcnry Davis was elected draw up an addruM to the King, expressive of 

coniner. In November new commi.<«siiMis for the their gratitude. They little imagined when 

Justici^ of tla* CtNirt of Oyer and Terminer wcro the mldreM was pre|Mired, the changi« which the 

utniv%\ to Jtilui Vining, Jai*tib VanlK>bb««r and next deeiido wcro to bring, as umy easily be 

Richard Mc William. To those John Cluwes was gloiuied from the fullowiug extract teeming with 

adde«l in 170r>, and Robert Killcn ivceived an scntimenu uf love and loyalty for Britain : 

.|>p.intn«>nt » .» «lditi»n.l justice of (ke |k-m« ..^..^^ „^^,^ ,. „^ ^..^^. „^ ,^ ^ 

for the Mupillion hundreds in Kent County, while MMb hm pn<wrT.ii..a or uw eiriuwi i«iiki»im riniita utuu pmfU, 

the elections in the same year in the lower counties, ■?? •■*• '^•••"•^« «^«tiimi-o. ih* fUaniMiuQ ••.! e^Mt nii- .r 

resulted m the choice of ihomiw Duff for slicnir rh(»r«MGai»:iiraiiiucttiwwM>M MMiwinai •.iMiHiMmHuaUwiiiribir 

of New Castle County and James Walker for "/:^'"^''^'ti;:irr^*ti?'^'^''lt:'''"'**'?^ 

coroner. In Kent County Tliomaa Collins and mhi uur (ri«««iin« radrawj ; irMh «imi cmhumk* Main swnrMi. aht 

Juhn Grsv were cWted and in Sumicx Ulioiidd fcwn" •r»»iiiMi«i«i«iiii iu»wi»nii»«i ww.*<for iii. tir-i-^Uyitf iii« 

Shankland and Nathan Young. In li GO John Mi4t«taii»i««r«tMiM|iuri>«i«iiiij»7«BiiKnaiiMi«. H<iHi»r«tii«Urw. 

TlioniiMun and Jiimca Wnlkvr were elected to till '"■■ •* '"•' ^*^' •"»*■* *"' •*•' •"'•' *'" •**«•« "'»"•" •^•^y. 

tlie two omces in New Cattle Couiitv. The old ihn>MKiiMii ywur wkk^nrwini mpirp. mimmi •uii hm »hu^»t • 

sheriff were re-clei*ted in both the other counties """''' ■•'"■"'•••« "*' • *irt»-» •«■! »•- wiufcurj. w. ni.«i bambiy 

but new coroners, who were Solomon Wallace and b«»iiiff ih« jum»i mmt ut om mm? bvun w« iwf« r«ri>i««i rnm 

Thon«. Gmy. for Kent ...d .su«ex. r«.,«ctivc.iy. J;;: :sL'r';ri t::srJr ~.'::«"'«'Ti,":!ri't: :3 

Governor John Peiin went down to New Castle c«i» lor jo«r i«ii|ii», •• win •! »ii nwi»« im.«i riN.iwf.iij e»inni«ii» w 

00 oetuher 2irt .ua ,««ed . numu-r of biiu A j;:r:M"2;x-i::;:.'3J;'i:Hri"ir:.,t!';s;r.5::r^^ 

slight hitch occurred over a measure relating to •!•■>• «wi wcii ivtarM hT «i«ijr himi kiiiiiiii4* rh•Mil^u iim bwiat 

totamentary affnirB and providing for the better „^?:,.;„ STm^ ii»i ib. 4i»rt Jr jr!H.r •.]*«.,•. tt^nmmm^, 

MHiirity of ornhaiis in the enjoy iiient of their ••»! ibo b«««r »u4 interri* uf iiw iimi-ii imiii»ii, •!» iw f hM an* ••a 

ef4alci«, pn>lmbly owing to itn great Uiigtli. I ho n^\^u% ru.MiiHik.i. m n.. «im« b.^. nrm .»i «ifi.i •ii.Hiii..n m 

ANH*nil»ly liimlly submittetl to ivrtaiii iiincndmeiits •'••^'« '« ••■ 'Wimi-i •!«•«• w m tMm Mr mitmuhv mnI jiMr m^raiy'i 

oflcnil by tlio Govcnmr, and this uUi lHH*ttino '^ ***** 

a law. While at New CaHtle (lovcrnor l*eiin Rut the ebtliu»iiisiii of their nircction was des* 

isi«u«tl coninii«i«ioiis to Jacob Stout, Fen wick Fi«lier tiued soon to lie diilletl. In 17G7 another odious 

and Thomas TilUm to lie justices of tliu peace in act was jiassed by Parliament, ini|MjMing duty on 

Kent County in places where none existed. For tea, pafier, glass and other comnioditiiii im|N>rtcd 

the County Courts of the vame county he also to the colonies. Again the protestations of the 

appointeil as justices John Ciiton, Richard Wells, colonists were ibrwardecl in addressess, {letitions 

Thomas Irons, Andrew Caldwell, CicNiir R<Mlney, and remonstrances to King (leorge. This time, 

Hiarlea Ridgely, John Ranis, James Sykcs, however, they were not so promptly ci»iiiplied 

William Rhoades, William Rmliiev, Roliert llolli- with. The taxes were eimiinuetl and the Revolu- 

«lay. John Clark and RoU'rt Kilieti. Another tioii began to aMiinie tlefinito form. 

act of imiNirtance which reivive«l the Governor's To return to the inlcriml affairs, we find the 

signature while on this viiiit to New Custic was years 1767 and 17GM coiuimnitively uneventful in 

providing for changing the methods of duMising Delaware At the instance of the mercliiints of 

iii.«I)ecton(i of elections sihI assesstin. both of which Philadelphia, the Assembly of the province placed 

oflicers were thereafter apitoiiited by the (|tialifietl buoys on the shoals in Delaware Ray in 1707, and 

electora in each hundred at meetings held for the for the surveys employed Henry Fisher, of Lewis* 

purp<ise on the 1 5th of every September. town, who had aU) been engaged by them in 1704 

The first shadows of the Revolution had by this to select a site for the first lighthouse at CajM 

time cast themselves plainly in the light of the Henlo)ien. The electiiin in 1707 placetl in office 

Iieople. The Stamp Act in 170o stirreil up the John Tlioin|Mim and James Walker as shcriA' and 

rightMius iiidi):uation of the colonists to the high- coroner of New Ciistlo County; James Wells and 

est pitch. After having put forth every eflort in Solonion Wallace in Kent ; Rlioiidi-s Shankhind 

the French and Indian War, to bo thus ungrate- and William Parker in Sussex. In 1704 William 

fully treated in return was more than they could McClay succeeded Walker, and Boaz Manlove 


and G«orgtt Walker irara elacted aa sheriflT and by two clerka, who recorded the oame of the Tofer 

coroner in SuiseK Coun j, but the other officers and the person ft>r whom be voted. As the in* 

were reelected. s|iector received a vote, he was required to call out 

The year 1769 found the Assembly once more in in a loud tone the name of the elector, which was 

a mood for extensive legislation, and they dealt with taken down liy the clerk. A aeries of bosee were 

every subject from the Supreme Coun down to an supplied by the shcritf, each containing the name 

attempt to prevent pi;;8 from running at largo of a hundn'd in the oiunty, to rLTfivc the votes of 

without yokes and rings in oertuin )mrlM uf Now tlicir re«|icctive inlmbitunta At the vUhk* (»f the 

Oidtio County, New tnutues wore np|Miint«*<l to olwtion, llii« iiMt of votem and nuiiiU'r of votes 

the Moveral loan ofHres in the diilorent countiiMi, ciiKt liy oiieh huiidrml werv (Nimintnil, but an there 

the terms of the old uflliTm having oxpintl. The wni« no n'<|uin'nii-nt pmvidnig fur thnming out the 

oltieers cliui«en wrru Kvan Uieu, Thoiiiiis McKenn excemi of votei over elci'tors, the o!)ji'ct of this \Mf 

and Uichartl McWillinm for New Custlc County ; cceding is not (]uite eleur. Fimii were ini|Mii«ed for 

John Vining and CxiMtr Uodney for Kent; and attempting to vote twice, and for many similar 

JacHib Kolluck and John Kodney in Sussex, they rriuiee which still dcstniy liiimeas at elections, 

having been all reap{)ointed. The days for the While the law contained no very striking features, 

convening of the Supremo Court were changed yet it is noteworthy as an curly attempt to secure 

again, tlic days selected ou this occasion being the the purity of the biillot-box. L^ter in tiie same 

14lh of October and the 1.1th ot April for New year, ste|u were taken to check the nunieruua 

Castle, the 7th of OctolKT and the 2'J(l of April for lotteries whieli wen; Mpringing into exiAtcmi:; a 

Dover, and the Kri<lay following the meeting of nuirket wum evtiibliKliitl at New Ark ; and the 

the NuveniU'r (Quarter Seiwions and the *iM(ii of ground un whieli the puhlie building!* itlinifl at New 

April at I>!\vi<town. On the Governor's visit to Custle wnn plueed in charge of tni>teei(, the geutle- 

Ncw Costlu in October he imued a new c«>niinis»iou men named iK'ing Thonnw MeKeiin, Cieorge Head, 

lor justit*es of the iienec and the Court uf Common John MeKinley. Alexamler I'orter, (Jeorgc Monro, 

IMetM in Now CiiAtle County, ap|M»inting Kvan John Kvuns aud David Tlioui|iN>n. A piece of 

itiee, John Stapler. Thomas Junu'S. David Finney, gn»und on which the jieojile liutia'd to erect a 

William PntteriMm, Thomas C*iMK'h, William Arm- school, and situated in the market wiuare at New 

stnnig, James Ijitttinicr, John Jones. Thonm.'« Mc- CaKtlc, was al^i vestiMl in tnijititi*, and tli««e 

Kim, V\ illiam Williunw, Jacob IVterson, John ap|Kiinled for this tru.xt were David Finney, Juhn 

Kvans, Thomas Toliin, Themlorc Man rietsTliomus Thom|iNin, (jeorge Itcud, ThomtM MrKetin and 

MeKean, llenjamin Noxen and John Malei>lm- (iet>rgeMiinn». The Uev. •Kiieini UitNt and M(>»>ni. 

' In January, 1<7U, five new juKlitrK Were ap|N)!n(e<l Kiehiird MeWiliiaimt and J<N>fpli Titilow were 

in Kent County, owing to the failure of itonie of the np|M»inIed in a similar eiipiieity over the gnmnd on 

justieesnoMiinnledon theliu«teonimii4i«ionto«pniliry. which nt«NMl the liiiiniuiiiel Church nnd buryiug- 

The new magiatnitei* were Thomas ItiMiney, War- groundn. The cleetioiu in 1772 renultiil in the 

ner Mifllin. Junies liuycr, Thomiu llHn.<*on and choice of John ThomiMm and Jo:«ephSu<diinm for 

Jonathan Anderson. slieritt' and coroner of New Ciistle Countv ; John 

In 1772 the A>*send)ly came to the rciKMic of the Cook and Caleb Furby in Kent ; and Peter Kobin- 

jicoplc of Wilmington, who were omtinually en- son and David Drain in 8ui^*x. 
ttingling themM.'lvcM in disputes over the situation The following year little (Kvurretl in the lower 

and direction of the Htrcets whenever anew build* c«»unti<ti worthy of note, excvpt chang<i» in the 

ing was erected. The iMiuntluries were fixed as iuagi.«tracy, the crei'lion of a bridge at lA*wii>ti>wn 

well tL« lanti marks. The hurgiv^'s were em|Miw over liewes Creek, and the de|Kirlure f»f the Kcv. 

eretl to Hp|N>int three or more surveyors to n'gulnle John K»ing and Dr. Hugh WilliamMm to Kuni|M3 

the con!4truetion of purty-wnlls and other nmttcrs to seek aid lor the New Ark Academy ; nor nasthe 

which altfo had given Hih; to tn>ublc, and rcguhi- yetir 1774 more fruitful of cvenix f<ir the liiMoriau. 

tions for laying off Ktrects and allevM were altno In 177ri, however, uotwith?(tanding the hiwering 

drawn up. but n(»t c<mllicting with the law of the chiuds of the ICevolulion, the jieople found time to 

iMtniugh for the same pur|MitiC. A trouble of a devote attention to scvend nut'tter!* «if iniiM»rt:iucc, 

more ainioying nature, and one which had unfortu- althtMigh quite foreign to the preimrati >ua for war. 

nstely n4it been satisfactorily deidt with in many CuUitpieuous among thiiic was the care of the i^ior. 

parts of the ccnintry, even after the hiiKK* of more The niaiuigeioent of the |MM»r wnn phieeil in the 

than a century, wan the prevalence of fraud at hand^ of overmrr^ ap)Niinteil by the juHiit-vurthe 

elections. The sheriff or, ill his alicenee the c^ohh }N'uee. S'rvi(*e wiin cornpulMiry U|M>n theM'iitfi«fnt 

ner was n<»w made the jmlge of eleetion, to bo when once eleettd, and it wa.^ their duty to levy 

aMi«isted by the inM|iector. who wim reipiiretl to take S|»eeiul taxen in eneh bundre«l for the hiiiintennneu 

a rigid oath to OMWi to ** prevent all fmuds and of the hxtd indigent. They Imlgetl or sought 

deceita " at the election. These officers were aided employment for the jioor, as the circunuiauua of 


CAch cue directed, but no penon received aMiatanoe teemed with ibiiee of every alae, from the itur^geoo 

without tliecerti6cate of two juitices. Parent! and to the ■Hiallest pan-liah. The great oak'grovea 

gnindpartnUi were required, when able, to support were favorite resorts of buclcs and does, turkeys 

their |ioor children and ^(raudchildron, and the and tittrtrid;(va, and wild pi^*ons, and there weni- 

children were alsoexpectvd to sup]iort their parents »! to have been a rej^ular ** pi)^*on-nNwt," or 

and grandparents. l*he Cuurt-Houiie and public bn.tMlini^-plai'o for the Kn^r{o«M binl (if wo may 

buiklini; at Diiver was noa* plniv«l in tlio hiiiidM of aiivpt tliu onliiiary inl4'rprotiition of surh Indian 

truiittTti, aMthtwo at Kvw l*Miitlo had Utii, thcirust nniiuK) nt MoyamrnciuK.' In the spring and 

devolving u|ion Cavnr HtNlnoy, (/lutrli-s Kidgi'Ioy, curly Nuniiucr uMMithn, jui«t after tlie Indians of the 

Samuel Cliew, William Killon and Jacob iSUHit. interior had plniitiMl thoir com and U'uns, the 

In September a bill was piMscil by the AMcnildy iX'luwurc iind Schuylkill wcro filled with inoal- 

fiir emitting bills of credit to the amount cf thirty eulubly liirge shoals of the migratory lii«h, prewing 

thousand ]H>unds, under the direction of Thomas towanls fn-sh water in order to de|NMit their 

McKean, Alexander Porter and John Cloacs s]Niwn, and iMirsued by schools of the predatory 

The avowed object of this was the payment of sea H:»h. At these seamins the shores of tho rivers 

public debts, but the approaching Revolution was were thronged with Indians and their lodges, while 

doubtless what inspired this last bill. their canoi'S darted gayly over the surface, men, 

a'omen and children siHiiring or netting fish, and 

— ^^— cleaning and drying tlicm. The sturgeon, the 

|N>rpoise, now and then the salnMui, were ail caught, 

CHAPTER XIII. with innumerable shad, herring, alewivcs and 

breuni, pike and jierch. In the autumn again the 

MAXXERB AXU CUSTOMS OP TUB EARLY ixnAB- Indians were dnia'u to the riverHboro by the at< 

ITAN'TS. tractions of the oyster bars and Imnks. Tliis was 

in the interval after the com harviyting and the 
This bi^iry would not be complete if we did begiiuiing of the winter hunting. 
not pause liere, at the birth of the Htate of Dela- The territory in the neiglilMirhocMl of New Cos- 
ware, to give sonRHhing like a picture of the MH'ial tie had gn>wn to 1k« familiiir for councils and 
and dDmcstic liluof the inhabitiints of the pnsi* general (•onferrnixn of the liidiiin trilies. At the 
|«>nrtis and grttwing itikmy olNiut tho year 1775, time the i^liitei* came to the iK'litwnre, the Nanti* 
and the manners and customs of the «*nrly settlers, coki's, the HuH|Uehnnmis, the IMnwariK, the 
the pitHUvrs among tliiNM) ha nly ii«le*fae(<s More Hiiiwumvs iind I ho InHpiiMs were n<HMii«tonii>d 
whoxe advance the natives of the soil melttMl away t(» kindle their nuinciNfii-es, smoke tho pi|io of 
and tlisapiHiire«l. delilH*riiti(»n, exchange the wampum lielts of ex- 
When tlie tintt white man came within the pinnntiou and treaty, ami drive hanl bargains 
present limits of Delaware he f«Mind the gnmnd with one another for |K'ltries, provisiiHis and su|>- 
ckMdy occ«ipie«l with a ctitilinuoiis groa-th of tho plii*s of various kinds, on the banks of the river 
primeval forests, except where swamp and marsh and bay which liears the name of Delaa'are. Tlie 
and tlie daily flow of the tide prevented the trees trails nmde by the savages in going to and from 
from growing. The sole {Htpulation were tlie their |M>ints of unitm were deep and broad at the 
Delaware, 8uiH|uehanna and Nantic iko Indians— coming of the whites, and they have generally 
hunters and fisliers, with corn*fields and {sttches been followed in laying out the early niuds. 
for beans, sfiuashes and na'lons. In the deep but The first white settlers within the present bounds 
mit im|ienetrable foni^ts, of istk, hickories and of Delaware, as hiu already U*en shown in tho 
pines, a few. but not nmny, Indians had their hslges preceding cJiaiiti'rs, and the only white settlers 
or hnta. The hunting and fishing were g<fod ; the pn'vious to the coming of Peiin who made any 
doer came to the bonlers of all the snmll streams, distinct and dundile impn-ss upon the country, 
and the surface (»f the waters wus |N>pulotis with axre the Swedes. Their first, second and tliinl 
dense flocks of wild-fowl/ while their dcpilis colonies, which arrive«l out in 16U8 and lli-10, and 

> IB tWIr Juanuil oT • *i7«|* U» HmryhutA, In lOi, M«Mra. pMikrra Am RUw, at Sir. FrWijV |ilMitallu«, thrj my, " W« niMt m4 fuqiH !• 

Mi4 St«xl*^> MxW 4at« mT livrvoitor 'JA, mjt iIi«I when ilM>|r mitU**! •! m«>u>I«>m iIm unmt mimlivr vt wild gmw v« mw bvra iN Um rivrr. Thrjr 

Ik* kanm uf AHgH^iM Mrnmii, In i'm-tt I uanty, Mil., Uifjr "wm ri«> i*i4 in Strka iif (riif uT twrlvv, ur t«rnly, t# llilrly, IhiI nmllii. 

Sli«rt«>4 1.1 • |J«n> |M alniv Imii IIm arn-rrhlnc uT wllti $,wmf •nil tilbwr Mi^y, «li«r*Ti>r «■ |itwli«l iHir «iiy ; bimI m (h«jr mmiIi* rwm fur m^ 

vlMCtMl \m Om rtM-li (liulir«Ml») Ufum lb* «i«iur, |MvtraiM| m rmw Um'Iv «m PUfb an Inrr^wnt rhttlrrlnv iiHMl«*«llh iMr •lM«a h|w« 

te«lH( ■ ih»Ml ■li^i*." Ill* WMii-r «lM*r» ibvy t\»», kwI Midi • M>4af uT lh«aw Aylfic bivbrr Mis 

Thvy |««««Mlnl ibtwn lh«> KmIitii Shi«« uf MiiryUn<l l«i SalWiiirjr, OmI ll wm m If «•> «>ni all IV« IIiimi amnmMiM hj'm »hlH«liHl tw • 

••4 «Mt ib»lr jMWiMPjr lawh Im N»«r l>Mlbi n^aM-U ibf SawmIih Kl\rr, Mimn, Tlila |innr«Hh^ Ht4 unijr rrum Ki-«^t but tu>m ilmb* «n4 i4b*r 

«lirfw liff —f Ihrjr Mwtrr M« mi MAMjr tlHik*. "Tbi> ««iiT «M Ml «i«irfr<i«l : riiiI M U mM iMviillnr In ibbi \Jtm-* ■kiiw*. ImiI II iin-urivil itM 

l-lMb wilh IbMH timl It »Miir4, «|imi jTiMi KmiIk iI n><iM IIh* IhwI UkiW kit ibii rivrfca atul rlvi*ri w» i*r>i«M«l, IbiMmh Ibcy •»• NM«t nanirMM 

l^M<l ih* •«!•«, ■• If ll «i>r* • HMM *4 Alth iir liirf. aiwl » Iwn lli«>jr Srw In ib« HtiriilHit •ii«l rv>>iilMir, mbrn ihry arv muM «a»lljr abiS.' 

mp «h«f« «aa a ni>blii|| aMt vlliralkm uT Hi* air Itki- a Kitwt Munn <-uhi- • *' MiiyaiMvii«lii|| «4|(MlflM an utHiran plarv, a iliiiiff-li«a|«. A( mm 

ln« iWriMiitb lb* tPt**^ ami vtvm Itk* lb* rHMMIw* •< Uiatant IhHmlrr, tlma mfval Sw-kauf I'luf^ina liad IbHr rui«C In tbafunwl and mmm!* tba 
«btl* ibaakj iwrt ibv »hul* rrrck waa Slb^ a lib Ifarai Ilka a rkHHl, pbura Mnrhnn for Iba Indiana^ Omh wban ll tacalvvd Ita 
«r UIm Iba atoiUaci Sy at barvart tiaia In ralbrrUnd." On Iba Saai» Atntia*. 


the fifth eoloDj nln, which eaine between thcwo of lupeneded liefure milin^; hj OkpL Puvel J«ii«ni). 

Prints and liininghp contained a good many Dutch, Tlic icovcrnniciit ordered thisse officcrti, tlicrpfure, to 

and wore indcml partly recruited aud fittvd out in lay hand« on mich married noldicrB a« had eitlier 

the Nct!icrlau«lf , with Dutch capital and under eva«hil itervira or ciitiiiiiittcti eomc «>cher ofliMims aiui 

Dutch niannfreiiictit. It \b alao the fact tliat the tmiisiiwrt thoni, witli tlicir wivm ami children, to 

Dutch pent {nirtioii frequently to the /iiydt Kivcr Ni-w Swiilcn, with tiie pr>iinim) tt» brinKthcin hc»me 

to M tic and ])lnnt, aN well at* to trndo with the npiin within twt»yctint,—-to do thin, however, *jui*ily 

Indiann, and Unit Ktuyve^mnt, after the n^npturc nnddiiK'nt'tly,' (lint no riot niii;lit en^ue.** In lOKI 

of Kort CiiHimir, the overthrow of Hi^iiixliV )!ov- n;ptin tlietSovcnior of the proviiu*cof Orehm wax 

cninivnt and the iiul»ju;;ntion of New Sweilen, fent onIerc<l to prcvnil ufNtn the unfetth**! Finn^ to 

ninny of hiii |>eople to the Koiitli nide of Di*liiwiirc U'tii^e tlieniM-lvcN, with their wiven nnd childi\*n, 

to M'ttlc the coiiiitry. For all that the Swetle« to New Swetlett. Lieut. Muiw KIin;r. wIk> wiu 

were the lii>t |ieriiianeiit eoIoni«U. The Dutch now hack in Swetlvn. wosi mmii to re«*niit fur cnii- 

were advcntureni, fond of trndin^f and nnvipition. ffnuit.^ in the miniii;; rc;;iun«of Wi^^tnianlaiid and 

A» a rule they did n(»t hrinj; tlicir fnniilieH to the Dalarue. He wan nNi partinihirly instructetl to 

Di*lawure with them, and they «i»uid etui ly reneh cnli.<t the *' roHniin*! FinuK, ' who were trani]it*, or 

their own couiitr^'inen in New Vork after Kn^liKh w|tmtleni liviti«; rent free in the fore«t^. Next 

rule had been eHtnblii<he<l hv lioveluee, and the vear.wlien l*rintzIiadri'<t;iviilhi.'«iiHnniisKion.heiriia 

trade in funi and peltries wiih no hiii^^'r pmiitnhle M'lit t<i hunt up the ranie vht*'*^ of |ien*oii.'*, the (.tor- 

00 low down on the Delnwnre. The Swe<le!< and ernorx of Ihil and Viirinhiiid recfivin;; onleni to 

Fiiinis on the other hand, had no such mi«;mtor)' capture and iinprii44»n, providc«l they c«)uld n<it 

pro|K>iwity. They were like triHi^. and };n.*w in the pivo m-euriiy or would not jjo to Ameriea, the 

mil to which tliuy liiul Itcau tniiMpluiitetl.nH if they *' forrei»t-4K'?<troyin;; Finii.4," who, n» de:M-rilH<d in a 

hud never known any other. An a rule they had royal mandate, ** apiiiii^t our e<Ii<*t and pnndani- 

not emi)(nite«l from their native country fnnn ntion, de:«troy the forn':*tM hy M>ttiii;; tracH^of wood 

choice, hut were tran}*phintc<l hy fonv. One rvA- on fin\ in onler to wiw in the a>h<>!i. and who nial- 

•(»n,indee<l,whytlie Dutch imrtnen* had lM>en invited iriiMi?i|y f<-U trees^.** A tnMi|H'r in the provimv of 

to (HMiiiemte with the SwchHkIi \\\**t India (\iiii- ShanilNir;;, who had Imtkeu iu(<t the eloiMer 

|ituiy wart that eiui^^ntiili* and voluiiUvrh to (lieiifw piiilen of the myal inoiiaMery at Varnhem, in 

ifKinlry wen* w> hard to priK'un*. WeKterpilhhiiid, and coiiiiiiilliil iIh* lieinoim rriine 

Tho Swetlinli and Fiiiiiif>h |NtiManli« had very of entrin^ d«»\\n nix apple-lntft and Wo elirrry- 

iitroii^ ItK'ul Mttaehnieiilii They did not wii«h to tnMit, uaM ^iveii llie uptitiii of enri'jriilin'/ or U'lnj; 

nlmiitton their nalive mil, in fptte of (he m'tinty hiin;;. The " CharitaV which Hiilnl in Kill fi»f 

liveliluMNl it ai«itun-<l them. The ** Kalniar Nye- New Sweden, had tour eriminaU in a Vttn\ of 

kel'* and the *'<iri|«u'* wenMlelaviNl u Ion*; (iine thirty-two |ia!i!«eiip'n*, the ^niiter nunilM*r of the 

in f^'ttiii}^ their pai«^'n;;ent for the fimt voya.uc reniniialer Immii;; indentunil m-rvanti* or **nilein|>- 

under Minuit. It w not cvrtiiinly known that of lionera.'* In laet, Lieut.-Ool. Printz wn:« hiniMrlf a 

thin iHirty with Minuit, more than one penon-^ di.<«;rmeeil nuin, linvin}; l>een court -ma rtiahnl and 

Lieut. Miiuii Klinjr — ^-m a Bwinle. Anden di?<nii:<M'd from the army for the dishonorable and 

Kventmon IVindc, Peter (JunnnriNMrti IdinilMi, Per cownnlly c:tpitalixatiou of Chenitiitz, of which he 

Ander!«M»n, Anderx IjiirDtion DaallMi, Sven Lnnwin, wan commaiuhini, w> that hi:* ap|K>intment to the 

Svcn <Junnerr<i«on, hii* non, Sven Svennnon, Ijan tidony of New Sweilcu wiw in HonieiMtrt a puiiidi- 

Svcnsdon Kaekin, Mih?im Anden^m, Iven Thon- nient and a baiii!«liiiient. 

son and Miirteii (io(ter«i<oii were all of them Ihit tiii.s very reluetamt; of the Swe«Ien to enii- 

certaiiily in New Swiilen in 1040,' but it cannot finite made them the lH-!<t of inimi};nint.4. They 

lie shown whether tliev tninic over with Minuet staved in the pluee to which tlicv ha<l liei>n n- 

or with bin succexnor, Ilollandiicr. Art Prof, niovnl, and lie<nime |>erniniieut tixtuni* in the m'w 

Odhiier shows by the reiNird, ** the iKHiple enter- noil jtint as they IiikI wislietl to lie left in the old. 

tained a repu;;nanue to the lonjr Mti-voyn^c to the They were ipiiet, orderly, deivnt, with no injurious 

remote and heathen laiul. It in affirmed in the vie(*M, and in that kimllv N>il and elimate the 

lettend of the ad mini!«( ration to the (iovernors of natund fruitfulnenrt of their familii-s wan trriiitly 

the provimnii of FIfnbor}; and Vamilund, that no inmimed. Acreliiin. notiein*.; thin prolilinu-Mi. i»uyn 

one H|)on(nms)unly olleretl (o aeeompaiiy (*apt. Van ipinintly, *'Jofiepli t'olmon, in (^iM-nter. tx^enty ye:im 

Vliet (who wan ori|fiunlly npiNiinUnl to ciunmaud a;;o, had (he bhwini; ti» have bin nife have tutim. 

the ship that Ixire llollaiidner'rt |Hirty, but wan irH eow two ealven, and bi^ ewe two lamlH. all on 

one iii;;lit in the month of March. All «*«m(inued 

•Ml. u.. wi.«* MMdi ii«« Uvhi to tun,mu VI. th. dwrur. ..imI. vi %)»m» to livc. AimI lie J,'! vw* ncvcnU iHlier Uintanetw of 

Mrij MiiUtiMaia. the sort. Be this as it mav, the Swede* remaini'd 

•rrrar. oahMr^iutietoi. rh.- x^Mt>^. w» the spot through all the chan)rw of admiuistra- 



tioa «i if adueripH ffleUf, ami they muUi]>1iod to 
rajtiilly that when (\irl Chrbtofiiicmm H|»ringcr 
wnilr his Ititcrto PiMtniMterTlM^liii at Stm'klM>lm, 
in 1G9.1, cHily fiirty-fiv« xvnm nftor tlie fin4 inimi- 
fnntum. lie wii»altle tu furitltli **a mil uf all the 
(S«-(<di#h) nion, women ami cliihlrvn which are 
fuunti ami Mill live in New Swediii, on the I>i*la- 
wan* Itiver.** to tlie niiniher of one hundred and 
ei;:hty-ci};ht fiimtliiii, nine hundrp«l and forty-two 
penmn*. Tlii« doex not include the Sweden on the 
oiImy tfide of the IX>lawnre, ninny fuinilien reKidin}( 
on tlio ea^ Imnk liein)( hn'luduil in tlic lint of 
**Tydahk»** (tnxahle) |ierNin« retunutl in the 
Duke of York's (.Vmrt at Uidand, in Noveudier, 

I U h |«rlMi|«*«|i*4lMi| to |lw thiw Ibhs cwnimwucIiic with IIm om 
A«« w4nl lijr i*t<ri««rr to TMIa. TIm> imimm vhirli an Malinwrf In ibk 
IM M* MM-li w Uli*»lw vtrw Im iIm Uphmr lUl : 

JOwa Aihlri 

The Bwcdot on tlie Delaware have aonietimes 
been reproached asm laiy peofde becnuse they did 
not rlear the fumit at a mpid rate, nor Iniild 
thetu0elve« fine houMW. But this is mit the eharac- 


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^arfm J|i«mAit ^. 

Uumamw AWmA* m«~«m.. 

Jt^aa KmmiIm, 
l\(rr //«»*«, Mr. 
/>*-r ltmmhi$^ Jr... 

Mmttm tlifaid 

Mta Mr|i.4(. 

AmliTa Httlw«l«ia 

I>iil HmIiIhni* ... 
Imm K«r<.jr 
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(lirbmrtu Jur«i 

f/t«M Jui 

J»ntm Jt. 
Mi>|4ir« Jtai 
!«'<» Ki>iM|w 
l'mft«rirk Kltols.... 

mi* KiM'kuw 
ihm k'pm't (irMftf). 

.\»l. IVtMin LunfOcr «», 

llinartik UiMtin 

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iVt^ l.ur( 

J9k»» 3lnm 

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Mtrttm .V'rr^iMMM, *■...... 

J/.iHra JftiiftMMf, »• 
Mala M.inviWhi« 
JiiImn MaltM*N...., 

.VW* Jtf.iM 

I1irt*tii|>kf>r Mrjr«r....„.M 

L*yi,i «|,J|..« 

AlHlfla MINI14I ..•..•....« Mi.nm a 
a/lMHM .^ifCMW •••••••.t.i....,M 4 

^fmUUW t.HBHINi. «■■••.«■.««. «9(^.^^^ 1% 

IImh* {iif*»« .i.....^., s 

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l^ifynli IMvfaaitR „,„, f 

llliHirltk I'arciMN, 4 

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UimamI IVulMwa. « 

UralylinMi ._. 1 

Oil* I^UnwiB...............^,...... • 

AiMlpni i'«>iiM^,,.,.,.. 
RnMir Ntnmim. 
JuM* If-mttrn'm (wMwV).., 
JiiliMh Skrika....... 

M«tU Skriha- ..... 

Iltmlrk-k MuUf .... 

Carl *\t\t»f9r.„.,^ 

.Vm M Muitf 

OirialMii Miilr«|»... 

JtalMtl M«k«l|t......... 

IHp|i>r ri(iilnip...„.... 

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HvuUmIn MmNhmm..... 

I.^nff MrfllmlM....... ..., 

Jnkmmm hIttU, 
JvhaHM lMlllM«a. 
JuliM MIIIhmm..., 
h-irr Hlllliwia... 
flilr H|tilic7 
UuMMar l^cciMvn...... 

JtJMii NvrnMNi 

WilltaiM Taltvy 

KItw T»7 

f'Aftrfirf. TAmmm' (itMmp) 

Idin TtMM M«M**.......«.« 

<WnrHiM %'aii iirrWf«r. ......... 

Javub Vaa ilrr a'trr..... »...«> 

Ja«iil( Vmh tk-r W»»r „. 

Wllltem Vkh ilrr Wmt............ 

Jrfl|n-r WHllnitMl 

JuMM WaUnivra 

AiMl««i WrliHHii 


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IJi4 ut IbiiM alill llviM «Im «m« bom In fi«f4r« : 
JV«pr IfoMikM. ) I'iftyafcmrjrmMla AM»njr l^iim. 
.Iwf^« IhrnJi', I New Sftrdvii. |.ni»l llrtoi. 

AifJtrt H m y l t ium. AiKti-m IIim 

lilt* Iknlrkl 
IImur IVlorMktB. 
HIiMlrirk I'wIlMiB. 

JulM (itMtMfMaia. 
MlMtH llMlllian. 

llnair Itrnrm. 
bkll And-ntMk 
Malla ila \*-m. 
Julian liimlrhiusB. 
Amlrra aViiMiM. 
fh'lihrn JiVni 
lH<>r KlnkMVu. 
AifWra m>lrick« 
AHtlrra Mlak. 


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.Vi'-A-wf .V«I«MM. 
)|i<rlaa ftfaakr. 
Mi'irtrii M;irt«*iMNMi, Vr.. 
Ckrl Xl«>|ikrr i*|wing>r. 
liliMlrU-k JacolawM. 
Jaoilt I'lvHHwa. 
M|.>r !<•««•. 
liliitlrirk AailMMoik 
lllMilikk IwaiMu*. 
KintnM .liilHtnMa, 
rmml Mliik. 

Itkif IVtrnakni. 
nilHvN MArtoMM, Jr. 
Krk M.akm. 

Orl« BMlaMM and t HMMb 

llaiM MtKrm, 

Kric tVHilara 

Mli-hill rfj-rfak. 

JnM* Itaiibrb mmA Mrv*.....M.... 

ll*»Hlrii-k J«c«4i« (a|Mi jr* 

Ainlrma Hwra asil fallwr, 
(Mip HwaMva aiHl wrvt 
l*arn IrfiMi 
0»li> Mill* 
iNiiuk WIIImmm.........,m...m>« 

TllM, .Iwtalw ......M M>M« 

MMIklaa llaaapa ,...„ ^ . 

JmH « taaM-B aMtl 'J MM.. «.. 

Knitak Walrkrr. 

^ wmWT M aiMNI. ........I ...... ...•■•••t 

If AM Ivovl^lH •.*•«•.■•..«..«. ........... 

J«tt ^ll<•HrB... 
Jan JiMla aiMi K ••••. 
IVirr Aii«ln-aa and aon... 
Ijm'v IinIIw 

Mr. Jwnaa f battor................ I 

" Uarwillary ■■ 




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■ ••«a«aaa« 

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a«l JarfaA^ fa flkitw IM, 

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n^nck !*aNnc....MM.. m. ...»...«.« 
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llHrmra JannHi......M. 

ll»n.lri. k IMniaa.. .... 

Brflrtl l-irnan............... ....... 

ll<*lMiirK I k<la.i...MM..MM....M. 

An«lrlr« lVrt«taj«.,..,......,..^ 

Jan lli>rtp|H« 

'** M.ifiwia. ...«.«.«,.„.,. 

Ani»iH.f Mnimn .., 

riara miiram 

Mula-n Wamla. «....,..,«,„ 

K**\» IjM-iwb and mm.......... 

w III ""aa.......,.i«M....... ,,.«,„, 

Kniivt MmtoiiMB....,, 

kkflm l%ii>rb« 

lliMI JanH-n...M«...M *.»•..... 
Rtrli. »r*.|iTli-«..................... 

Jiirlan llrrfawdar... «......„ 

Jnaa JihIb^^ 

llaiM lluTiMan and t avaa........ 

Kaull Curfura....... 

** mjt Mr. Bdaiaad Ammioaff (qaoUaf M. A 

•••a« ••■••■ 



t«r vbleh Peon givct tben, nor that to which their 
peHbrnmnceii entitle them. Penn nris ** Tliey nre 
ft pliiin, ttrong, inilui4rious pc(»|ile, jet have nwde 
BO grmt |irti|rm« in the culture or pn»|iii^rtit»ii of 
fruitrtrreii at if they de»iml to have cn<Mi;;li, nut a 
miMTfluity.** llef|irnka aim of tlioir nii|ieet for 
autliority, aihliufr* ** At they are a iKH»|i1e pntfier 
an«l »trun}( of liody, »> they havefiiH* ehiUlnMi, aiMl 
aliiKmt eviTv liounu full ; rare to finil f4ie of tlH-in 
without thn« or linir lioyii Mn«l m iiiiuiy K\rU ; wntio 
nix, ivveii ami eijrlit muih. AimI I tiiiii't <lo tiN'm 
that ri);ht, I mc few loen more miIkt aiitl iiuiiii*- 
trioiu." In M|Mtikiii): of their luck t»f iliwrxiHiHl 
hiirtlNiiNlry, Pi'un forgot that their letidiii;; emp 
wnif toiHii*eo, whieh, U'ini; without i>liivi-j* nliiii««t 
cntin'lr, thev hud to ctiitivnte %vith their own 
hiuiilii. Their intelii^'iuv tiiiirt hnve Im-^'M nt leuvt 
e4|iial to their hiyuity, for they ueru more ihnn 
fully reiirericnttnl, on the \m»lt of nim|Mirativc |m>ii- 
tilutiou, in all the eiirly uiweinhliii*, i-uuueil)* ami 
tiui^i)«tnites' ei»urtn, under liOveliUH' nnd IViiii, and 
they were the only iiiterpreteni Penn cmdd get in 

IaivvTiMI I^kIUi mnwiiMV), "arp iwlil !•■ lMf« Uwa unknuira In Swt^k^ 
l<r(«4« tk* r«i«rlt^i.ih rrtiiurjr. A ■•inli lairr (ImI* mihC I« mmdtiUfd 
••ihr |«iImI wkrii llir> Imam* |«-iNMn«ttt, ftiT mriiaiyrB «r«r« i-* im 
v^riy ra»r »*laNi>lir«l ■IiniMX iIio hwiilr* In lViMM)lriiiil« uiilil «mim 
IImw aftrr tlir ■iil«al *4 IN-iiii, «hrn iHtrtmairlafr, »ml th* num* rigid 
liM||a wf iIm- IIkbIUIi, rwMi|«-lk^l llirni Iw ■•lli«-n< («• IIn> l<Mf r>iMl«(iialk<« ; 
■• (.av riNaj|i|«> allh rM|«-«l !«• Ik* Maura uT f4/<i f\ta/ mnt. Ilia ' (itii ' tv 
caiMv |h>iMMiH-iiiljr ain&r«l lu ihi* naiur, aiitl marU i» ilUtiiiKuMi ll<a <l<» 
ftr»*'l n Ull«li*ltl|<." TliU, liw«r«fr, Ib iH4 •IWKWiar allli Ilia Nau<ll- 
MatlNii ia*«i>la, Mr. .\riiiMriiti|{ rlitMilil liatu ulcif r«r<i. Il liaa i>ri*valli<<l In 
•II niui>lilrB<k««u loalala {■ rl««l, aial %|m-Ulljr aiiMXiK lira KhKli«h 
larta, •bna IIm- <vi rii|4h*ii m( MiriuiiH'a U Mill |^•|H< un. Nu l«>l •|irU< 
li*llt-a« tlt» HM«a liariH lliMM ImI I'ti'iHrtiiM Iuk, iii>r tall «ri.rtoa Iw turn 
Latrtar, Ijmti^ l^n* Ii>Im lwaM«> g«u4 addtniittun fir^'tila iim* iula« ■ |ir<>- 
■wMiH-aarai-lial aa If II «riv •|«>lt aaariial) iImm tu r«rru|4 t'MfiUttK l*il* 
MratlttiiK. Maifrll«wka InIm .Man til«iiha, llm-a lulu l'iirn% TalUlt-rru 
luiwTwMtai, KuriUtflil) lulu I*i>iikI(|/, «ir. Tha (««*<llali ■> ■Inn, !•«•«• 
•far, la a Mlllr i->MM|<li«-iilnl, aitil inaila iinalt ni«rt< aitliy llta Umr— »|«||- 
ll*Kt>f ruulriN|B>rar> rlir»iik Irnaiai ck-rlia, }<unn- liialaiu-iauf tlicliait*- 
INatatl«i<M wf iMMra Uiajr lii>l|iilra ppailrrlnriiUiilitah litiiti«lf alaint tliraa 
IMa. Krk- lM-ram«ii la Krlr, Bfit aif CtmiM (Jftraai, aii>l lionin iJ4r«H) 
Krtr«ai«M U iM'raii, afii uf Knc, a vrainUiu t»f litiniii. IMrr iVli-rwii M 
iVtrr, aiXi tif IVtrr ; Harliarn aaa itriiciiialljr S»i-n Nilwui, ur NaalMiii, 
mmf la> fiwiol Iraii*!***^ !•• JuiK-a, a> In IIm- caw «>f Ihr Hin of Juoaa Nil 
Ptrti. al)l«^l M<aiiMiiMui-iMi, M^iiai, .\ii<tn*«r aial Ni-tia Jinwa K>rtiwltHi*a 
III* |air«li* la i»ia«tv aiina> li> au x/ni*,— r f.. Jam Jimmwv Im/^m IIUi b i, 
•IhI iVlla lrfiar>»M (ta/»M Tut IVIIr). « liaiifia lu urilii-Kfitpli,* li««a 
|t«l|Ml Mmlanally !•• • •■«tf»Hii'l lainiva. lli-iiiialM'ii lin-KMwa llaiik*>n auil 
llphat-li ; Ihtrii, IkriHia, l«H-tiiiM-a Ibdiil an<l Ifaarti ; Harinaii l^t-iiiiifa 
|l«aiiaiia aiHl iiaaitii ; Cuh la^taiirai'in-k awl I Vx : Ju*riiiu, ur Jia*kum, 
l«ruHMa Yuciim; K)Ii, wr Kli-w, lNN«a»«4 Kmn ; Miirtt-tiar, MartciML 
Tk«i •War>>(Mlau<a *4 l««ap Curk, ■•<• «>f Oil>' l'i>k. liiajr la> rallnl vlllirr 
AIIImim urMlllawu. Many ••fckr MiaiHllim«iaii nanira lia«a Im^n ailll 
naif* vl4i|riiil) t-lianiiMl in llM-lr ••ill»<<i;ia|>liy In lltr natrai* tif tkaliilu- 
ratlii* af triiiiirtra, lar In iWlr |ai«Mi|{a lu annihrr lanKuaKt* m»i»rw ur !<«« 
alllllalaJ. Thita II la kaiil lti«h-<r«t, rrailinic aa «a riiii. Ikal rifaii-lH la 
atmi'ljr lira Haiitok fitin trf lira SurwrR-aM VuirMan; llial In KntilWIi, 
naralkl khiH IUrfa«m U ilan4<l Kalrfai ; I(i4l<i, l( ami |{a1|>k ar« 
Ika MH*a. In Ikr IMa ■<»*« ala>ta, IIhIUik. i-r niillliiit, lantmira Knll* 
Ink : *«4ataf«aiiii lanan«« Jualta. Jiiallii* tf JualiwiN ; K t ii, Kran ; i'i«ln, 
CN'tan; Van ('•4i-m, I'mIIIim; llaawllwa, Iwllia ; ri<lrlMir|C, I wk-alMirv ; 
likMrkkawH, IVrilikMHi; (Wk. Kia-k. Ho.; Ilfiuli kkaitii, naialrna>n ; 
Mailan, Miirltin; lwana«, i«cna*H aial l«l«>iii : Juttawttn, Ji>nr«: H>i|>|»> 
■mm, llcftNMM ; Wiklar. WlH-r|ar : N1Im«ii «r Na*laun, NilUm i.r 
yrlai* ; Kl«li U atiNH-itnira KUk ; Ikirp, llnn-n ur HiirN*: ri>llman, 
C>4eNMtt ; |lrva<r. lli<>«rr- An«lir% Ainirvaa ; Mall, MaMliKaa ; |ic \i-aa, 
ViM ; Martf, Marlln; maaki>. HUrk aii>l Hiark ; H<a»«. Kiawar; Vaitili-r 
Wrrr, ValiillVfr i iVhiaairii, IVrwin aiwl l>«-«i*>n ; |*anl«aiift. I'uuUin ; 
rtml, iSiwrll; Oil*. Will. WilllaM ; KaliluuK, >allutf: Haw, Har.«, 
MaMn ; Itrlla, Itrklavl; l*««laf, liiulavua; Kniitr, Ktarft: Lw-avnn, 
Lwaa; |Mt*«raB, Inkliufn : Ouimrr*>n, KHwnM>ii ; liraairMm, Grniilkani ; 
Claaarn, ClaaKrii; raM% Ci4ib: I^Imuii, WiUin, rlr. I^ra and Lmv, 
kacvlMa l^aar; Ijkrraua, l«aiun: Uwnai. JSran. JiirifM aial Julian; 
Bvam* la iWnnllrl, or BaigaMiln, or Ikmbftt; llallinc lallaallii|pi; 
IkMaika la Slnukkana ; TaarbcM^ Karrla. 

hb interooamc with the Indiana. Ther were not 
devoiti, mort'orer, of «bat w«iuM nowadayn be 
ei>teenie«l remarkahh* indwitrial enterftrice. There 
can ho no dmiht that tlic Swvtle* — prolwhly 
thoKe ** wanderiii;; Finn^ ** fniiu tlie Sw^vdiith iron 
ore re^rioiui — dbHitvered awl worked the ore-hank« 
of I'eeil mid llarfonl Coiintie*. Md^ km;; before 
George TalliolV ninnor of SuM|uehanna wa«i jiatent- 
e<l 4ir Prineipio Furnace tlMHi;;ht of. Tlie mill 
afterwnnln iimtl lir Tullitit, ami to which his ten« 
anttf Were eom|H'II«'«l tu hriit)! tlieir com to be 
irroiiiid wu:i oriuMiially »tnrte«l hy the S«edi^ to 
drive n nnio Im-Uowh Idttsc of tlK*ir own. 

The Hnithit, iu emi;:ninti> from an excee«liu«:ly 
well-wiiteretl nmntry, eut up in every din'C'lion hy 
liiiVK, MHiiidH, riven*. Ittki-K and fionL*. imttirally 
folliiwcvl the wiiter-<f>unH-i( in tin* new eiHintry. 
Thev found a homelike Himethimj in the m-twork 
of ittreaiii* iMek of Tiniieinim li^laiid.and ilN>ii<t> to 
the Schuvlkill, ninl in the riven* ami meuthiw* 
alMint Chri!<tiuiiuCre4'k nnd the limmlvnine. Titer 
ehin*; to thiRH* loeidities tenuei«iu^lv, hihI tiie onlv 
thiin; in Peiiirii }!oVfrnment which nniMtl their 
n-^kiitment nnd ihrentenitl to i*hake their hivaltr 
wiiM the ntteniptitl inttTft-reniv \iiih tiu-ir title:* to 
tlM-^' land!* and the netutil n>«luetitm of their hohl- 
iiipt hy the pmprieiary and lii^ np-uti*. It ii> ntiirt 
that iMinie of tlu-ir tenures were verv umvrtnin and 


preearioiiM in ihe eyeit of plain uml definite Kie^iiith 
law, and pnilmhiy the (juakent to«tk ntlvantain* f>f 
thiM to iic«|uin* i-?<('li>'at titltit !•• many very ih->ind»lo 
piffen of land uliieh the Sui-de;* faneie«l to lie in- 
di<:piital)ly their own. The punOiaMyr* of Nt-w 
Sweilen from tlie Indiaiii* had v«'«te«l the title to 
the eiilin' tnu't lM>ii;rht in the S\vi-«li>h erown. and 
thii* ri::ht of pn>|NTty wa;* ni'ou'ni»<d nnd exereii-etl 
hy the emwn. Two hind ^raiit;* fnrtu ijiie<>n 
Christina an' on reeoni in Tphind Cuurt, oiu* to 
Lieut. Swell Si-hiite and Printx M*venil tiimi* !^»lir- 
ititl a ;;niiit to iiinwlf, whirh he finally ohtained, 
«;ivi!i«r the pn)|HTty to hii< dau;;hter Anii;;art, Pa|^ 
pa;roya'u wife. The oilur land-hnhU'iv K*eurttl 
their trnettt in neror«lnnee with the fifth artieic 
of the (jm'enV iiL^truetioni* to the ** iMihle and 
well-lMtrn Jithn Printz.'* In thi?* nrticle, after 
de^'rihin;; the lMitind.4 of the territorv of New 
Sw<ilen, ami the ternii* of the eontniet under whieh 
it wax a(H|iiire«l from ** the wild inhahitant^i of the 
oaiiitry, it:* ri^ililfiil hinli*," it i;* laid down that 
thi.4 traet or diMriet of eoiinlrv exIi-mlK in len-'th 
nlN)iit thirty tSerman inih-j*. hut in hnnidth and 
into the hiterirr it i.<«. in and hv the c>»iiiniet, e«>n- 
ditioiieit that " her H»»ynl Maj«*j«tyV j»uhie«*t.4 and 
the |tanieipaiitK in tliiMi*om|iiiiiy of iiavi;niton( may 
h4'n*alU'r mfupviiK mtieh land ti* thev mavdi*!<in*.** 
ThelamlthuMUMi^ht inaMn:;lehI<H'katidultarhe«lto 
the erown wu^ (iri;;inallv mana^'d hv the Sw«<di!th 
Weft India Company. The revenue and |mUic 
es]jcu«e« were paid out of an exci:i« on tobacco. 



•imI U wm the intoreit of tlia eompAny to hiivt 
tulwrco plrnitvil l«n(i*ly. In part tlib wm no* 
chmhiiIUImnI bj nervniiu ImlvnluaMl to Uio ci>iii|Mny, 
vImi Wi*re aent over aiul |iiiid regular wugiM by iIm 

In iiart the land wm rcguUirly conveyed to set- 
tiers wlio tou^^it to better titvir fortunes ; finally, 
criiuinaU aiMl nialefneton wero sent out to tonie 
extent at fin»t to labor in clialn-pinpi uimhi the 
i^ia<U and |»ublic workn. Tlie lanil Mjcured by fwt- 
tlerii and ncrvanu wlio bad worknl out their term 
of yean wiu grantiHl in fee under icranto wliieh 
cnna* din»ctlv or intlim'tlv from the ertmn. The 
diriieultiM alMMit title, which vexed the SwelU'^ 
irrew out of tlie elmiiKei in the ten(m> under the 
S«t<«li»h. l)iiieh, Knj^liiih, himI Inter under Tenu'i 
irmntis all of them having {leculiiir fetiturm of 
tlunr own. It u im|Mirtiint to undenttund tlieM 
diHeit'ncw. which have not been clearly exi»lained 
by wrilf» <hi the vubject, winie of whom have 
luutilv c«mcludi*il that tlie hind tenure sv^teni in 

• « 

IVniwylvniiin ori;;iiintcHl with 1*i'Iiii*h lawn. Ho far 
an land in c«4UvriuHl, IViiirit " gniit law " and the 
MilMi|in>iil eiiiiftmentM wen* ail fiMiiided ii|Nin tlio 
** hiike iif Yurk'n hiwn," the tllhii under which 
IViin wan imrlictilnr to i|iilet mid m*cuiv.' 

I Maim Kliii|t« IImiImmiM »hA mtn^y*, iwvKi^ fiirlr rlk»Wikr |wff 
MnHik : k» f»<wiwtiiM «Ni llir MrliHVthlll. HiiimIi jt imI* «nluirn, vrklnc 
rk|<nMi«iv, nwvltvtl tWv ptmrngm unl bhiI in«lHliMi»a«-r, l«»l iiu|Mi;r. iHol 
iVt^Ni MitK nllltirticht. tn^v**! kI aUrt MRv lUIrr, an*! tu W piM fur 
«rlMlrv«c ««rk b» 4M IW tk^ rvtufmnf. H«IU IUmhiiIi, Kwracff •! tb« 
lurt ma4 uAmcen gnimrr, vm »■«•■« ; A»Utt IUim»«, ««rnr«iil vt iIm miM* 
pMf. h» cvhlvKtr Mwrro^ iMvlvnl Iwrntjr rlkMliiUr pur T««r nml ■ nait ; 
Iw *Tr(4 f«iiir ytnn, 4'»rt JaaaMU, lM>ik-iiin>|N>r, wirt villi iIm ck|««ll« 
tkMi " ttr fnmUkmntt" ww «Arr«rBnk f«%uiy«l lijr rrlhU, mlmipivr kin 
rlMfKir «f Ik* att^vkuiiar at TiniiMUM, |«M klw Ira nk»Ul*r» MwMlk 
waCM aaU ivrwaiiiiriMlrti ihv humm gax^ntfurmi lo |«r«kMi hliu.^ iVlrr 
Lara^i* IWk, Cukar vi t.i*« (Virk, oinm miI urlniiuilljr r<ir iMiuiakMiwHl 
{tim pr^h^frmK hm-ht, • UiimI Htrvaatt. n<^tliiff kU ItMii •ml rh4klnit 
•M4l«u4Uku«al Ik«a<«i1. H# »m fn* In fwur jt'Mrw, ■ml ki-«*«ni^ 
anrr«•lJ^ ajmlcvaif r|<Uii4 IVwii. TIh^m* liiiViiiiin'^l ■m«au «rr* 
MuC ka4lr tn«ti4, •Hkrr ky |M> K«rtk« itr ih* FrlriiJa. Tkcir hmmI im 
«if »T^ir0 «M f«Mir 2r««ir\ aM tlM>y rvrvivrii a icniil uf IbimI— faim* 
■•lljr Mf acrw a l lb» rx|iirwliMii *d Ik* Ivnn. Tk* rjatvai va« nricin* 
alljr <swit1v«J la Marykioil, in i«tl«r M li w f M wt lk« lakur of ika pniv* 
lacr,a»l nuMjr vt tkv " rv<lrai|4k«m " v#t« prmiM uf tfimi rkarac* 
••r. ImM vilkwMi B»»«M, «k« auM ikrir «*rvit.f« liir fuvr or flva yaan la 
mirw to aarm* a pavima ai-ruM Ikv ucMia tu Ika naw laial a< pnmilar. 
A g nat BMnjr r««lriii|«ll«iavri mrta l» IVMaa^lraaia ilaiiaff PaMU'a r>'tfim» 
■•4 aftmianK k>4k fmiH Oival Hrilala aai| llir c<NilhH>iit of Kurufia. 
Tha tonai mrum wklrk Ikaj war* kirrd lu tlia illllMvwt rukwla^ wvra 
•Mffx Ika aiiaa la mnty ram. Tka fulliiwinit U alwul the ft>rin e*tm' 
■mmIx awa. It Biajrlw foand la Joka lillnuiry l«li«a'a luinaluriiiMi la 
Oiivaa'a rr|irlal wf Alai«*a "Ckaruriar *if ika l'n«»lnr*of Marylaml,'' 
|«i«ikta, l«*'i: ** TV fWat^ ^ lUmJimg M iWrnaf. *ThU Imlrnturo, laatki 
Ika—" ilay i^ -^i— ^ la Ika ■— > >a«raMf oNr Movrraliina l<»nl KIni 
lltaiira ««• liHaraaa —^ vt tUp m» |«rljr rihI -~- — Mf Ika 
(4Im>i |Mt1v, WHHr«iP<k Ikal Ilia aal'l «— tkilk krii>liy iiiwiwiil, imiMilaa 
aa4 gr4Wl l<« aa*! «Mk ika mM •"» ^^-^ kU lA«'< wl>ira an>l A*"tKii«, In 
»nr kiM I^•IM Ikr tUjr i*r tka>kila k»fr*if, iliilll kU Aial alal N«M Nllltall 
la ..-^ aM«l allar, M aNililmlMi Ikali'arma i-f ■-» ^fa^*^ la Mirk arMli-a 
•l»4 a«i|th«xmrM aa Ika lakl -i-i> nr kU*Ml|iiK«»kall llicra aMi|tkijr hlia, 
ai't-t'nitim !•• Ilia rn«l*iiaa af Ika is>Miilrr)' In Ika llkv khul. In n>li«tikrn* 
tkiN •lH*f«>i4', III* a«M — > il><ik la^imW aiwl ciaiit, In an4 «llk tka mM 
•-<u |Mt fMTkla |Maai«i*aial twlln*l kirn wltk M«iil, iHlnka. A|<|«n>il nk>l 
liM4«iMiL aUk wtlMf aariaiiarW!* iluHn« Ika aaki l«>rnia ; ami at Ika aad 
aC lkaMi4 l«fiar, la (Iva klm aaa wkula jaan« pro«M<>n wf Curaa aiKl 
Mix ariM af l<aa4, acranllan to Ika ar>k^ uf tka e«Macn>)r. la wItaMaa 
vkcfauf, Ika mM — balk liataaalw |Mt kia kawl and arala tka day ami 
jmiPr ak>rt'« arlttaa. 

talkaM«Maea«r / 

A traiiiori|ii of the llrrt Rrant of land within 
tlie limits of the Ktato of Delaware apiiean in the 
** York Iteeords*' In the recorder** ofllco at Dover, 
with a translation in Knglish acconi|Minyinfc it It 
was granted in 104(5 by William Kieft, Diroctor- 
GcMicral of tlio West India Gem|inny, at New 
Amsterdam, and bean only thedatoofthe year 
and says : ** We, on the day and dato underwritten, 
have permitted and alKiwod Abraham PUock, 
Hinitm I{iM>t, Jan AndrieiMMi and Peter Ilarmenaen 
to settle on the South Itiver of New Netherlaiid and 
take )Mirtriefi(tioii of tlH« lands lying on tlic naiil South 
Hiver nlmiwt op|NMito to the siiiull islaiul called 
iS* Vwji'ir hwi or Jiirtl htutit of which lands they 
aru ivrinittiHl to at>|ini|»riate to tlicmm*lves one 
liiiiidn«d ni(>rgi*n nnti to ent't theri'iin four farina 
«>r i»lniitntioni4 and to cultivate the same within a 
year from the date, or sooner, if iNissible, under 
|M>nulty of forfeiting this their right/* witli the 
|iriviiege of scvuring other lands by M^ttlenient.* 

When the Swe<lti)« were coii(|iieretl by the Dutch, 
in Iti.V), thenrticicH of cn|HtulHtioii gave tlieSweilet 
who ilcsiretl to leave one vear and six wwks in 
which todif«|NMMif tiielr ihuiitiviiblc )>n>|MTty, suli* 
Jcct, however, lo llii* imlh of nHeginiiiv, It was 
further provithil that such of the Swetles or Finns 
who ilid not d(*!4ire to go with iiovenior Itisingh, 
and remniiiiHl voluntarily, shouhl ** have the privi* 
legi's of the Augsburg ()oiift!svion and have a iieraon 
to instnict them thei^'in." * 

Those who accepted these tornw and took the 
oath of allegiance were : 

Jan KckhoH*,(V>nfltantiusGroencnburgh, Harmon 

Jans, Jan lAT Bchoflel, Klaess 
Thomas»en, TJrocn Stiddeu, Lucaa 

Petenen, Thooniaa p^ Bruyn,Wil- 
liatn Morris, Goataflsen Aniea, 



Baemt Jonsen. 



Um daka'f lava, 

Murk of 

imnkukiriy tka ainrk lalniirrtl pfurlakin tor ** faaraaialnws" af aiMlm* 
twra, lo ittvvrnt llllNatttiM, akMi |tf«lvUhl|^ ky tka way, kaeama a daad 
kraM Irllar wltklnlruyMiraaapr Ilaaiiartma4it,aiid «aatlni|i|willM iJa«« 
|aiMiiii*Uii««>rNwr MaikkaMi'a Ail uf IWiilaMwiit la liinil, Tkia vna lawll 
Hmm* «i Ihaly aiifKii ail lu tba iliika'a kiw^ Wkkk |ii«tvkla Ihal **all «f« 
Iknia iif |lal4 nr Tlt^aMM* UNik-f tka valNa uf Sva |«4linUkHwaaa Nal^h* 
buMta pimll lia |nil !•• AlMllalkm itf t»u lmllfla*rrnl |«i«4iawf Ilia Nrlgk* 
kuurlKMl, Irt Iw iHUnluntnl l«y lkf> I'vtailakia uf iba {ilara ) Aad If atlhar 
•r bsk iMillM tliall Muaa |u|«Mi any |ira lanra) llirlr ArkllratkMi, Tli*« 
tka iM'Xt Juatl.'a of tka fvara, Wfaia aolira Ikaivwf ky tlia Cmialaldr.alMll 
rkoim* tkrvai4liar ImllOatviil fwrntna, wko af« lo ni«H al Ika I H aamtar'a 
ckarga Irwai tlia SnI AiUiralkta, and bwlk Pkilatlff ami Uafoadaal aia 
la ba eonclndvd ky tka awaid of tka pi i auaa w rkoara ky Ika Jaa* 

'Tkabkiad rafanvdlolaDtrtrkaovaaaaaedy Iriaad. Tha laid doin 
Bol ap|a«r tu liava lawa laTaatad by tka |wrauna aanird. Tka a aa i a of 
Jaa AHdrlaMpa la tkuuftkt la ba tkat of Jaa Amlrkwaa Bl«lca|s aba 
•«aad tka alia uf WilailnKtun. amili aiaatlwnad aiiarkilly aa aa "Ika 
bawmlaufCkrUllna tiiwaa'* In a |Mlaiit uf Urtwbar 1, IMS. 

4 Tliaf* la no avidvnca of any bMid-ttllaa bavlag baaa giaalad wMla 
Iba larrltury vaa aablKt lo tba Saradaa. 



Mark of r '-i Oloff Frnnivit. 
Mftrk of ^>X^ Andrioi Jonwn. 
Mark of y^^ Jon Justen. 
Mark of /N. Mathyi Eiielw. 

Mark of 

Mooni AndricMcn. 

Mmrk of ^^^V Marten Martcnue. 

Mark of 


Lambert Michaelicn. 

Samuel Pctonen. 

Of ttio alM»vp, the niinu«i of Joni, Joiim*n, HiItU 
den, IVterHi'U, •limifii, Unieiiunhurgli and Audritf 
■rii wore ldi>utilU*(l for many yuan with the hutory 
of the Slate, and wmie are utiW extant. 

Wlicn the Dutch nettled at Fort Cnvimir a vil- 
lage was ordeivd inid out in the rear of it and h»tji 
wcregivcn by the Vice- Director to thoee who dotiinil 
theiM. Tlie Swcdii* were ordcrf<l to oolonixe in 
vilhii^efl, but they objvcti'd and were ]x>rnnttcHl to 
remain undifiturlx'tl iNMidin}; theycmr iind nix wi'cka 
granted them in the nrtiolcA of eapituhitiiin. 

At the expiration of that |)eriod, on Aii^Mt 14, 
105G, Gregoriu* Van Dyvk, de|iuty-Kherifr, was 
went as eonnnii*iuiry to the Swcd(>tf to coloiiixe thctii 
in villa;^ or ret|uire their removal. June 12, 
lOoTt the Swede's wera dirvetcMl to conci'ntrute at 
Upland, Pasttyonk, Finland, KingliKVni;; on the 
" Verdrietige Iloeck/* or at some other plat*e aflor 
notification to the Director-General and the 

In IGoG and lti*'>7 the Dutch gntnlcil a few 
wuriiinis and |Nitentii to Swnlcn, and many others 
ri'i*ide<l on noii>narnnit«Ki lamk Among the 
HweihK who hehl warnuits under ihi* Duieh weni 
(*oiii«taniius (JnsMU'nhurg. in Hi'iO; ('lues IVterm-n, 
Ihireht Janm*!!, I'ieter llnrmenee, I*eter I^tuiri'htH*. 
Conielis Steinwyek, l^imder litHMidersen, Jiin l<x*k- 
hotr, Jan St. (Jaggt*nand IVter l^uirLMi(H!n, in 1U57. 

When the English took possession, in lU<i3, all 

i or llww lonlltiw, Vvrilri«>il«« Hutrfc t Vrrtreclit nook oaly «m ia 
Dviawsrv. ll «m lli* Snt faat larnl on Ihv lirU«»r* Klrvr alMte th« 
HOMlh of Clit1»|l«iMi Cr«i>fc, »tiil It nuw kiiwwii ■• Kdvpiiwur, Tlirfv 
«««« ninny f«wilir« m-mM khMiit lb* vliiir* i»n uarruw lula, rklriMlinc 
•uaw dlilaur* lack Into lli« vtwibik with lliv iMHim «l tli« rivvr-frtMit. 
Th« S«««l«a Hiwlv i4li«r BrtllrtiirniB •kniff lii* Bhufv— on* »,\m%m Vvrt> 
rwkl, knuwa m lb* lk«li( ur lkNi|kt ; SwRhwyck, ■^JwlaiiiK N«« (te- 
tU I aimI CrviiM Uuvk, ttutUitr «|>. 

Iiomont hohlini; land without title* were oitlemi 
to obtain tlK>m, but the onler was disro;rsit1e«l ond 
was a;niin nmde the subjmt of official iiuitnictions 
by Col. Hichanl Nicholls in IGGO and br tlic 
(toveniornnd Council in 1G71. In tlie latter year 
patcntM were iA>ucil. anions otiiers, to Captain Carr 
and Mr. Wharton. Warrants for survey were 
i»>uetl by Col. NicholI:<, Francis Uivelace ami Sir 
pjdward AndnvH, as (lovernom of the province, 
the 107G. limiting the holdin;: to Hf\y acn<s 
jtrr ra/tiin. In 1G7H the «^Mirt dinn-ts attention to 
the thet that very few fienMins have had tlH>ir hind 
rcH-onltHl. In the latter jsirt of this yetir the <t«iv- 
ernor ollieinlly nnnounceil that lamU having Uvn 
taken up and not M-tlleil uiMin nor improveil. tin* 
same must lie recf»nhtl ami settled u[Nin in six 
months or lie forfeiietl. In 1G>M) the New Ca<tle 
court made a similiur annoum^emcnt. Several 
months later the inhabitants of Cn>ii)c HtKik peti- 
tioned the Ifovcrnor to iiinlirm the original Dutch 
grants hehl by them. In IG'^:! William t*enn pive 
publie noticv that all huids gninteil tiuring die two 
pn'ii'ding yenrs muot be M*tih<«l In twelve months 
or liirleilnl. lie iiUi gtive two yeiin« for the |*ny- 
meiit of «piit*niit« and e^tahliiihed futuriMpiit-nntM 
on a biiiiisof one bui*liel of wheat for cueh hiindnti 
acres as lH>fi»n>. From this time until lK>laware 
lM*came a State, wnrmnts f«ir Hir\'eys and |iatents 
were grnntcil by the pniprictors or by ilieciminiis- 
sioui'r of the Land Oliice. 

The Swedes, both under Minuit's-and later in- 
structions, were allowed to take up fts mueh bnd 
tui they couhl cultivate, avoiding land already 
improVf<l and tluit re:>erve<l for the pur|MRH-:t of the 
Swedish Wi-^tt India (Vimisiny. This land, m taken 
up, will* to ri'miiin to the |Mii«eH*)«Min« and their de- 
scemlants "as alltNlial and hereilitniy proin-rty," 
including ull appurtenances ami privilege:*, na ** fruit 
of the Hirfacc, minerals, sprinp*, river^s w<mm|.<i, 
foruiiti», H(ih, chase, even of birds, the establi^^hmciit^ 
u|ion water, windmills, and ever}' advantage which 
they shall Hud cstablishitl or may establish.'* The 
only conditiims were allegiance to tlie SweilL^h 
crown and a payment of thrt>o Horins |ier anuiini 
jirrjainl/tt.* This form of (|iiit«n-nt |M"r fiiiiiily giive 
something of a mmnuniiil iiji|N>ct to the Swiilif>h 
teiiureN, and it wa* probnbly the ciim' thitt but few 
trtieln wen* dellnilelv iNiundnl and ^nrvevid in the 
earlier diiys of the M'tlleiiient, (ioveruor Printi 
n*n>ive<l no p|ie<'ial inKtnictioiis in reganl to hind 
grants further than to cmfMirnLi' agricnhurc and 
tt) UHc his discretion in all matters, guidttl by the 
laws, customs and usages of Sweilen. We may 
suppose he follow'e<l the colonial system Ahieh 
was alrtiidy in o|H*ratioii. (lovernor lii>in;!irs in- 
structions from the Swc<lisli (ieneral (*oll<-p> of 
Commerce retpilred him to give the Mtme title ami 
IMMfK-siiion to tluMH; wh«i piirchitH'd land from tlie 

> Siw sr»<*l (» Uriirj UwcklHUuawr, vie., IUmi^'s "AmimU," I. :a. 


«iT«j:«t M to thote wKo bought flrom the eoBiwiiy, rmchcd £182,000 cttirency. There ii no wonder 

vith all albidial priTilejiw ami fmnchMOf, " Iwit no that tlic 8wc«l«, who hod umler their own nilet 

one to enter into pHMmwitin but by €«>niii*nt of the |ittid only a nominal rent, thoukl have ehnink in 

ieovemnient,to that no one be deprived inifiruperlj fri|rlit at tlieie heavy cliarges and eitlier given np 

of what he already immmmmcs.** Tlie Swe«li<>li tonure, their land or ncgleeted to take out dec«hi for it, and 

therefore, wa« by grant froin the crown, thnMi;;ht lie thus lost pfwewion of it entirely umler lVnn*s 

<«ovt*mor, the quit-rvnt iK'iiig fimimutiHl into a M'vero law of 1707. As Arrvliittmyt in bisgentiv 

«ti]iitHtiun tax, |«yable annually by lieudM of fam- al i<tntenient of tlteno cliangtK of tenure: 

ili«is the only liniitu to trafts gnuit^^d U'liig that •rN.i^riiM««»«iMi auvprMviii iimiImI«»m« vIvm tut iiM>kiiHii 

ruliivat«'<l. Afu'r the eoni|un*t ot New Sw«<«k'U by NmM«ir 4rMb in u*i, imi miMi wt iiihii «rr» ii|»<ii uiMinN k<«N •» hmwi* 

ti„.i),.u-h ihc s««Ki. »..«, .mu.n,i to .•...«■ u.. !;:::^.j:r:rt.r~'r.r ^^^.-^^1 ii"!:::! 

take the oath of allegiance, and have their land mtumi? Uf iitrtr nHii*iMiir». u«i whr* tiM i:m«>m« wiMinuiniiiirii 

titles reneweil. Hie Dutch were wr) lilK-nil in y,^^; A|«.u..*iiMMir^i-; i«iuih..nidHi *Min«i*iii..». 

their grants, eyiteeinlly under IVIliiioytwrfa, but mvi •»i«MiMWM,iMiaiiijii(iyr.i with 01*1 atiuiM r^r a |iiMvan«ii«i 

,» . J* I . 1 ^.\^ ...*:^l» ..l......l>.l .....I « fur •hlrh Ihrjf f«»»« HUH, »lkrttl», • furrvBl i*lli»llki», mi4llirjr» M 

the tenure of lands was entm-ly flimigiMl, and a .i^^ ,.,,„ ,.^S;,„ ,.» ih. •«*. i-r iii* u.rf w« -irAbu**.*!. ih. 

nuit-ri*nt wa4 now rwiuiriMl to lie |inid of 12 rtivers i«»h«ut«in« f«'*«aiMWih.»»n»iHroiiiu««iH«i. . . . Many «imi luuk 

per iiHtrgen, eipial to AM wnts |M'r neri'/ lliw was ,i.„i., !...•.,„, *^ .rrj ii«bi if pr.^ rttiiiv.1.4 ih« i.iHb. m 

a high n»nt, in euniimrison with that whieli the iH^vyrtHMuu wkm iiwy mmy m» um u iimii:k«j ihry iit«(*f.<i« 

^.,,11 • I •>! ai . lnii4tYTis| ilM|p«ai*r Mrtvf llMNMto iMlwn, «lik'li tlivlr«lMC»ii«lBM* 

>w(«<Ui* luid l>M*n |«yiiig. and with the rents ■«,« uiwiki.*' • 

charge.1 by the Kngli..b. Be^idi*. tin* Iniitl liiul to ^.,,^. ,,.^,, , of taxutitin in iKlawaro dates totlic 

l« surveyed, and the cost ol survey, nivnl and tt.|iiiiiiistni!i.«i of .lean I'aul Jiiwiuot. who was a|K 

d«nU fi* a tract of 200 orJiOO aert* WMs ;HHI or j^.j^j^^, vu^.i>i^H-,or on S^uith River, Nov. 20, 

titIO ]N>unds of tolmecti. Many .sw«K-s were uii- ^^,y^ j,, ,,,^. ,,ri,vWoii«l iii:.tnietioiu to him. " in 

willing, some |»erha|« iiimlile, to piiy thive fciti and ^„,^.^ ,,, j,^^.^.„, i,„„j^^K»mto diWro for laud," he 

nius; some abandoned their luiuLi entirely. s<>nie ^^^ airtHte.1 to exact from each nion^ii of laud 

sold, and many |«id no hei-d to the mandate, i«^.|ve^iivcm nunuiiUv. William Ikxkman. in a 

thus in fact converting iIhiiihcIvcs into s<iuat- ,^.„^.p ^^ DlriHior Stiyvcsiuit, January 14. 1(J60, 

***'*• .,,..,, I ^ presented a pnUNisitioti of the slierilf nnd eouimis* 

After the Fjigli*»h to..k posncwion new oaths of ^„^. j.,^ ,,,^. ,„xntlon of everv Swedish fumilvfor 

allc-giam-c and new conhrimitions ol title were .ictVaving oiirt exiK.iM's. The exiKiisc* of the 

rt^piiriHl. Andnwi and Uve ,iec made |siteiits ^,„^,- l^^^.v^.^, ^cre isiid bv oiilt-nnts iiiiil eus- 

ver>- fnvly, doing all they ciaild to proiiH4e and „,,„^ „„,., ,,5;^ ^^.,,^.„ ( Juvenior Aiidns« n..rgaii. 

extend the sell leiiicnts. but tin* Duke uMorks j^^,, ,,,^, ^^.^^^ „„,, ,,^. ,„„^,|^tro,,^ ^,^^,1 f,,, |„. 

hiws exacicil a fpiit-rt'iit ot one bushel of u heat |H'r ^,„,Hi„HM in reftreiice Iti mililic tliargt*. In replv, 

fUK* huiHlit<il new. W hcnii. as we hud by the I |h ^^^ ^ ;ovcrii..r, Nov. 2ti, 1070. autliori»-d a lew if 

land ix-conl. was tiikeii for taxes (and ot cxairn.. lor ^,„^. .„„^. j,, „,^ „,„, „„ „,^. ^^ ^,,^j^. .. j„ j;^^ 

It nt likewise) at the rate of " live gui de« jK-r siii- ^^,,^,,^ „ *, ^j,^. ^j^.^^ ,„.j j„ j,,^. , ,. ^^ „,j^ „,^ 

|de,"— five piilders jier -rAr^yW or bushel, thirty „,„j,i,,raic*. on Feb. 6. 1077. ticmurred, and re- 

I*nec Stirling, or sixty cenu. or thirty |H:ncc 1 euii. ^„„,„, ,^„iii.^i„„ ,0 ,„„ke the lew " bv tlio 

Mlvaniaeurrenc->-,ec|Uidtofijrty.fouraiidoiie.hltli ,,^... „^ j„ Maryland and Virginia.' which was 

c^.n,^— a rent, therelore. of thm-.|it\lis or two- .j^.^.^ic'd April «. 1077. In SciitemUr. the 

fifths of a c^'iit iier acre. I luhr iVnii the regular ^.^iiMnldeH were insinuied to make lists of all iieiw 

.piit-renis were a iK-nny jier ncre. tie cmvcyamiiig „,„, ,i„i,,^. ,„ ,„xiiti»ii.« Samuel l^iiid was coiihUi- 

n«*tiiig fourtec«n to eighlixn shiilingj |H.r plat. |,|oof New CiiMle District ; Walter itowhn of Opin.^ 

amltlie surveying ami rc«gisieriiig as much more, ,,„cnometi ;Chnrh's UutiisevofCristcvii. InNovem- 

Niy thirty sh^lling^or seven . lotliirs and lifty events, j^.^^ ,^7-^ ,,„. ^^^.^j ,„^.j „J j^-^.^. (^.„^,,^.^ „„^, ,,,|^, ^ 

initial |myim-nl. and two cU.Uars annual |«yiiient levyoftwelvegildewamlteuhtivewforeverviH^rson, 

I«r <4ie hmidreil acres. Tins was in addition to ^^ |^ p,^|,, j„ ., xvh„it at 5 gilders. live att 4 gilderw, 

the local Ux for county and court cx|ieiis*«, ftiHey ntt 4 gilders larsciripple. Indiiin Come att 3 

auHHinting to thirtyfive or forty guildew js^^r tyd- gi,,,^„ ^^^ »ehipple. Toblmc«x, att 8 stvvers |«r lb ; 

able.— fiair dollam and hfty cents |ier family or p,,^,^,. ^^^ g „„^, ,j„„,„ „„ |,} ^..^.^.^ j, «,. ^^ j/„^ 

|ier freeman- ami an occasional •* wur-tax of a ,„ ;^.^.,„^ ^^ ji|.|„g „^ p Courrant." and in- 
ticnnv in the iniuimI on a valuation whicli, in 1004, 

t^ • ' ' t Xm .WMh urn rMiwI bvrBWM tb* Dntrli 4nlro]r*<l tli* S»«dMi bml 

IWrttm havAcaaaHrnifiMlMiiin llitoimiMrrlijrminp«liii||lh«Mlt*r rrmnla, MUtl Ihrjr •ml iIhi KiiflMi n^iulrwl all drMl* In lb* hamla uf 

•t StmU. aHtl Ibr RUtkleral fiirrtila. TIm wIimI tmlwvt thaalltrr, SarilM Iw b* Mirr«'«Mlrf««l In vichaHg* t*" ■•• il m h «nil«r lb* M»w 

m» fntb^ bjr (Im r|<laml nmrt ■! IbU limr, ««■ lbri^<l> ulha nf • ■••■nuj', fuTi-niiiwul h'*!. 

Ibo iralblvr ibw brinR vwrlh iwnrr. In MrrlluK valut^ ihrmrtir*, t,b« 'Ai-rvlliM, llUi. Sf«w Svv^n. pp. IW-T. IVnnn. IIM. SiicMjr'i vdl' 

fwM t4 an ariv «ti«M ba«* lirwu .'l.H rrnl*. In IVnnvylvnuU rurnMiry, linn, li>74. 

• hk-b. |»rb«|ai, mm Iba i««n<Unl iiani in lb« t>Unil rnlrnlallwns Um * All {wnum brtwfvn tba ttfriwf ilatvMi and alftly WM« MaSa llaUa 
t«nt •w«M ba 2.21 cania |wr aci«. to tajutwn. 



ftnwtad CkpUin OmtireH, high iberifl; to collect a 
litt of tazahlei by March 25, 1678. The lUt m 
returned under thew initnictiont wu m follows: 


Will Cbanr. 

JuhN 111 


J^mvk llvMtac. 

Jtilm KmIvt. 

TIki. lAnkm, 

JM Wpkr. 

Jubn M^rvi. 
JbmU Att J» Mmm. 
JtirtoM IHmB. 
Bal llthhW. 
Jo W«lirr. ««ator. 
Will lllHfTvr. 
Jam IvirfiuM. 
TliM Mwillvr. 
JtrfiK AriiiMUM. 
Jarwh liU liMla. 
rM#r IMnh. 
IIPiHlrtik WAlmvM. 
IMnh lAurviM. 
INnh WIIIUmm. 
Kd««nl A J»mla 
Owrpunw ll«««i»a. 
11iilt|i ai«>«»Uar. 
WlllUm PUItMB. 
TIm d>Klur. 
JmHii l*WVflL 
Will !*««». 
TliM (illlwrt. 
Eilwarl TvwkML 
IhM M niter. 
Will r»nmt. 
Thti Hnrlllng. 
Jwlia Whyto. 
BtJb MurtwM. 
Juh« mivrl. 
M..U ThIWhI. 
Allwfl- HUwK. 
Jii4iii lUrkwr. 
JtiliN Alllwnjr. 
MiirrU iJaltm. 
Ilwiiry Il«rg. 
Tlio Jmnta. 
JokN Waliii A 1 
jMim CrawrwH A 1 1 
AuiOMlt* l>lk». 
Kkii'il Hrfvtfk 
Jolili KruM. 
Jarwb Vuunc. 
a stovr* A 1 1 
EvaM HMlUlMlty. 
Jwku IIumL 
Ji«»|ill I'wulM, 

Koli. kuntM. 

JokH btiylM. 

Iliilib Whjriv. 

TktMUM iIkuHII. 

JtM>|ili Umtti. 

Ji*|4i ItornkMK. 

1 nntrw «!)««« «f Mr. M<IL 


Ahlkuaj Drjaal. 
MiMk IWkMM. 
Jwlm AiImim. 
Twtrr, Mr. AlrickMMMi. 
J«hH lUiwn Tayk«. 
1 bn^r wT M. Aklrkhl^ 
Harmon iM Wvnla. 
Jwlin K^rr. 
llrwrjr itUnUoak*^ 
Jwkn kMMlrli. 
llfM-r, kia man. 
R«i|th Hull liliiaitt. 
IbiUi llutrkli 
Mr. ItaMftaa, 

KMffV AMfiL 
Jtika Mutkyan. 
Will aMH|4a. 
Will hammwii. 
JaMM WallUak 
fluyal»r« Ikrh. 
lloMlIk WtlilaM 

kaylwri bHMlrli. 
Ambf«a« Uackar. 
OvtTll MMlIk A MA. 

mi ll«|{r«- 
ll«Bi|>krj CllClf. 
Jaa kalk. 
ratw aaiMlaaJir. 
hufhrrt LaarvMC 
IVlw Viilrkrrtk 
llara Aii«lrk«, 
(Hlr Ttirnwn. 
l.yniva I>kf4t. 
IVirtck Cart. 
IVUr .MaikbtfB. 
Ifviwlrtk MliimaM. 
Jwka Htlmala. 
l^yliTMiil JanatL 
k«n4lrtk fiwiaaa. 
Jan fkrMilaa. 
humfhrj Nkallc 
FMrr ife Will. 
Conwib Janaea. 
Evart keadrlx. 
Tjairn J«f«M*a. 
Jukn MNilkaa. 
Ilrndrlk KvMla. 
LM-a AiMlriaiL 
llrmlris l.irMiaMa(h 

Will Mr.41. 

lirinlrlK Antiriaa, 
AiKlrira .\miIiI««m. 
Mirtin« I'lHiWa, 
ll..(h-tl Mb hill Myw. 
IVirr, Jaa A fauli Jatfatl. 

IVIff rlwiMn A tw« tWMi 

Jurlwa IkMlMMaa A MA. 
AnUrira Miiiirl. 
LrKrr Aukaa. 
I**lar Atiika. 
Kuwrll Lu9num. 
Martin lirrrlls A Ut Mri. 
Jwka Arakvn A aoa, 
Jukii OkI"- 
TIki karf K 
Jwl«n UKlv'a atrvaM. 
Jail (Irrrlii. 
UMifiia Mtwfa. 
Will Jrai^a. 
JiiliH Walktna. 
TIhi Jai'iii* A ihraa ttm, 
• la>n Jaiiwa. 
Jwkn MiHMiPiana. 
INIa I^Mllal■ll A kto 
•wart JarvU A t mm 
hanwpn Jaawa. 
Will lUynbai. 
Wwlravm Jaaaaa. 
OujriMtt Wwlmtaa, 
« Mnrivx. 

Jurioa Jumiaa. 
Jaa t«iniirK. 
Mallilaa MalbhMn. 
Jan Awililrai 
Will Kanr.<ni. 
Charlva >a friaJiaaa. 
Hani IVlff* A aua. 

I •Ml* Wa.TBHMI. 

T)iBaaalltkUaiA 4 
Jwka Aadriaa AIM 

MiAli 4a Mac 

Kacllvft Utt. 

Oara^iaa Ami. 

IwMi cH TWfaa. 


J«*ka IbrMMi A hk 


Win ••aUima. 

Jaa Bujar. 

ClaM l«aiitalL 

JtAAa hMf«. 


Jwk SKrflk^lp, 

H»l«ar Mc 

Will Mill. 

liarM A INptor 
Malklaa NmImS A 
Mai« Matara. 
Kirr Ikii-lafaAMa 
l.nraa iVtan A MA 
Jaa Kill. 
Paul Mlar«|. 
Jaa karmara Krall 
Will Utlaai 
CkM Jail 
Mark La<-rua, 

llamMfc C 
Ikirraia U^rtt«k 
Maiklna l^iHrtaft 

MuIIm X«*la»^ 


A«rt Janara. 
Strpkra Jar1aa& 
IdM lirmlrika. 
Math llrnrlaua. 
Jwkn Siiifiall. 
J»kn I'ururliai. 
Mack llama A « 


r jii 

Julba tU 
kaa« P> hire. 
Jaka fJaalcar. 
htfnyt UfpT A 
JiJia i«Mlik. 


Italg.^ lliifRlaaa. 
U>im l-kaMniM A 
Aalkt«i|r l**Ui^ 

Will i;.««i(kii«L 
WIU WtlkbML 
Jukn fulW. 
Markaa UUflart. 
Rkk Uujr A 3 
Tli>iai Wall 
Tk*«iIiail«aH A 
Jaha «nillk. 
Akraai Knii 
Jtfba NkwIcL 

Neither the nuigintnitft nor fifRrmb w€re taxed, 
although tlu«ir K*r\'iiiitA wcit* iiichitlctl in the li»t. 

Out of a lift of ION taxahlt-ii in Now Cnntk* am* 
•tni»lfrv in lOH.'), 4<'l won* owiirrHof IiiimI oiitiiide 
of till' lowij.' Of lh(y<*, tht* liiry^ivt witp IVlvr Al- 
richs mid Ca|iCiiinMnrklmni, each of whimi hiul 1000 
ncri'M. Thi* «ytiitvuf tlu* furniiT wiw pnihahly on tlie 
Chrij»tiniia and Delaware north of Croiuc* Ilouk ; 
that of Ca|itaiu Markham wa.^ north and wwt of 
New Castle. Chnrhjs Uunwey aii<l .John Wntkin^ 
hatl 040 acnii each on the Chrl'tiaiia l)ctwci>n 
Hwnrt Nutter Iidand (now NonMiiii) and Fi*ni 
liiMik, opiMMitv Wiliiiiiijfton ; Juhn William N«-er* 
ill)?. •''00 nvrvn ; John < >)flc, 400 nvnn ; Man* liloi'k, 
widow of 1 laiiM HIiM'k, !I^jO nrn« alMivc New ( 'ai»tle ; 
John M«dK iiOO n(*n« near Swanwyrk ; John 
Ihirliy, .'»00 acn« (Swart Niittor I>>land) ; TlKiniaa 
Spry, physician and attorney, 300 arrPK ; William 
Ilaijfh, a iiiendwr of IVnirn Council, 40<l acrvs; 
John Jiu*quel, son of Jvati Paul Jac«piot, 2>40 acrr;*; 
on I^>ng Hook; Kilinund Cantwcll, lii;;h ttlierifl*, 
100 acre:* ; Aniohliw I)c La;;ran<7c, :i00 acr». Fif- 
teen of the land-owners almi owned lots in New 
Castle, and William IVnn aln) held one lot. Amon^i; 
the h»t-(miierM were John Moll, AriiiddiM l)e 1a< 
l|[ni lip*, John Conn and Johantuii lic llai<»,nia};i« 
slrateri; Win. Wdch, who siilimM|iiriitIy aurtntMkil 
John Moll on the U'tich; Kphmiin llvrnian, ex- 

t Tkla was prlwr la iha dl*Ulaa lai« I 



dork of eottft ; IXMiioieTeiieiiuiker, the preacher-; 
Emeliufde Ringt, former reader in the church and 
ichoolnuwter; and Dr. Gerarduii We«ele. 

North Chrietiana Creek ounntablery had nxty- 
fire taxable*. Of thoet*. John 0|;to and Valentino 
llo!rm;!»worth * each owned 1000 acre* ; Mor^f^tn 
Druitt, THN) acn¥, in tliv ** Boiijrht " on th« Dela- 
ware; ThtinuM Wallacvtou, do|Mity nhcrilf from 
l(>7:t to 1079. 370 arr», on Wliilenay Crevk and 
100 on MilU*reek; Conmd Coiwtnntine, 5(10 
acnvion which Newport was located ; Jacob Van* 
dever, TiOO acres, on Hraudywino Cm*k, op|NMito 
\Vilniin)rton ; John Nomniers, in Mill Creek 
IIundn'<l, cm White Clay Creek, threc-(|unrteni of 
a mile above its mouth ; John Ctmn, 500 acron, 
on White Clav Crtx>k in Mill CnH>k Hundred; 
AmuMus IX* l^aumu}^*, llTiO acni*. of which a 
|Hirtion was in ChrtKiinnu Hundnnl, Hkhvw ho ro- 
ridcil ; HriNtr SiniH*xm»n, 770 acn*s, -ItNl of which 
n«lj(iincil the o»lnlv of IK) l<n};nin}^s in (•liriHtiiinti 
Hunditfl, where he lived ; .Vbralmm Mnnn, 570 
acrei* on Hrcnd and CIuhih* Uland and w<<st of Ucd 
Clay Cn*ek, where he nvitUtl (he was juHticc of 
the iHnce two years, and was chost^n sheriff in 
10M:S); John Moll, pnifident of tlie court from 
1072 to KVCi, 210 ncm, in Mill (reek Hundred, 
aUive Bread and (Mhtkc li^lund ; Junepli lionie, 
IWA} acre* ndjoitiiii}; Moll's. 

In the con!<tablcrv on I he north side of Dtick 
Crtvk there were fortv-iK'veii taxablcs, of wlitMn 
Henry Williams, ma}!istmte, owmtl 400 acres; 
Kphraini H<'rman, 120<) acres; Peter nayani, 
<i(K) acn-s ami almt llondmy llo«ik ; Captain VaU 
«-anl Cantwcll, 42M*') acres, a |iortion of which was 
at CantwelPs nrid>^; (now OikiMa) where he live<l ; 
Morris Lislon, 7*jO acres at a place still known as 
LiMou's Point 

Tlic oiantablery from 8t George's Creek to the 
north side of Op|ie<|ucnomen hud fifty taxables. 
Anion;; them Cus|ianiM Herman, 400 ucn-s ; Hiiiry 
Willianii*, ma^ist rate, 2>>0 acres; (icrrct Otts majp- 
si rate, 452 acres; Peter A I rich, 400 acres, at Ht. 
.Vujrustines l^autlin); ; Gabriel ItapjK*, 1000 acn«, 
Henry Vandcbur}?, 1000 aens. 

FnlloHin^ is a list of taxables in the coiwta- 
blcrv of New Castle in 1087 : 

Mtm GIM«, JmuIi rtovwa, JmhIi Jm^««4. 1U*mt llalriilnHiB, IVia' 
Jm^vh. AMalum MsyM, J«tliii Wlilir, WI<M<iwi<lMaMiiM, A«Imm U%}s 
immm* WilliNMHHi S|M7. Malbiwi U«»iii, MHry W^^r^u KrtwaH UmI, 
ItakM MMttb, Inmk- SlMv^r, ivktm I^tmIukIuii, H^Hlrtrk AiNlmwn, Hmm 
Srlrk WilltaNW, liwfTw Uad, J<4ia livnuk, Jmw* WnIIUm, llMrb* 
RaiHM-j, llr»lrirk Ktrftatli. J«ilin IMartM^ I'kwull !««•»■, \.y\A»m 
»^^kMmm, J«^iH> Uamltlua, iwhn KkliaplMiii. John Sybnaca, KkhM4 
n«llyw«ll, AraiiMiM Us Ucraait*. WMuw l*r^Mur, Juha WlilbuM, 
I'riaa BiMm«, Jan*« llalb-daj, Jvlia ll>iW»r, JwliMiHMa <l« flan, M«ll|' 
iaaS* Klnc, imnAti'untWmf^ Malhiaa Vaadt-rlifjrrfra, lluwtair TmI» 
■Mhrr.iuliM Ualr*. llrB<lnck VaiHlrrtmrRli, Kaichrtwrt l«4t. TIimmms 
l«iMiediaB, Julia Ut^wviMaa, Kaniii WrMi, LninarU lit* UlasWr, ^lithralM 

( ValrMlw UiJIlB^Mrtirth aaiHM tw IkU cuanfrx |<H*ir tu iIm arrf val of 
WiSMiH IVhm aiHl rHanml Iw liHaiMl aNwa aflrr KimI lib ihrra mm^ 
Valval litr, Urarj bihI T1m<m«<s riMM wivr la III* ** WvItwiim** |a ll>ltS 
aiMl la K"?, and Mil«r<|Mrttilj owavS laritv liwia ta Braadywla* 11 aa- 
4«««l. ilv«nr nr|MWMii««l Nrw (\Mllr la iIm Onwral AMBilily la 1«U0 
aaJ tlk^ wlHer i>llW«« iif lat|«>naiMV In IViiniijilTanla, tU «aa llai 
fiiaairf tff tha ftiaiHjr la llrlawaK and Marylaad. 


Hoi— a, Jaka Cfeaa, < 

MM, Slawa aaS J«lia Oicii, faaae Tlar, 

Cla<«s UwafS BuaNaB, Mia SaiHIi, At — ... »...*, 

I^ar, ClaM llaaMl, htOmvm Bdwr. MwarS Bhka, M«Ma Da Oaa, 
Jwha I^a HyUrt, JaMa AaSriM4k J«Aa Fwitat, Laarfaa Mrb UtH 
Juha llrttSrIrkwa. J«4ia Mall, fMrr G««Sla. rH»r AlritK RrfMr 
Taailrfruvlva, J«4ia liafliy, Aahmy Bryaal, Wlillaai Markhaas Malt. 
KmkMia, Matt. (^bna. JaaM MiaiUHiw. Jaawa ClaypuuK WtillaM 
llMiaibrni, Xarlmrlak VaaSmcoulM, Jia»Hi Oaytaa, WMnw Mwilvy. 
Blrlainl Katla. 

Taxable* on the north side of Brandywino 

VaaSffTrrr, OmirMat YaaSo w ir , Maaat Jarty, CWa*llw 
Kaif aua, Juaaa Mrvf glair. Ilaai IVlrrwa, Jai-iib CVawafv IVirr AaS»r> 
•ra, Jtilta MMaaa, iVirr Muuaat ThuMaa J« a*is » " ShtSrll, Nalta 
NVIbua, IVlcr llalaU>H. M«rpaa Itealtl, Malbrw Maadrn. TttaaMM Oul< 
triac, Jwha (iraUs Wlillaai Mm-k«laK Jwha Barkly, UUvvr Cwi|*. J«ha 
Crww, Willlaai CImmI. Jvn-aihih CIvad, »:daarl r^llaftM. iMac Warw 
rr, VaWniliM lluillnRaawith, liiaiy IMIIaM*** 'h, 1 h ^a i aa C»b» ay, 
Wlillaai Ualvr, Adaai khaqdry, Th44aaa illflua. Wlillaai llaaly. Mcb- 
anl Urachriii. 

Taxables on the north side of Christiana Creek : 

Wlillaai (iiifwl. Mllllaai (l*aMi*.(1irfeNihvr «hlt*, Wolhi ThoauM, 
Artia Jiiliiin.ii, \uwi\ llvlai, llMi# SlaMrkfrn, chrWIaa VlrliaaM^a, 
«)N>«lM'n M'alnivva, Aniwlda«d» liatfraMcrilliarira IWrrlaiu IWmamla 
Smlbaai, Janili llriidi b kpi*a, Malbbw |l« Vm», Saai'llVlrtM«, t hlla* 
llaa Mii|l<i>|s IMa-M lUiMMwia, Kb bald lli44ttMia, Kratttiwa Mblbaai,«a Mblbaai, >Klillaai lirrfu, Ji^ba <ir*M. Ilrary IhmrlM^ J«M-|di 
|'i«4iMa. Jiniw At«kla. Aadir* Tilly, KlIaabHh OgW, llaub Manbia<lrr, 
Jaiuva t faiy|wwli>, John ItorvUrr, Jidiu OairrM'M, JaaiM H«^, Urary 
Ihill, J«din Allwaay, T1a«iaMW LiMiKabaw, llo*a McUwvall, Ullt* Banvll, 
Tbuauw I'lrrMHi, Juba haitlh, Th«>aiaa Widlatnm, jMrfdi lbua*is lira. 
ry. Itiiit aad Jar«di (Sarrrlaua, Wlillaai Makniiav, J«<ba Vm*u. Abrw 
iiaai Maan, Wlillaai Maaa, Aadrvw SI«>Wt«ti, Tbt-aiaa Ullk4, X* 
»wM, llM«iaaUiaiMl, Ilrary Jar«4«ua. Urt-rg* il«gic Sr., Tbiraau Maih* 
r«a, Jwlin Chlbid. (irtnf* llwpg. jr., Wlillaai aad Ji4iM MavHafak Xa«h- 
ariah IViirbk, Fraurla tMMlib, Sr., FraiM-ia ^aillb, Jr., Anlbwuy llafKlab 
llMtfal Mtaridy, Ulltrr Ta>bir. NalhaabI Cablvrll, JaatM hlaiMMrbli 
Jwbn HnMlrlMw, Willbiai iiabwra, Jwha Cwarh. Jwha llaaa, IVivr Sltd* 
c<i|i. I'bill|i l^airia, Nbbulaa Iiaa, Thwama (iiM'a A Ciiai|«ay, Juba 
M wcwMibk « lillaai Wwi kdaW, »y awa Cwr k, Umitr* llawhuid. 

Taxables on north side of St. Geor)^**s Creek : 

ll<>wlrbk VaadraUrc IVi«t W.dhi«toa, Jwha Mull. Maa* llaam, 
Jwha liarby, Maihlaa VaadriUydra, Juha ilayby, Jacwb Vwaac (ta all 
wuly UAni mctvm). , 

Taxables on the north side of OpiNM|uen<Mnen : 

RaahiT AadfVMm, G«arsa Ibikrr, AInaadvr dauaal, Kphralai I lac 
aMMi, Jwhaaata da flans Swbrtl llatrblaMia, Adaai pHMaaa, Juha 
Uuattua, Jiiba aad Kyly WaMrr. Nkhwiaa IWM. JaaMa HnMikfa, Jidia 
Walker, William l'bllli|ai. WllUaai HHm>«^ Mhliaid llaailHt, Uaaa 
llaawa, Itkbani lladdwa, Ollw till<s Jolia Otto, llradrfck Vaadra- 
bttiRli, TlMiaiaa .^albMiay, Vvin JvhaMa, Kdaiaid IVrklm^ Xdaaid 
Uivra, Kr, (iabrbll Ha|i|«, fHrr Aailrb^ Sraatla HbiianlMa, Kb-bari 
Nulik, Wkldww Aadri«iia, llt>adihh ^ftalrarra, Jwha llayty, llyU-rt 
l.aurrara,t'a*|«iaa llrrawa. feaiavl Hbkllaic, Jwha Cida, J«din Uvrbi^ 
Will lain liraiil, »:4laiaiid i.larf»ay, Tboaiaa l^uw, Jidia Slatn^ AaM« 
NklitdU, Julia WilWa, Kllh lluai|dir«-)ii, IV1«>r Alrbias Jandi IWua, 
Hidvn .\»litMn, iKviwT Ma|d«a, Ktlaanl Ollda^ ll»a>lrtrk Vaailrabargh, 
(Ww-llaa Ka«|*>a, J«<ha IH«i»ib, Wlllbiai Srartaa^ HaaM Saillh. 

TnxabU's of north aide of ** Duck Creek hun- 

Hlcbard llallywall, Joha Maekarty, awhrrC MoiHaa, Jarta 
auii. Willlaw Gmal, llrarlraa WllllaaHS KwllU iMa^a, aobf>fft MwBay, 
Jaawa SUkn, Walirr Sailib, Lia-a* MIrliall, Jtdia llarlo|i'a eblbliva, 
Tboaiaa Ba«lllBC li«ark WrrMua, Aa. WrrflhRdaK TbuMiaa Ualidaic. 
Hii^aaila (iaai|»lay, J«aa|di llairia, Sraacb Cwuh, Ulrra Sawk^ Murria 
IJatun, K|diralai llrraiaM, Ju8»|di llallaiaa, J4«a|di llwuhlliic, Jwha 
Taybir, Uffvitt Taybir, Aadraw \M»r, Tbuaiaa llarrl««a, lUrhard Mltrh. 
•II. Kiae. Mwafd UtMia. Hk-baid gaiac, Sraarla Jwhawa, Mkball 
USIfy, Hytiraai Valk, WlllUai llattwa, .\aiu«y T«4akla(p, Kdvard 0«aa, 
Rwlwrl Cuiirtary, Tbwaiaa llarrla, Hlllfaiai Uabora, l^ala Owaii, l^alar 
Byard, Sraiirb Latia, Juha llarrK Uaary Ih'Vlaa, akUid Wblto.1 

Acrelius is not jiwt to his felloWH-ountrymen in 
ailling them idle. Tliey were timid, and they 
lackeil enterprise to enable them to grapple with 
the iMMsibilitiet of the situation. They were simple 

■ AlCbltllai* (Mm7) tha Iwrlltiry of ilwrri-Kil, wrWhora KUt. vaa 
Tvry a|iamp|y tHlM aad «aa aid dMrkiad. 


pMMmts of A priiiiitiT« moe and a Mcluded eoon- Heooe the commoii expodient wu rew>rte«l to of 

tiy, thrown in among people of the two most removinj; bwhct ami iinden^wth oolv and gird- 

energetic oominerctal and mercantile nations the ling the larger tivo^i, which were left U> ftaiid leatifM 

world luM ever M(*n. Tliey were among strangers, an<l di*ad till they mtte<i and fell, when the Ufjt 

wlio i|mke utrnngu tongiiet and ha«l wayit mich a» the were aAer a time ** uiggfrinl up,** ur ctit Intti IcngtlM, 

HwimIm fu«ild not undertttnnd. It ii« no wonder that mllcd into pil(« and hurnt. It was* difficult to 

they shouhl have shrunk hack. IwwildortHi, and con- phiw lM*tw(<cn and among «» many tniukit ami 

tented tlieniMi'lveii with 0mnll fnrniii in rutinnl »tuni|Mi, and thi^ letl the SwchIc:*, in unler further to 

neighlMirhodilii. liul tlicM* iniaU farnw, aAer the eci»iioiniM« InUir, to rti«<»rt to a MVittrni of litbdtarMlry 

Kwiilm nettled down U|Nin them, were well and whirli Mtill, In a great mcnMin.^ regulates tite piteli- 

InlHiriouKly titled, and, small though they were, we ing and rotulion of en)|H in the iK'Iawnn', Mnr}-lau«l 

have the acknowhilgment of the Swe«lu« them- and Virginia iM'nini>ula. The ground wim c'lean^*! 

ik'lveri that they yieldiil a eomfortahle supjiort, with in the winter, and then, unlewi toha<x'0 wai« grown, 

a goodly aur{>lu!< eaeh year Iniiidoi to tliotH! Inrgi; the **ui'W ground,*' aj< it wui> enllcil, wa« plaiite«I in 

and rapidly incnii!«ing familiti* which attracted et>rn in tlic* npring. The prtN-cKii, which ii« known 

William Penn's attention and commanded hii« an ** li:<ting," win* to throw t\ui furrowit (»r lour 

admiration. fiirmwH together, liy plowing up ami <lo\vn the (i«>ld 

The huitlNindry of the Sweilcn wim homely, hut inHinid ol'tiroutid it, lenviii;; a htiv* oC rid^rtii ailh 

it wiw thorough. The mdl which they chicily an unpln\v<ilii|M««v lN>t\\(vn. The Miilut'ilu* riiL'tn 

tilled wan light and kindly. In the InitloHii*, wan pnlvcn/4*il wiih the Imrmw nnd ihvn 

nwHUiiM, ami inarMhcrt along the Hlrt»amit, which the ittep|N*i| otf into liilU ulxiut four ftn-t apart, tin* 

Swcdeit knew ipiite ax well as the Dutch hi»w to eorn-plauter dropping hiii live gniin.H in each hill. 

dyKe nnd convert into metulows, — the Umndywine scooping the hill out, dropping and i*overing aith 

niitidows are to this day famous as examples of nv a heavy hue, — a itimple o|)erution which ex|H.'rt'« 

claimed lantls. — the soil was deep, rich and ver}* diHpatclie<l with two moli<m.-« of the implement. At 

productive. The earlier Swuiliii did not myc the the lust working of the c«tnt. wlieu it had grown 

ctiltivatcd gnuwes on them; meadows; they simply utout and waist or brenst-high, the ''miiMle**of tin* 

dykcil them nnd mowo<l the mitund gra^, plaining li.^u were plowcil tmt and the fn^li earth thixjwn 

com and tolmeco^ and Howing wheat whenever it aliout the nMii.« (»f tlie vigorous plnnt. Tlii^t **lii>t- 

was dry enough. Acreliui* M|H*nks of* the high pritv ing" proccTW was found extvllcutly well i*uitc«l to 

which i\wac lands brought in his time — 'Six hun- the low, flat laiulf> of the |H'nin!«ulu, il«, iK^itkv 

dretl dollars cop|M'r coin [sixty dollar*] per acre** wiving lalior, it utionlitl a surt of eusy dminagi*. 

— when thonnighly ditched ami ro«'lainu*d, though the iMittoni of every furn>w iK'iug a Mnall ditch, and 

eon!<tantly liable to inumlations fnmi the tuuiieliug this enable«l the farmers to plant their c<»rn much 

of the muskratandthe eniytiifh. The I'pla ml soils earlier than they otherwise eouhl have dune. When 

were excellently adaptiHl to corn, wheat andtoUut'o the etiru had gone through tlie ** tiM<'ling ** and 

when they had l»een cleared. The fon^t growth on "silking** pnHti<<HM and the i^ir was fully develoiie<l, 

tluiH) soils comprised the sevend varictii's* of the "bladi-s" were pulled and the ** to|«*** cut fur 

American oak familiar in the Mi<liile State's, the fiMlder. In Septendier the gnaind was lightly 

hiaek'walnut, chestnut, hickory. |M»plar (tuli|»*trfe), pKiWiil with sundl shovel-plows (us yet the **culti- 

Mtissnfnis, wdar, nmple, the gums, liK-ust, <h>gw<NNl, viitor* was not) ami siiwcil in uheni, the stulk* 

wihl cherry, |N>rsimmon, buttou-wiNNl, spict-wtsNl, Ik'ing hrokeu dtmii nl\cr frost >Kiili the lim* or by 

pine, alder, haxcl, etc. The forests gave the Swc«li<s running n»llcrs over them. Wheat thus iHiweil on 

nmch trouble, ami undoubtitlly hud an intlucniv vM|vr-ri|.Hi'(uriMi.iirh. Tii«>«itiiFr »«ip«. iiirrf>f«fF. «f«* r.|«i»ft. 

uiion the nuski* of cultivation eniploywl. 1 he cimt ^,„., ^„.\, ,^ „^,^, ,^^., ,^ J'^ a^, '^.,. ^;Z^^ 

of labor made it difficult to clear the thick woods.' MnxiutMl l.i forty wiwantl n%ty-*t% hniHln-ith« miM frr J<y, MM 

fM«« liriiiK arliMlly fi«rtjr>«i|{lit i-fni% «ilh ■ |MirrlMi*iiij; ;n>w«r nr•l«|}■ 
l Wfl||«s mn Mvay* InlarMlinK tw Mudy, for tli«ir •wragn aratTl. iwucfitu Munrh IJ, l>;7*.*l*n»rl ||«*lm UmikIii uf lt*>*il«>nl Hau bin. 

SvMcn which oibiiul Iw awtrwlk'lt^ uf Um cua«lltlua iif • |wufil». TIm •■•n. •l(iiriM>.r f>ir iUI|ili llnicbiimio, "mmigni^ uf l».iMi«IJani|«rr, «f 

wriivr aorvButo In Ih* •ni|»liiyHi«>«t of tlw SwcilMi ciiNii|«af rarvivfd, m ArcMiuMT," ** a (VrtajriM mmii !<rrt«nl ■• W illiMn llrvxMfl^M. fur y 

% ral«, Iwvaljr c«>|t|wr ilulUn (iwtf tlulbra «»f uur mrntry) fur uulll|, antl trnn* A Kparv of f*4ir Armrn (yraraj m-rTiiinlv ui*« nett Knauinc . . . 

IwvMty ribJitlar wagH |«r aoaHM (tH|iMl tu Iwslva ilollww). TIm wanw TIm «Imi«* uann^ Svrrant, H iIImih HnMiArkl. briiiK in *'«^. **A \^vm- 

vl rr««aii-n, livwrvrr, mmn iii<*r* lh«ii ili>nbl» tliU, Mi«l tbwa* nrngm Iwr lu metrm ihv ^ in' Unu>l htim fitillifally * Inil.t Ihr «li*in«* tvmw 

Wunwvor lurlwh'*! buanl himI ImiffiniC** Wtlli wb«*l, hI ■• a renins, of fotir Jrara. Th<> w<urp|i>i i%^ (tt|Mn y* Up«|w<Nt uT h>*h tmrt^mtvit' 

Ally r*aU pvr buahal, * fnwawn'a WNjpM were w|iul lu abMit ■ixfy 4wl> crriinl) tiiil wnirr tliat «r<« io aU.«M«i«l lu bre au n« >>r>U^l '' Tti« prk* 

lanajTMirMl iWMtui valuM. iMwIdat kcvp^ Tbr I'lilitiMl r^cunla abw* paUi by ilHm *»• " Iwrlve kttii*lml •iiill4(f«." ThU «a«r>|iuil !•• Uiiv* 

thai jiHt |irtwr lu IVnn'a ucuniMiiry w«iC"* IuhI ann«il>ly ln-tlarrtl. In bHiulrvd gnlblrra fwr auiiiim. ainl II alniw* Ihiw «alu.tl4r lalmr «m aiMl 

March. lUM^ Thumaa Karby aa«l KulSM-nl brewiun, arrvama, auwl Ui|. b«>w |»nM|>>*rww« airrb-ulturv mwl havp|n.rn at iliai lUt wn tb« |irl««af«. 

bvn Wlwi^rr for waffM. Karliy waiilnl |My (t^ aavaiity liaya, brl««w« Helm |miI<I (aiiU uthnr v.iurl •inlrir* rbuw h« alNt|>ly |i«Ki th« avaniv 

U«.'toli«r 7Ui anil JaiuMiry 7th. " mt miwh aa la iMiiall tu U* kI *••« p* .lay, prli-« fur Mirb lalH«r) uiw hHn*lrv<l aiMl f>>ny'fiiur AJlar* la uvn^r (iba 

«A la fowar (I J irnU<lrn |' dloHi «* curta." Tlia cuurl all«i««^| Krrhy pr*tnA fXt-haaKt^lil* ««lii« uf wbkb In U ••••» li«k>lml mnd aJnety. 

anil UrawlwH rarh liny allwi«(t«o ai*<l a lialf ie*tlld«ia) iM-r day, th« two d«ilUr»» lur f%Mir yr«r*' a^rtH-t* ut a nian «b>iM ha Im>I tw laMnI, 

laltar lii Im |Mld " In Ok*rBa vr ulhrr gaui pay In y* Hl«i>r." Tlw fw«r Mk», rl«>lb», rare fur wlim »kk, ami |iA«vi>U wlih a* w«lAt »Im>r fr**. 

HalMora waa prubably tha " wwall '* nla «i< nnmmrr wairaa, tha awani At twauiy yaan' |Mirrbaaa Ibia wwmM ba Mwrly «mw ihuMaaad dullara tue 

*4 tha e«Mrt rppreaanl«l fall and wint r wacaa. "(\irna In y* rlrvr "— • apTTaiit fwr Ufa. FariMlnff mnat haw br«-n »«-ry |rtMSlaU« Im anabW 
thai \m, dalivvrad wlian It ewnkl ba «IiI|<|>mI— «■« raluati at thia* giiild. awh |rfi<-<* lu br |Mi«l. 


ridfci «M to wen protMtod bj the draimge from ikmout. It wan a Dutebnuw, Mttled wnoiig Um 

frost ttBd" winter-killing "thftt many farmen in the earlier Swedei,' who produced the beit oookiog 

peninwUi ■till throw their wheat-ground into com- apple, and one of the beat lort for eating^the Van- 

row« ercn where tlioy u«e drilb to tow it. Where dovcre— tlmt ie grown in the Middle Ktatcs, and it 

whitit was not wwisl on tlio oom-gnMind, ami oata waa a family of Dulawaro Hwcdiv,' who cnrlient 

waa not miwed in tlie spring, tlio Htalk-ltold was cultivated the poach by wholesnlc, and nuule it au 

mimmcr-fnllowcd, Mng plowed in May, July and article of coniiiM*rcc. Tlie |Kttch-trco proltably 

apiin lK»fore feeding. The wheat wa« cut with came to IVIaware from MarylamI, having traveled 

■ickle«kboundinshoavet,and thrown into*' doten*,** along the coast frum the early Spaniith scttlc- 

each ahuck being ex|iecled to yield a budhcL Rye, menu in Florida ; but it haa nowhens become lo 

wheat and oata were thrashed with flaiU, and the onupletcly naturalized, so healthy, 00 productive 

former, sowctl in November, was a favorite crop of large, succulent, delicious fruit as in the coun- 

with the Swedes, the straw being sometimes Miip|H!d try which the Swedes first reclaimed from tlie 

toKurofie. Buckwiieiit was often sowed on the rye, wilderness. In the time of Acreltus the peach 

wheat or oats stubble, the grain being U)*pd to iced was supposed to be indigenous, u 'J was cultivated 

stuck. Flax and oats Wi*ro sowcil in the spring, so extensively as to be relied ufKin as a standard 

either on the corn-ground or rtubble-ficlds. Pota- food for swiue. 

toes were plntite«l on the bare ground and covered Dtmiestic animals increased very rapidly among 

with the listing-plow. Sweet iMtatoes, however, the Swedes. They im|)ortcd tlu^ir own milch kiue 

were planted in hills after the gniund had liccndee|)- and oxen In the fiivt instance, but they (bund 

ly furrowed. Tunii|is were not much sown, except horaes and swine running at large and wild, many 

on new ground, and tobacco, in Acrclius' time, was having escaped into the **backwfMMls*' from the 

only planted on such tracts or in the gardens. Maryland phuiten.' These horses had a good 

The implements were few and rude, as were also touch of the true Barb blood in them, as deseend- 

tlic apimratus of the farm auimali*. The plows ants of Virginia thoroughbred sires, and they were 

often had wocnIcu mouhl-lMJard^ nud were not ca|ia- prolmbly cruMcxl with |)ony stuck from Sweden, 

ble of working d(H*ply ; tlie harrows were of the It seems likely that it is to this criM ami the wild, 

primitive triangular shn|ie, and the oxen or hordes half starvetl existence they have led for two hun- 

working them were attacluil by iiieaiis of double dntl years, living on salt gniw and as|ianigus and 

links to the a|H*x of the V. The ox-yokes had |i.sli, iKnlding in the muid and defying storm and 

bows made of bent hickory- wtMMl, the horses' traces mosquitoes, tlmt we owe the inc«)nipnrable breetl 

were of twisted deer-hide and the collars of plaited of " beach *' or Chiiigoteague poiii4*ii, fust, wiry, truo 

eom-husks. The rest of the haniuss was home- as steel, untiring, miund, with hoofs as hard as iron 

anade, of the same serviceable deer-skiiis, and the and spirits that never flag. Acrelius notii-cd them 

farnHrrs and tlivir lads, all ibnd of riding on hone- acutely. lie would not have been a parson if lio 

back, were content with a bear or deer-skin girt had not had a keen eye for a horse. He says, 

about the liuna*, with a rawhide surcingle in lieu of ** The horses arc real |H)ni4>s, and are seldom found 

a saddle, imitating the Indians in (lis{M>iising witli over sixteen hands high. He who has a good 

stirni|«. Beans, |Himpkins, si|uashes and melons riding horse never employs him for draught, which 

were oonim«aily planted in the hills with the c«»m. is also the lem nectwiiry, as jouna*ys are for the 

Much cabbage was pniduced, but the variety of most part made on horseback. It must be the 

utiier vegetables was limited to onions, peos, beets, result of this, more than of any porticular bree«l in 

parsoipa, turnips, radishes, pepfwrs, lettuce, pep|)er- the horse, that the country exeeki in fast hoiws, so 

grass and scurvy-grasi, with a few hcrlis, such as that horse-races are often made for very high